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GENEALOGY COLLECTir 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 02167 250 3 




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BALTIMOEE: 



PAST AND PRESENT 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



REPRESENTATIVE MEN 



. 



BALTIMORE: 

RICHARDSON & BENNETT. 
1871. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1871, by 

RICHARDSON & BENNETT, 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C. 



I 



JOHN W. WOODS, 
1' K I N T E R . 



PREFACE. 

L201283 



We trust that there is no city in the land dearer to her citizens than our 
own fair Baltimore ; and we are sure that there are none in which affection 
takes so unostentatious a form. Willi a history reaching back into what, for 
America, is antiquity ; with a record, than which none of her peers can show a 
prouder ; with manufactures and a trade which place her in the front rank of 
American cities ; with a long line of sons, distinguished in every walk of life, 
her only chronicles have been fragmentary sketches, and the few bright pages 
in American history in which her name is recorded. It has been the aim of 
the editors and publishers of the present volume to supply, in some measure, 
tliis deficiency ; and, after nearly two years of continuous labor, they have the 
pleasure of offering to the public the first compendious account of Baltimore, 
and of prominent Baltimoreans, ever yet published ; and one which they venture 
to trust will not be found altogether unworthy the subject they have undertaken 
to illustrate. 

The comprehensive Historical Sketch of the city, from the graceful pen of 
Bkantz Mayer, late President of the Maryland Historical Society, traces, suc- 
cinctly, but clearly, the history of the city from its first settlement to the present 
time, including its religious, social and commei - cial advancement. Replete as 
it is with information of the development and material growth of the varied 
industries which make a metropolis, and rich in happy description and pleasant 
memories of the "olden time," we are persuaded that it will be found as enter- 
taining as it is instructive and valuable. It has been pi-epared with great care 
from the most authentic sources, and we have no hesitation in claiming for it 
the authority of a standard. 

In the department of Biography will be found sketches of the lives of such 
citizens of Baltimore, both living and dead, as have been identified with promi- 
nent parts of the city's history ; have had an important share in her material 
or moral development ; or whose enterprise, ability and worth have entitled 
them to horn de recognition. Besides the interest that the lives of such men 



4 PREFACE. 

must, of necessity, have for their fellow-citizens, there are embodied in these 
sketches many interesting facts and much valuable information, not otherwise 
known to the public, so that they form an important supplement to the His- 
torical Sketch. That there are some distinguished citizens of Baltimore, of the 
past and present generation, whose names do not appear in the series of Biog- 
raphies, we do not deny ; but we have striven, assiduously and conscientiously, 
to make the omissions as few as possible. In preparing the Biographies, we 
have been kindly assisted by several of the most prominent literateurs of the 
city. 

Thus, after many months of incessant and arduous effort, we have succeeded 
in producing a work, the subject of which, as well as its unique character, 
entitle it to a place in the library of every Baltimorean, and of every one who 
is connected with Baltimore, by business or other associations, and consequently 
interested in her history or welfare ; while the interesting nature of its contents 
should assure it a welcome from the general public. 

F. A. RICHARDSON, 
W. A. BENNETT. 



BALTIMOEE 



AS IT WAS AND AS IT IS 



A HISTORICAL SKETCH 



ANCIENT TOWN AND MODERN CITY, 



FROM THE FOUNDATION, IN 1729, TO 1870; 



COMPILED AND WRITTEN FROM AUTHENTIC MATERIALS, 



BRAKTZ MATEE. 



BALTIMORE: 



FROM THE FOUNDING OF THE TOWN TO THE REVOLUTION, 1729 TO 1776. 



When Sir George Calvert turned his back on the Province of 
Avalon, in Xew Foundland, which his royal master, James the 
First, had granted to him, it was mainly because the region was 
unsuited to his schemes, and not because he abandoned his original 
views or principles of Colonization. He was, in truth, disheartened 
as a Northern adventurer, for, though he built an expensive residence 
in the colony, spent quite £25,000 in improvements, removed his 
family to the principality, manned and equipped ships at his own 
charge to guard the British fisheries from the French, he found that 
the sour climate and ungenerous soil made no returns or inducements 
for such an emigration and plantation as he desired. 

But Sir George did not turn his back on America. In 1629 he 
went to Virginia, in which he had been interested, and, — though 
ungenerously received by the Protestant royalists at the seat of gov- 
ernment, — when he left the James River he steered his vessel around 
the peninsula of Old Point Comfort, and ascending the broad Chesa- 
peake, entered its grand tributaries, explored its lands, approved 
its genial climate, and, at least in imagination, laid the foundations 
of this State. He soon returned to England, and in 1632 obtained 
from Charles the First, — who had succeeded his early friend and 
patron James, — the grant of Maryland, whose charter is, on excellent 
authority, asserted and believed to have been the work of Sir George's 
head and hand. Yet this charter did not pass the seals until after 
the death of its experienced author, but was issued in June, 1632, to 
his eldest son and heir Cecilius, so that the real work of plantation 
was the task of the Second Lord Baron of Baltimore, and of his 
brother, Leonard Calvert, who, in the following year sailed for 
America, to make a colonial settlement at Saint Mary's on the 
Potomac. 

Yet, whatever was done in furtherance of human interests or rights, 
so far as the foundation of Maryland was concerned, may justly be 



10 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

said to have been effected by the constitutional provisions of the 
charter itself, which, investing the Lord Proprietary with the royal 
prerogatives enjoyed by the Bishop of Durham within the Palatinate 
of Durham, made him a sovereign prince with but two limitations 
of his authority, namely : First, That the laws were to be enacted 
by the Proprietary with the advice and approbation of the freemen 
and freeholders or their deputies ; and secondly, That no interpreta- 
tion of the charter was to be made whereby God's Holy Rights and 
the Christian Religion, or the allegiance due to the Sovereign of 
England, " may, in anywise, suffer by change, prejudice or diminu- 
tion." Thus, although the yronosal of all laws was to emanate from 
the Proprietary, their enactment was, in reality, to be due to the free- 
men of the Province, while Christianity was to be acknowledged as 
the only religious limitation on the rights of conscience. So that, 
while Religious Toleration, as we understand the word, was then 
practically unknown in the Old World, the founders of Maryland, — 
counselled both by the experience of personal persecution, and prob- 
ably by righteous individual opinion, — determined to adopt it as the 
keystone of what became the first Province of the British Empire. 
And so the foundations of Maryland were laid, in February, 1684, by 
Leonard Calvert and the two hundred who accompanied him, at 
" Saint Marie's," on the north bank of the Potomac, near its entrance 
into the Chesapeake Bay. 

The task we have undertaken does not allow a longer sketch of the 
early history of our State ; but this brief allusion to the principles 
upon which it was " founded " two hundred and thirty-eight years 
ago, is due to the memory of the Baltimores, whose name is honor- 
ably perpetuated in our capital city. 

There seems to have been, during the seventeenth century, an ex- 
traordinary greediness for the establishment of towns by our legisla- 
tive ancestors, as our statutes show, that within four years towards 
the close of that period, "thirty-three towns were created by the 
Assembly," no less than three of which were within the limits of 
what was then known as " Baltimore County." This was indeed 
natural ; for, in a sparsely settled country, — threaded as Maryland is 
by numerous streams, — points of assemblage and delivery, as well as 
of exchange of products, are of indispensable need for agriculturists 
and for those who ply the water-craft of the region. The making 
and unmaking of these towns, which were, in fact, to be ports or 
" places of landing" exclusively, was attended with as little difficulty 
as with few permanent or useful results. Doubtless, in most cases, 



OF BALTIMORE. 11 

they were but temporary, and intended for trial only. Yet, this 
lavish local legislation, — from the distracting rivalries it created, — 
was much to be regretted in regard to the final settlement and found- 
ing of Baltimore. Two towns long held the ascendency over all 
these paper and prospective speculations within our territory ; — first: 
Saint Mary's, which was the original capital of the province, where 
the first Legislative Assembly was held, on the 26th of February, 
1634-5 (old style), — under the auspices of the Roman Catholic 
founders ; — and, secondly, Annapolis, settled by the Puritan refugees 
from Virginia, who seated themselves at a place by some called 
"Providence," — by others, "Proctor's or the town-land at Severn," — 
by others, again, " The Town-Land of Proctor's where the town 
was formerly," — by other annalists, "Anne Arundel Town," then, 
" The Port of Annapolis,"— and finally, in 1708, by charter, " The 
City of Annapolis," which soon became and has continued to be the 
seat of our Provincial and State governments. 

In founding new States in countries still unredeemed from the 
forest, it is easy to understand that far-seeing men, — especially in the 
distant days when steam and railways were unimagined, — would 
seek the establishment of wisely seated and well defended trading 
ports, at the head of streams navigable by the largest vessels used 
for commerce. Although our forefathers two centuries ago were 
not consumed by the land-mania of their descendants which urges 
them to seize and own, — if not actually to possess, — the title to 
regions that may not be developed or even occupied in their day and 
generation, it is not to be supposed that the sailors and traders who 
explored the upper Chesapeake did not observe the advantages of a 
port at the end of our main water course, whose channel for sea-going 
craft penetrates the continent two hundred miles from the ocean. 
Accordingly, it is not surprising, — when they descried the Patapsco, 
with an extent of only eighteen or twenty miles from the bay ; with 
its safe, land-locked, north-branch of a mile and three-quarters in 
extent ; with easy entrance and safe anchorage in deep water ; 
capable of accommodating ships of the largest class to the number 
of two thousand ; surrounded by gentle acclivities affording a fair 
site for a city ; — that a few provident men fixed on it as the future 
commercial capital of the future State. It is perhaps more surpris- 
ing that they did not descry these advantages sooner, and it is only 
to be ascribed to the scantiness of population and labor that they 
were not earlier embraced. The " back country " and the adjoining 
States were not yet sufficiently developed ; yet, doubtless, other ex- 
plorers, — " pioneers " of the forest who penetrated the mountain 



12 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

country, — knew the connection between these " head waters " and 
those of the great navigable streams of the west ; — but the whole 
land was then so comparatively bare of people and undeveloped, that 
men rather clustered about the older settlements, — keeping aloof 
from the " savages " and the rough frontier men. Besides this, it 
would, unquestionably, have required more imagination than the 
early adventurers possessed, and certainly more hope of advantageous 
realization, in men of their time and class, to have induced them to 
expend labor and money in rapidly developing the problematical 
seat of a commercial capital. ]STay, indeed, their time is, in no way, 
to be measured by ours. Yet, the mere selection and establishment 
of the future site of our great city, so early in the history of this 
State's growth, indicates a commendable foresight in our handful 
of forefathers who dwelt in this neighborhood and tilled or traded as 
their interests required. 

. What did these forefathers find to tempt them ? "We have described 
the water course leading to the site, its extent and qualities. The 
bay and its upper rivers are unsurpassed in value on the eastern coast 
of North America ; while its lower and middle afnuents ' pour into 
its broad channel the agricultural and mineral wealth of the State, 
affording, also, supplies to the fishermen, which, economically used, 
might enrich a nation. The geological features of the country around 
the western head waters of the Chesapeake were peculiarly favorable 
for the attainment and use of water power. The streams running 
into the bay, as we have said, are numerous ; the alluvial soil on its 
margin is so narrow that the tide- water almost washes the base of the 
hilly formation ; the country gradually rises to an elevation of several 
hundred feet in successive ridges towards the interior, down which 
the waters are precipitated in their progress to the bay. So remark- 
ably is this the case in the neighborhood of the site of Baltimore, 
that five of the principal streams were by the first settlers denomi- 
nated " Falls ;" and no less than eight streams, each of which is 
capable of mechanical use, discharge themselves within a short dis- 
tance of the modern city. With these advantages the harbor of 
Baltimore originally consisted of a beautiful natural basin, or rather 
of three adjoining basins, of several miles in circumference, the en- 
trance to which was formed by two projecting points not more than 
four hundred yards apart. It had then an ample depth of water 
throughout and even quite close to the shores, so that in the early 
days, ships were loaded on skids from the beach ; nor was this admir- 
able harbor impaired until long after, when the neighboring soil 
was broken in building on the borders, when the forest was cleared 



OF BALTIMORE. 13 

away and the land turned into arable fields ; so that as the town be- 
gan to grow, and the trees which surrounded these basins on all sides 
were cut down, and streets and roads opened to their margins, the 
drainage from the hills began to fill them up and diminish their 
depth. But the changes of this portion of Baltimore will be more 
fully set forth in another part of this narrative, we shall at present 
confine ourselves to the original legislation and actual location of 
the " Town" itself. 

Baltimore, is in fact a congeries of three towns : " Baltimore Town," 
which originally embraced a small tract on the west side of Jones's 
Falls ; " Old Town," which was early and separately settled on the 
east side of those falls ; and " Fell's Point," which grew up to the 
southeast of that stream on the outer basin. As early as 1662 lands 
were taken up in this vicinity ; and " Whetstone Point," between 
the branches of the Patapsco, seems to have been at first most 
attractive ; for, in that year Charles Gorsuch, a member of the 
Society of Friends, patented fifty acres of land on that point. The 
year after, Alexander Mountenay, took up two hundred acres, com- 
prising what was then the glade or bottom on both sides of Harford 
Run. This was called "Mountenay's Neck." In 1668, Mr. John 
Howard patented "Timber Neck," lying between the middle and 
north. branches of the Patapsco ; and in the same year, the tract north 
of it, — the real site of the first " Baltimore Town," — was granted to 
Mr. Thomas Cole, comprising five hundred and fifty acres, and called 
" Cole's Harbor." This tract extended from "Mountenay's Xeck," 
westerly, across the north side of the river one mile, and northwardly 
from the river about half a mile, in the form of a rhomboid, divided 
into two nearly equal parts by the stream afterwards named Jones's 
Falls. There were patents of subsequent date for tracts distinguished 
on the old maps by the names of Long Island Point ; Kemp's Addi- 
tion, Parker's Haven and Copus's Harbor, — the latter since com- 
monly known as " Fell's Point," — and all on the east. Other 
patents were issued for Lunn's Lot and Chatsworth on the west ; 
and for Salisbury Plains, Darby Hall, and Gallow-Barrow, on the 
north. All of these lands, by various names and titles, subse- 
quently fell within the growing limits of Baltimore. 

The families of Cole and Gorsuch intermarried, — Cole's only 
daughter becoming the wife of Mr. Charles Gorsuch, the patentee ot 
Whetstone Point, — on which Fort McHenry stands, — so that in 1679 
and 1682, the husband and wife, by separate deeds, conveyed the 
tract called Cole's Harbor to Mr. David Jones who gave his name to 
the stream, so often mentioned, and by its repeated overflows, of such 



14 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

troublesome interest to Baltimoreans of the present day. Jones is 
said to have been the first actual settler, having his residence on the 
north side of his " Falls," near the head of the tide-water at that 
day,* and when the stream was passable without a bridge. 

In the course of time " Cole's Harbor " came into the possession of the 
step-son of David Jones, — James Todd, — who having intermarried, 
it is said, with the daughter of Mountenay, absorbed also the tract 
of " Mountenay's Neck." The first named tract was resurveyed for 
Mr. Todd who re-patented it as " Todd's Range," of five hundred and 
ten acres ; and in the year 1702, Mr. Todd and his wife jointly con- 
veyed one hundred and thirty-five and a half acres of " Mountenay's 
Neck," and one hundred and sixty-four and a half acres of " Cole's 
Harbor " to John Hurst who kept an inn near Jones's dwelling, and 
also conveyed the remainder of the Harbor to Charles Carroll, agent 
of the Proprietary. Immediately after completing • his purchase, 
Hurst mortgaged three hundred acres of the two tracts to Captain 
Richard Colegate, one of the County Commissioners, who lived on 
" Colegate's Creek," below the north branch of the Patapsco. In 
1711, Mr. Carroll sold thirty-one acres of Cole's Harbor, with a 
" mill seat," to Mr. John Hanson, a millwright, who built the mill, the 
remains of which still stood, in 1825, near the northwest intersection 
of Bath and Holliday streets. In 1726, a Quaker, from Lancashire, 
England, who had settled east of Jones's Falls, took out an escheat 
warrant and employed Richard Gist to survey Cole's Harbor or 
Todd's Range, and in the succeeding year purchased the rights in it 
of John Gorsuch, son of Charles. But this stirred the sons of 
Charles Carroll, then lately dead, who entered a caveat and pre- 
vented the new grant sought for by the enterprising land-hunter 
from Lancashire. Gist's return of the survey is interesting as show- 
ing that, in 1726, the sole improvements in that part of modern Bal- 
timore were three dwellings, a mill, tobacco houses and orchards, — 
and that the land was about " one half cleared and of middling 
quality." 

From Mr. Bacon's collection of the Laws of Maryland, it appears 
that an act, passed as early as 1663, "for seating of lands in Baltimore 
County," was rejected by the Proprietary. Twenty years later, in 
1683, several towns or " ports of trade " were created by Acts of As- 
sembly, in " Baltimore County," — whose limits, at that time, are be- 
lieved to have included all the lands within the Province north of 
Anne Arundel, on the west of the bay, comprising even Cecil, be- 

* The tide, at that time, is reported as flowing up as high as the head of High 
street. 



OF BALTIMORE. 15 

yond Elk River. The lines of Anne Arundel, in 1698, were the 
highlands of Magothy to Patuxent River ; while Baltimore County 
was bounded westwardly by that county or by Charles, until Prince 
George's, which then included Prince Frederick's, was laid off, in 1695. 

In compliance with this Act of 1688, towns or ports of trade were 
laid off in this " Baltimore County," on Patapsco, near " Humphry's 
Creek," and on " Bush River," on the " town land near the Court 
House." The next year another town was laid out on " Middle 
River ;" and two years later another was seated on " Spesutie Creek," 
and another on " Gunpowder," at " West Bury's Point ;" while the 
site of town on Middle River was suspended. After this there was 
a long lull in the creation of towns in Baltimore County, and it was 
not until 1706, that " Whetstone Point," — the original favorite 
among locators of land in this vicinity, — was made a "town ;" while 
the " town where the Old Court House " existed, was discontinued, 
and a new Court House directed to be built at a spot "on Gun- 
powder," designated as " Tajdor's Choice," which was erected into 
another town. The acts making these numerous civic creations 
being rejected or repealed by the authorities, — when William and 
Mary assumed the government of the Province for the crown, in 
1689, it became necessary to confirm rights acquired under the abro- 
gated laws. This was done in 1712, as to the designated "Court 
House ;" to which the seat of justice being removed, the town was 
called Joppa, and continued to be the County town for more than 
fifty years. 

The royal government, in all likelihood, was not as beneficial to 
Maryland as the Proprietary had been ; for the governors selected by 
the Proprietary and his Lordship himself had been generally careful 
of their people as well as the Province, so that while the wild legis- 
lation for acts of settlement was permitted by the sovereigns, private 
interests of various landholders were allowed to prevail rather than 
considerations of general welfare. The towns were, indeed, actually 
injured by their unnecessary number, being, in fact, so many rivals 
of each other in the race of prosperous location on the upper streams 
of Maryland. 

Meanwhile the commerce of the bay and river was growing ; and, 
— as the most convenient converging point, at that time, for all sec- 
tions bordering on or communicating with the great streams, — 
"North Point" was agreed on as the common resort and anchorage 
of vessels for loading and distribution. There were but three custom 
house districts on both shores of the bay. St. Mary's, St. George's 
and Annapolis being those on the western. Naval officers or Tide 



16 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

"Waiters, however, were stationed at any trade ports where the land- 
ing or shipping of merchandise was allowed, but as, agriculture 
increased, and commerce augmented with it and with population, the 
trade gradually crept northerly. It was found to he the interests of 
owners and shippers to bring their craft into our river, though not 
immediately to the head of it, Thus, in 1723, there were but " five 
ships in Patapsco up for freight ;" and persons still lived to within 
the last twenty years who have seen as many vessels of burthen 
anchored at the same time at the point between the south and mid- 
dle branches of the Patapsco, as in the north branch on which our 
city was finally established. The writer distinctly remembers being 
pointed to the spot, near the viaduct of the railway to Washington, 
close to the "Relay House" at "Elk Ridge Landing," (nine miles 
from the present Baltimore City,) where his companion had often 
loaded vessels of over two hundred tons burthen with tobacco, that 
had been rolled down to the landing by the " rolling-road," which is 
still recognized by that name in the neighborhood. 

To the point between the south and middle branches, the main 
road from the west and through the country generally was directed, 
passing south of Gwynn's Palls, at the mouth of which once stood 
Tasker & Carroll's Furnace of the " Baltimore Company." This 
point, the terminus of such a road, and with such an anchorage for 
commerce, was, of course, one of vast importance in " seating coun- 
ties" and establishing a future metropolis; but it is a singular fact 
in the history of cities that the proprietor of the point, — Mr. John 
Moale, — a merchant from Devonshire, in England, preferred the 
present profitable devotion of the neighboring lands which he owned 
to trade and iron mining, than to adventuring them in speculation 
as " town lots" in futurity 1* 

* It is probable tliat the original locators of Baltimore Town were decidedly in 
favor of adopting Mr. Moale' s Point as the site of the fixture metropolis, and were 
only prevented by the resolute hostility of the proprietor. Moale's Point and its 
neighborhood would have been free from the difficulties of drainage experienced by 
us from Liberty and Charles streets; from Chatsworth Run; from Jones's Falls; 
and from Harford Run. Even in those days, the alluvion of Jones's Falls, spread- 
in- from its shore, eastward, towards Harford Pun, and to the limits of South 
Btreet westwardly, already limited the channel of the Patapsco on its northern side, 
and formed some islands, which by repeated overflows finally became fast land. 
The lines of the streets as originally laid out, running from, north to south, nowhere 
reached the ahsolute shore. Calvert street seems to have communicated with it; 
While Forrest street (now Charles) terminated at ''Uhlcr's Spring Branch," which 
was then near the site of Uhler's alley. The original site of Baltimore was broken 
by marshes and water-COUrses, and surrounded by hills; the filling up and leveling 
of which— together with the expensive Hoods of the "Falls" — sufficiently vindicate 
the favor shown at first to Moale's Point. 



OF BALTIMORE. 17 

It was about this time that the site of Baltimore was to be decided. 
Many persons fixed their eyes on this accessible and convenient 
" Moale's Point," as the most eligible situation. Accordingly, appli- 
cation was made to the owner for ground upon which to lay out a 
town ; and tradition says that the people went so far as to introduce 
a bill into the Legislature for the establishment of a town on his 
property. But, Mr. Moale was a member of that Assembly, and 
believing less in the success of the enterprise than in his ores and in- 
dustry, he not only rejected the personal application for the sale of 
any part of his land, but defeated the measure in the General As- 
sembly, thus making it necessary for the adventurers to seek another 
location. The die was thus cast; and when in 1729, the "Act for 
erecting a town on the north side of Patapsco, in Baltimore County, 
and for laying out into lots sixty acres of land in and about the 
place where one John Flemming now lives," was passed, — it was the 
" head of the North Branch that was promptly selected by the lead- 
ing men of " Baltimore County " who had appealed to the Legisla- 
ture for a town. 

The John Flemming alluded to in the Act was a tenant of Mr. 
Carroll, residing in a " quarter " house then standing on the bank of 
" Uhler's Run," about the present intersection of Lombard and 
Charles streets. The Act of Assembly empowered Baltimore to be a 
privileged place of landing, loading, and selling or exchanging 
goods, and Major Thomas Talley, William Hamilton, Esq., William 
Buckner, Esq., Dr. George Walker, Richard Gist, Esq., Dr. George 
Buchanan, and Colonel William Hammond, all of whom, except Dr. 
Walker, were justices of the county, were appointed Commissioners 
to carry it into effect. They were all men of substance and stand- 
ing in the province, mostly landholders ; and one of them, Dr. 
Walker, was afterwards proprietor of that charming seat on the 
western side of the present city, formerly known as " Chatsworth," 
the superb grounds of which are now all covered with modern 
improvements, save the gardens and enclosures occupied at present 
by Mr. Daniel B. Banks on Franklin street. 

The tax-payers on the millions of real estate comprised within the 
same limits to-day, may be a little astonished to know that on the 
1st of December, 1729, these worthy Commissioners, — the Fathers of 
our city, whose names deserve most respectful record and remem- 
brance, — bought of the Messieurs Carroll, the tract of sixty acres, 
authorized by law, for forty shillings per acre, in money or in tobacco, — 
(which was a Maryland currency) — at one penny per pound ; — not 
quite six hundred dollars in the coin of our country ! Let us, also, 



18 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

record permanently in this volume the original limits of this cheaply 
purchased city, which on the 12th of January, 1730, — (new style) — 
the County Surveyor, Mr. Philip Jones, laid off legally as follows : 
Beginning at a point near the northeast intersection of what are now 
called Pratt and Light streets, and running northwestwardly along 
Uhler's alley, towards what was then a " great eastern road " and " a 
great gully " or drain, at or near Sharp street, thence across the 
present Baltimore street, east of the gully, northeasterly with the 
road, which is now McClellan's alley, to a " precipice which over- 
hung the falls," at or near the southwest corner of Saratoga street 
and St. Paul street ; then, with the bank of Jones's Falls, (which then 
swept up to the last named corner,) southwardly and eastwardly, 
various courses, unto the low grounds which lay ten perches west of 
Gay street, — then due south along the margin of these low lands to 
the bank on the north side of the river (which then came up to near 
the present Custom House and Post Office building) — and then, by 
the river bank, westwardly and southwardly to the place of begin- 
ning. This rough surface of soil, and drains, and gullies, — cheaply 
purchased probably by the Commissioners as only fit for a town and 
not for a farm, — was then cut in its centre from due east to west, that 
is, from about McClellan's alley to the swamp which edged Jones's 
Falls at Frederick street, — by Long street, — afterwards Marker, and 
now Baltimore street. Long street was intersected at right angles 
by Charles street. There were also nine lanes, called East, South, 
Second, Light, Hanover and Belvidere, Lovely, St. Paul's and Ger- 
man. The six first named of these lanes were in the course of 
time increased in width and raised to the dignity of streets. The 
lots, of about an acre each, were numbered from one to sixty, com- 
mencing on the north side of Long (Baltimore) street, and running, 
first, westwardly, exhausting the northern acres, then returning 
eastwardly on the southern side of the street, until all the lots 
were apportioned. Number " one," we judge from old maps, was 
situated between the present Gay and South streets, probably east 
of Holliday. 

The site of Baltimore was so completely only a great business lo- 
cation for the future — (as time has indeed proved) — and so cut up 
with hills, water courses, drains, and swamp land, that it did not 
attract a rush of " takers " when the office was open for purchasers 
of lots on the 14th of January, 1730, and several following days. 
"Improvements" were required of the buyers, and not the least 
charge to the purchaser was the " house, covering at least four hun- 
dred square feet," which he was required to build within eighteen 



OF BALTIMORE. 19 

months from date of "taking up." A list, — the original one, — of 
the " Entries of Purchasers of Baltimore Town-lots," is still preserved 
in the Register's office of our city, and they who are curious in such 
matters may not be surprised to know that the two lots first selected 
were number 49 by Mr. Charles Carroll, at the southeast corner of 
Calvert street and the Basin, which then extended far up the street, 
and number 37 at the then intersection of Charles street and the 
Basin. But the takers were not immediately greedy, though in a 
few years the whole land was absorbed, and applications were made 
for the lots forfeited by delinquents. Still, as yet there was nothing 
to invite extravagance in city building or improvements by extend- 
ing streets, building bridges, leveling hills and filling marshes ; all 
of which tasks have fallen on the successors of the first enterprise. 

Thus the first " Baltimore Town " was laid out and disposed of, 
but it was as we see a small affair of sixty rough acres, comprised 
within the westernmost Basin of the Patapsco on the south, the chalk 
hills of Charles and Saratoga streets on the north, the deep drain and 
gully which swept down about the present course of Liberty street 
and McClellan's alley on the west, and on the east by the big swamp, 
which bordering Jones's Falls, ran up by its western flank as far on 
the present Frederick street as Saratoga or Bath streets. Jones's 
Falls, — the absolute easternmost limit, swept round, in a deep horse- 
shoe bend, a couple of squares above our Gay street bridge, the 
curve of the horse-shoe penetrating as far as the corner of Calvert 
and Lexington streets, and thence going northeastwardly along the 
line of Calvert. 

But the limits of the town were in fifteen or twenty years enlarged 
by additions. In 1730, a ship carpenter, William Fell, brother of 
Edward who settled east of Jones's Falls in 1726, bought the tract, 
before mentioned by us, called Copus's Harbor, and built a mansion 
there, on the present Lancaster street ; so that the subsequent im- 
provements and disposition of the property have resulted in what 
still bears the name of " Fell's Point." In 1732, another town across 
Jones's Falls, immediately opposite to Baltimore Town, was erected 
on ten acres, laid off in twenty lots, valued at one hundred and fifty 
pounds of tobacco each, and located on that part of Cole's Harbor 
settled by Mr. Edward Fell. This was called "Jones-Town" and 
consisted of three streets ; — Front, Short and Jones — on the last of 
which at the southwest corner of Bridge or Gay street extended 
over the falls, stood a store kept by Mr. Fell ; and, as a settlement 
in this district had been made before the laying out of Baltimore 
Town, the location, after awhile, took and has ever since retained 



20 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

the name of " Old Town." Thus, in these three locations, we have 
the absolute nucleus of our present city, though it was not until 1745, 
that " Jones " and " Baltimore " towns, were amalgamated into one, 
with the name of the latter, and commissioners appointed to carry 
the union and administration into effect. Yet, strange to say, there 
was still a gap in the centre of the settlement until 1747, when Mr. 
Harrison bought for £160, from Mr. Carroll, the whole land and 
marsh, comprising twenty-eight acres, which lay between the limits 
of the original Baltimore Town on the east and the western bank of 
Jones's Falls ; — and, at the next session of the Legislature, obtained 
an Act by which Gay, Frederick, and parts of Water and Second 
streets were laid off with eighteen acres of ground. It was not until 
1750, that High street, from Ploughman to French, with eighteen 
acres, was added to the town ; nor until 1773, that Ploughman's, 
Philpot's, and Fell's lands were annexed to the extent of eight acres, 
— while the eighteen acres between Bridge (now Gfay) and Front 
streets, which Messrs. Moale and Steiger were authorized by the 
same Legislature to add to the town, were in fact not joined to it 
until eight years afterwards, about 1751. 

The communication between the first towns and their additions, 
east of the Falls, was of course vastly obstructed by the wide marsh 
which bounded the stream and which with the extent northwardly, 
already mentioned, — spread westward from the margin of the Falls to 
the present Frederick street. What is now Harrison street, from its 
head at Gay street to the Patapsco, was a swamp, — the resort of sports- 
men for snipe and woodcock, — and so, indeed, the lower part of it, 
below the present Maryland Institute and market, continued until 
near the beginning of this century. The communication, therefore, 
between Baltimore Town proper, and its adjunct, Jones-Town, was 
inconvenient and sometimes dangerous; effected only by a ford 
which (hen existed somewhere between the limits of Gay and Sara- 
toga si reds as they are now laid down. Accordingly, a bridge was 
shortly erected, by the respective inhabitants of the towns, at the 
place where Gay street bridge now stands, so that the townfolk and 
travelers, who, if they did not choose, in the unoccupied and unbuilt 
condition of the land at that early day, to follow the pathway or road 
thai was dignified by the name of" Long street," and flounder through 
the swamp and swim the Falls if it happened to be high, might con- 
veniently cross the open lots, north of the highway, and pass to Jones- 
Town by this permanent viaduct, which, doubtless, contributed to 
the lnjlshilirr union of the two (owns of "Baltimore" and u Jones," 
in L745, under the name of" l>Ai/i'iMOitE," as we have already stated. 



OF BALTIMORE. 21 

About the year 1734, a town was laid out at " Elk Ridge Land- 
ing," — near the present Relay House, on the Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad, from which country produce, — especially tobacco, — was 
for many years afterwards brought to ships anchored off Moale's 
Point, where the originators of Baltimore-Town had been so anxious 
in 1729 to found their settlement. Indeed, Joppa, the " Baltimore 
County " seat, and " Elk Ridge Landing,"* were, in those days, rivals 
of Baltimore-Town ; but our ancestors having secured their wisely 
chosen site at the absolute top of bay and river navigation, proceeded 
bravely to do their best in the way of advancing its fortunes. It is 
stated, — although the exports to Great Britain about this period — 
(1731) — from the two colonies of Maryland and Virginia, — which are 
said to have been then nearly equal in wealth and white population, 
— amounted to about sixty thousand hogsheads of tobacco and over 
twenty-one thousand pounds sterling in skins and lumber — -employ- 
ing twenty-four thousand tons of shipping,— that great depression 
was experienced throughout the province ; and, in fact, that the low 
price of the staple product, — tobacco, — caused local insurrections and 
the destruction of many fields of the narcotic plant. The emission 
of bills of credit as a substitute for a currency, — as had been already 
done in other colonies, — produced a favorable change, and improve- 
ments soon began to be made by the adventurers of our future me- 
tropolis. Like worthy burghers, they did not forget their religious 
duties or allegiance to the Church of England ; so that the first 
church built in Baltimore-Town was St. Paul's, — on lot Xo. 19 of the 
original town plat, — being the most elevated ground of the town, and 
part of the property on which the present edifice of the same name 
is erected, — its predecessor, alas ! was but a sorry, barn-like, temple ! 
The church, indeed, was not finished until 1744 ; nor have we, until 
the year 1758, any information of other churches or places of worship, 
except those of the Society of Friends, of whom a large portion of 
the first settlers of Baltimore undoubtedly consisted. The original 
" Quaker-meeting" in this vicinity was called " Patapsco," and was 
held at a house which stood on the site of the Quaker burying ground 
on the Harford turnpike, the ground for which was given by Joseph 
Taylor. This meeting is first mentioned in the old manuscripts of 
the Society in 1703, when it was probably held in a private house ; 
but it is certain that Mr. John Giles — the first of that family whose 
members have since occupied high positions in our State, settled near 

* In 1683 an Assembly was held at "t7ie Ridge''' in Anne Arundel County- (Elk 
Ridge Landing) — at which the first Act was passed for "laying out of towns," en- 
titled "An Act for the Advancement of Trade." 
3 



22 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

the present site of Baltimore, about the beginning of the eighteenth 
century, and that at his house the Friends or Quakers held their 
meetings. 

The writer of this sketch secured from the late Colonel Samuel 
Moale, of Baltimore, a rough but undoubtedly authentic picture, 
drawn in 1752 by his father John Moale, of Baltimore-Town, as it 
then appeared from the heights of " Federal Hill," south of the Basin. 
It has been placed, very properly, by Colonel Moale's direction in 
the collections of the Maryland Historical Societ} T , in its building in 
Baltimore, and will unquestionably be sacredly kept by the officers 
of that institution as the most valuable memorial of their city, — 
rudely but graphically displaying to their descendants the appear- 
ance and growth of it in the course of twenty-three years from its 
founding. This sketch was the basis of the engraved picture of Bal- 
timore in 1752, published many years ago by the late Edward J. 
Coale, with additional matter furnished by Mr. Bowly, filling up 
with some details much of the space left bare by Air. Moale in his 
original and homely draft. 

In this original sketch we have Baltimore as it appeared one hun- 
dred and nineteen years ago to a townsman, who evidently intended 
his picture as an affidavit rather than a work of art or imagination. 
The twenty-three years of growth had furnished but twenty-five 
houses — a fraction over one a year; so that, allowing ten inhabitants 
to each one of twenty houses, the population had grown to two hun- 
dred. It should be stated, however, that Mr. Moale's drawing does 
not embrace the scenery and improvements east of the Falls, while 
the houses delineated are thinly sprinkled over a broken hill-side 
sloping to the Basin, with St. Paul's Church crowning the top of the 
eminence. Mr. Bowly, in his improved picture, as published, has 
garnished the lower margin of the Basin, where it receives the Falls, 
with a flourishing; field of cabbage or tobacco plants. We can recog- 
nize Calvert and Light streets, on the former of which we distinguish 
I lie brick building, which until twenty years ago, stood at the earner 
of Bank or Mercer street, and was known as Payne's Tavern — the 
scene of much revelry in early days, and containing the rather 1 'united 
ball-room, in which many of the Baltimore belles of the ancient time 
have recounted to us their minuets with the French officers during 
the Revolutionary war, and their cotillions with General AVashing- 
ton alter the war was over. Further on, along the route of Mercer 
street, we think we discern Lt Kaminsky's," part of which still stands, 
a pari being this year, — Anno Domini 1870, — torn down to make 
way for the improvements caused by the destruction of the old, his- 



OF BALTIMORE. 23 

toric, : ' Fountain Inn," in which Washington's apartment was still 
known and shown until the building was destroyed. In 1752, Payne 
had a rival publican and boniface, in Rogers, who kept tavern at the 
corner of Long or Market ami Calvert streets. There were three 
other brick houses in the village, one of which stood about the site 
of Barnum's Hotel, and was the dwelling of Mr. Edward Fotterall,* 
—two stories high, with free-stone corners ; — the first house, — Bay 
the Chroniclers, — built kW without a hip-roof," — the predecessor of the 
fashionable " Mansard" The bricks for all these houses were im- 
ported from England, — doubtless as ballast for the tobacco ships, — 
for our agricultural ancestors had not yet learned that they were 
living on clay-lands which were to produce for their descendants the 
best bricks in the world. Mr. Moale terminates his sketch, at the 
bottom by a rough and bare margin, which we may suppose he in- 
tended as the limit of the Basin, but Mr. Bowly certifies our conjec- 
ture by delineating the water-courses of that spot, and anchors at its 
landing the brig " Philip and Charles/' belonging to Mr. Rogers, 
and the sloop " Baltimore," the property of Mr. Lux. Such is an 
inventory of Baltimore-Town in the year 1752 : — Twenty-five houses, 
one of which is a church, — -and two taverns ; — four of these edifices 
built of brick, one being of two stories and without a hip-roof; — two 
hundred men, women, children, slaves and servants, to occupy the 
buildings ; — and lastly, for the present navigation of the settlement, 
— one sloop and one brig, both owned in the town. It may help 
our imagination of the village and its belongings, if we recount that, 
a Mr. James Gardner kept school at the corner of the present South 
and Water streets, but that he did not completely fill the wants 
of the community, for the Annapolis newspaper — the Maryland 
Gazette, — announces that a " schoolmaster of sober character, who 
understands teaching English, writing and arithmetic, will meet 
with good encouragement from the inhabitants of Baltimore-Town, 
if well recommended. "f The mind was fed, but there was, as yet, 

* Fotterall went to Ireland, the place of his birth, at the Revolution, being piob- 
ably a loyalist. At all events, it is recorded that his houses were pulled down, all 
his property being confiscated and sold. 

f The following list of well-known Inhabitants op Baltimore-Town in 17">2, 
is from a paper in possession of the late Joseph Townsend, who had it many 
years before his death from one of the early settlers, who was cognizant of the facts 
stated : 

•Capt. Lucas, Win. Rogers, Nich. Rogers, Dr. Wm. Lyon, Thomas Harrison, 
Alex. Lawson, Bryan Philpot, Nick Ruxton Gay, James Carey (inn keeper), Parson 
Chase, Mr. Paine, Chris. Carnan, Dame Hughes (the only midwife among English 
folk,) Chs. Coustable, Mr. Ferguson, Mr. Goldsmith, Mr. Juo. Moore, Mr. Shep- 
hard (tailor), Bill Adams (barber), Geo. Strebeck (only wagoner) drove a single 



24 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

no Market House for the creature comforts of the villagers, who 
probably relied independently on the vegetables, fruit, poultry and 
pork, raised by their own industry within the bounds of their lots. 
But one was, nevertheless, soon set on foot, and, not long afterwards, 
erected by subscription at the northwest corner of Market and Gay 
streets, with a large room above it, for popular assemblages, balls and 
amusements suitable to a rather demure population. Having a mar- 
ket house, five or six dozen houses, and a church to protect, — a fire 
department became necessary ; so that every householder, under a 
penalty of ten shillings of the realm, was required to " keep a lad- 
der" to be used in case of fire : while an equal sum was imposed, as 
fine, if he allowed his chimney to blaze in the midst of so inflamma- 
ble a neighborhood. Large as the spaces were, and favorable as the 
ground was for the culture of " porkers," — those pioneer scavengers 
of infant cities were, — under adequate penalties, — inhibited from 
roaming abroad, and confined to the enclosures of their owners. 

Slow as seems to have been the growth, and unpromising the pros- 
pects of Baltimore-Town, it is likely that the people " had faith " in 
what they were about, for, in the very year of the completion of Mr. 
Moale's sorry picture, thirty-two acres of " Cole's Harbor," which 
Mr. Joshua Hall bought of Mr. Carroll, were added to the town, 
comprising part of the tract which was between the town and the 
lines of Lunn's lot at the south, northwest of the^ms^ town that was 
laid out. This seems to include the land between McClellan's alley 
and the present Liberty street, running round the western and nor- 
thern limits of the original Baltimore-Town to the western side of the 
Falls. The population of the County of Baltimore, at this time, 
consisted of 2,692 white men, 3,115 white boys, 2,587 white women, 
2,951 white girls, 595 servant men, 126 servant boys, 200 servant 
women, 49 servant girls,* 470 men convicts, 6 boy convicts, 87 women 

team, Jake Keeports (carpenter), Conrad Smith, Captain Dnnlop, Jack Crosby 
(carpenter), Bob Lance (cooper), Philip Littig (whose wife was accoucheuse among 
the German population), John Ward, Hilt Stranwich (laborer), Nancy Low, Mr. 
Gwinn." The first female child born in Baltimore-Town was Ellen North, afterwards 
Mrs. Ellen Moale, who lived to see Baltimore a city of nearly 80,000 inhabitants, 
having had hardly more than 250 when she was born. 

* Servants in Maryland, at that time, may properly he classed as the Redemp- 
tioners provided for by Lord Baltimore in his original scheme of colonization, as 
set forth in the " Relation of Maryland, 1635." Much of the early emigration to 
Maryland was thus effected, the emigrant binding himself to five years in the Prov- 
ince in consideration of his transportation thither at the cost of the co-contractor. 
In 1688 the term of service was reduced hy Act of Assembly to four years. Where 
these agreements were made with a merchant, ship owner or ship captain, these 
indented servants or "Redemptioners," were sold at auction for their terms of four 



OF BALTIMORE. 25 

convicts, 6 girl convicts ; being 571 convicts, in all, designed for com- 
pulsory labor in the county and sold for certain terms ; while there 
were 116 mulatto slaves, 196 free mulattoes, 4,027 black slaves and 8 
free blacks, — making a total population of 17,238, whereof eleven 
thousand three hundred and forty-five occupied the position of master 
or mistress, and four thousand eight hundred and ninety-three the 
position of menials, — affording a servant for nearly every two. 

The spirit of improvement, — co-operative or alone, — was not ade- 
quate it seems to the wants of the stripling villagers, for in 1753, we 
find the gambling spirit of mankind appealed to by the scheme of a 
lottery, to raise four hundred and fifty " pieces of eight," — (as dollars 
were called, from the eight reals that composed them,) — for the pur- 
pose of building a public wharf. This indicates the increasing de- 
mands of trade, and so do the draining of parts of the marsh, near the 
Falls, by Mr. Steiger, as pasturage for his cattle, inasmuch as the town- 
lots were beginning to be built over by the Larshes, the Luxes, the 
Myers, the Goodwins, the Moales and the Carrolls. And thus gradu- 
ally grew the town which soon needed protection, it was supposed, 
from incursions of the western savages, who, it was alleged, after the 
defeat of Braddock, in 1755, penetrated the country, past Forts 
Frederick and Cumberland, and pushed their plundering and mur- 
dering parties to within fifty miles of Baltimore. There is a tradi- 
tion of this period, that the country people were once actually driven 
into the town, and that the women and children were placed, for 
safety, in the vessels in the harbor. An ancient original paper, before 
us as we write, dated the 28th of January, 1748, is a subscription 
list signed by some twenty-six of the principal burghers of Baltimore, 
by which they pledge themselves respectively to pay five or ten shil- 
lings each in order to " make good the fence of the said town and to 
support a person to keep it in good order," in compliance with an Act 
of Assembly, which prohibits the inhabitants " from keeping or rais- 
ing hogs or geese therein." But the Indians were more dangerous 
foes than the swine and poultry, and, accordingly, the town's people 
met and resolved to raise a stouter defence for their safety, by the 
erection of a palisade around the village, shutting out all ingress or 
egress except by a gate on Market street near McClellan's alley, and 
another on the upper part of Gay street near the bridge, while a smaller 
aperture, for foot passengers, was cut in the circuit near the head 

years, and at the end of then- term, they received one whole year's provision of corn 
and fifty acres of land. These "servants " therefore are not to be confounded with 
the negro slaves or the convicts, the latter of whom were also sold to labor for 
terms. 



26 HISTORIC A LS KETCH 

of Charles street, which then was on the cliffs about Saratoga.* 
Luckily the inhabitants were never indebted to their eircumvalla- 
tion for guardianship, yet, if it did not save them from an enemy's 
fire, it served them for domestic fuel. So that, in the course of two 
or three rigorous winters, the logs gradually disappeared under the 
nightly assaults of certain economical citizens who made themselves 
comfortable b} T the blaze of the pilfered defences. Thus ended the 
walls of our infant metropolis ; but the fright of the inhabitants, 
in all likelihood, contributed to the growth of the town, as people 
who were disposed to take up lands in the interior, remote from pro- 
tection were deterred by the risk of savage raids, and threw their 
capital, industry and enterprise into the young but promising mart. 
It was about this time that Baltimore became the refuge of men 
who had suffered from the real and not the imaginary dangers of 
war. When the British took ]STova Scotia, — or, as it was otherwise 
called, Acadia, in 1756, — many of the neutral French who were 
forcibly deprived of their property and expelled, came to our town. 
Some of them were received in private houses, while others were 
quartered in Mr. Fotterall's dwelling, in which they, also, erected 
a temporary chapel. Assisted by public levies, authorized, it is said, 
by law, these industrious and frugal refugees, soon got possession of 
much ground on South Charles street where they erected wooden 
huts, from the trees cut in the neighborhood, which, in time, and 
mostly by their own hands, were converted into substantial frame 
or brick buildings. This foreign settlement became known as 
"French Town," — a name it retained until very few years past. The 
descendants of some of these Acadians still linger among us ; — and, 
— although out of chronological order, — we may as well record that 
Baltimore was still further indebted for a French population in the 
year 1793, when the refugees from the insurrection at Cape Francois 
came in the grand convoying fleet, principally to the Chesapeake. 
About two thousand persons arrived in the first instance at Balti- 
more, and about one thousand more in the following three months. 
These were, mostly, people of wealth, who, in addition to their in- 
dustry, brought with them in produce, specie and jewels, not less 
than a million of dollars. Of these emigrants many were skilful 

* The steepness oftlie.se "Cliffs" may be estimated from the great declivity 
which still remains (1870) in the three squares on Saratoga street, between Charles 
and Calvert Btreets, at the foot of which the " Falls" then flowed, and at times over- 
flowed, the "Meadow.'" The writer well remembers the tops of those dill's, which, 
crowned with old " Sim nth a," used still to peer up full twenty feel above the level 
of the streets on the lots on the south side of Saratoga, between Charles and Liberty 
streets. 



OF BALTIMORE. 27 

mechanics ; but the greater numbers were planters or agriculturists, 
and hence the swarm of French gardeners which soon afterwards 
stocked and attended our markets, and gave to Baltimore that re- 
nown for the excellence of its garden vegetables, which it retains 
to the present day. In this emigration the ratio of whites to negroes 
was about two to one. 

It was about 1754, that " Barrister" Carroll built the stately mansion 

of " Mount Clare,"' still standing near the line of the Baltimore and 

Ohio Railroad, in the western section of our city. The dimensions 

and style of this establishment, — built, however, of imported bricks, — 

attest the increasing importance of the settlement, and prepare us 

for the steady changes winch occurred, — without any forcing or 

speculative processes, — during the French and Indian wars, to the 

beo'iimino- of the Revolutionary struo-ole. The town grew. Dwell- 

ings, inns, tan yards, a pottery, rope walks, ship yards, wharves, 

new tobacco inspections, a distillery, and an alms and work-house, 

were erected, and markets regulated. Between 1750 and 1782 the 

great and permanent additions of land to the original consolidated 

Towns of " Baltimore " and " Jones's" were made, showing the need 

of space for an increasing and industrious population. In 1750, 

High street, from Plowman's to French, as we have said, was laid 

off; — in 1765 the water lots on the "Point" had been taken up, — 

and as the site was favorable for building and fitting vessels, — the 

Point became a rival of the Town west of the Falls. This year Mr. 

Cornelius Howard added thirty-five acres of Lunn's lot, including the 

streets known as Conway and Barre", and running also thence between 

the west side of Forrest street and the east side of Liberty street, to 

Saratoga. This addition to the town was at once confirmed by law. 

The next year a commission was authorized by the Assembly to 

have the " marsh between the Falls and Frederick street " filled up ; 

and in 1768, another law, which was soon carried into effect, decreed 

the building of a Court House and Prison, on Calvert street, near 

Jones's Falls. The fate of this edifice will be hereafter narrated. 

In 1773, about eighty acres of Plowman's, Philpot's and Fell's 

lands were added to the east of the town, and an "Alms House " 

erected; while, after the revolution in 1781, "Fell's Prospect " was 

laid off by Commissioners and joined to the town on the east, besides 

the previously mentioned eighteen acres betwixt Bridge (now Cay) 

street and French street, and in 1782 Colonel John Eager Howard 

annexed to the town all his lands east of the street named by him 

" Eutaw," in memory of his well-known battle-field. On Lexington 

street he laid out a spacious lot for a market, (which was not 



28 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

improved until 1803 ;) — and, moreover, assigned a large property on 
Market or Baltimore street, west of Eutaw, for the use of the State, 
should the Assembly consent to make our town the Seat of Govern- 
ment, within twenty years. But this liberal gift the Legislature re- 
jected as often as it was proposed. In the fall of this same year, the 
tracts known as " Gist's Inspection " and " Timber ]STeck," lying 
south of former additions and upon the Middle Branch of the Pa- 
tapsco, as well as the lands between " Fell's Prospect " and Harris's 
Creek, were added to the town ; — all of which formed, with the first 
settlements, the grounds which were to be covered by the future me- 
tropolis. Although some of these additions were made subsequently 
to the period of which we are treating, it has been thought proper to 
group them in this place, as the best means of displaying the numer- 
ous bits which gradually composed the Mosaic plat of " Baltimore."* 
Thus, with population, land, buildings, wharves, distilleries, and 
alms as well as work-houses, it will be seen that in the twenty years 
between the date of Mr. Moale's unpicturesque sketch and the be- 
ginning of the War of Independence, the town and county made 
such advances in civilization, that it not only had a thrifty, laboring 
population, but its "distilleries," and probably the permitted "direct 
importation of Madeira wine," had helped to make some of those 
paupers for whom its alms and work-house was erected. But, to com- 
pensate for the decline of virtue among some classes, it must be re- 
corded to the honor of the little town or village, that, about this 
period (1770) forty-two merchants and traders of enterprise and 
capital, and some very skilful mechanics, were added to the inhabi- 
tants, who already employed eleven doctors to heal their bodies, and 
nine lawyers to protect their purses and property. Beside this, the 
Methodist Society, formed originally by the visits of the Wesleys in 
1735 and Whitfield in 1740, — built in 1773 their first meeting-house, 

* The following items, taken from an original bill for the " Funeral Expenses of a 
gentleman in Baltimore-Town, in 1758," a re curiously indicative of manners and 
expenses, then. Coffin, £G, lGs.; 41 yards crape, £7, 3s. 6d.; 32 yards black tif- 
fany, £4, 10s.; 11 yards black crape, £1, 18s. 6d.; H yards broadcloth, £6, lis. and 
3d.; 7£ yards of black shaloon, 19s. 3d.; 6i yards linen, £1, 13s.; 3 yards sheeting, 
7s. 10d.; 3 dozen pairs men's black silk gloves, £5, 8s.; 2 dozen pairs women's do., 
£3, 12s.; G pairs men's black gloves, at 3 shillings, 18s.; 1 pair women's do., 3s.; then 
there were black silk handkerchiefs ; 8^ yards calamanco, mohair, buckram ; 13£ 
yards ribbon ; 47i pounds loaf sugar ; 14 dozen eggs, 10 oz. nutmegs ; li pounds 
allspice; 20f gallons white wine, at £4, 2s. and Gd ; 12 bottles red wine; 
10£ gallons rum ; while 10 shillings additional were paid for coffin furniture, and 
one pound sterling each to dame Hannah Gash and Mr. Ireland for attendance. 
And so it seems our forefathers went becomingly and jovially to their graves Anno 
Domini 1708, in Baltimore-Town. 



OF BALTIMORE. 29 

in Strawberry alley, and another, in the next year, in Lovely lane. 
The Presbyterians had already erected their First Church on the 
corner of North and Fayette streets, — torn down within late years 
to give place to the United States Court House. The Roman Catho- 
lics, in 1770, erected part of St. Peter's Chapel, on Saratoga street, 
though by a curiously conceived lawsuit against " Ganganelli, Pope 
of Rome," — (for want of another defendant,) — brought by one of 
the builders, who had become bankrupt, to recover advances ; the 
Church was, at the beginning of the Revolution, closed for some 
time, forcing the worshippers to assemble in a private house in South 
Charles street, until they could recover possession. This, however, 
was obtained sooner than practicable by the " law's delay," by the 
address of a Captain of volunteer militia, who insisted on marching 
his Catholic troops to their place of worship, and demanded and 
obtained the key of the deserted Chapel. In 1773, the Baptists 
bought a lot and erected part of a church on Front street ; while the 
German Lutherans, with the aid of a lottery, built one on Fish street 
(now Saratoga), with an established clergyman as their permanent 
pastor. Nor, were Internal Improvements by public highways ne- 
glected. In 1774, the Legislature passed an act appropriating £4,000 
or $10,666f, to be expended by thirteen Supervisors in making "the 
three great roads leading to the town," from the West, the North and 
the East ; thus establishing, 1st, the intercourse between the town and 
the western parts of Maryland, and thence, by the line of " Brad- 
dock's Road," to " Red-Stone-Old-Fort," on the Monongahela ; 2d, the 
intercourse with Harford county, the Suscmehanna head-waters, and 
onward to Philadelphia ; and 3d, with the northern parts of our own 
county and Pennsylvania. This, too, was the epoch of the establish- 
ment of a public press in Baltimore, — the weekly " Maryland Journal 
and Baltimore Advertiser," being first issued by William Goddard, 
of Rhode Island, who had removed from Philadelphia, and printed 
at a house on the east side of South street, near Market (now Balti- 
more street). He published his first paper on the 20th of August, 
1773.- Before this, the newspapers of Philadelphia and Annapolis 
were the sole mediums of information for Baltimoreans, and the 
only means of advertising their wares or their wants. An attempt, 
soon after, made by a certain Joseph Rathel, to establish a Circulating 

* As a sample of Baltimore business at that time, we may notice an advertise- 
ment of Thomas Usher, who in stating that he has a variety of imported goods for 
sale, adds : " T. U. is erecting a spacious shed, capable of containing many horses, 
for the accommodation of country people and wagoners, with the conveniency of a 
large trough to feed in ; and market people may be there accommodated, as horses 
may stand in safety, and a pump is convenient to water them." 



30 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

Library, was loss successful, as might be expected from an advertise- 
ment in one of Goddard's early issues, by an empirical, "Doctor John 
H. Gilbert," who describes himself as a " German, and regular-bred 
physician, who, from study and travel, by land and sea, and long 
successful experience and practice, has found the great efficacy and 
virtue of his several preparations," after reciting which, he remarks 
in a "Postscript:" "1ST. B. The Doctor has for sale some copies of 
the Vicar of Wakefield, in 2 vols., by the celebrated Doctor Gold- 
smith !" It is probable that Baltimore-Town was not then so much 
a reading as a talking community, — its citizens meeting at the 
" Coffee House," or enjoying themselves by a visit to the theatre 
then lately established in a warehouse at the corner of Market and 
Frederick streets, or, soon after, in the better Thespian temple, built 
at the intersection of George (now Water) and Albemarle streets, by 
Douglass and Hallam. Books, indeed, were not advertised for sale 
in Baltimore during the next five years, except a few in 1774, " at the 
printing office;" and again, in 1775, as to be obtained from one "Wil- 
liam Green, from Philadelphia," who visited the city with a collection 
of books for sale, and who wisely admonishes the burghers that " his 
stay will be short !" The town " improvements" for intercourse 
between the two sides of the Falls were much amended at this epoch. 
Gay street bridge was entirely rebuilt of wood ; but another, erected 
at the Market street crossing, was constructed of stone, whose arches, 
however, unfortunately gave way when the supporting centre-boards 
were withdrawn, so that it had to be reconstructed of wood. An- 
other bridge of wood was also, for the first time, built at Water 
street ; but it was necessary to connect both the Market and Water 
street improvements with the town, by raised causeways, from 
Frederick street across the marsh. 

In 1774, when taxation was by head, or "per poll" Baltimore- 
Town <in<l county contained 7,410 taxable inhabitants, and the levy 
w;is 172 pounds of tobacco per /">//, or 1,274,000 pounds in all, con- 
vertible in current money, at 12 shillings and 6 pence per hundred 
pounds. The price of tobacco in t/tc market was then from fifteen to 
twenty-five shillings per hundred in Baltimore, and consequently it 
may he supposed that this liberal discount to tax-pavers was availed 
of. 

In 177-") Goddard's enterprise stimulated Dunlop to establish his 
" Maryland Gazette;" and doubtless the notes of war, sounding in 
the distance, bad already made men's minds alert for news as well 
as for interchange of opinion upon the growing dispute ; so that they 
not only sought information as to the times, hut began to build a 



OF BALTIMORE. 31 

battery on Whetstone Point, and stretched three massive chains 
supported by floating blocks, across the narrowest part of the strait 
at the entrance of the harbor, leaving but a very narrow passage for 
vessels on the side of the fort. At an election held " in the town " in 
1776, four hundred and seventy-two votes were taken, while the 
unadded "Fell's Point," at that time, contained a population of 821. 
The year before, there were enumerated 504 houses and 5,934 in- 
habitants in the town proper, so that, with the addition of the 821 of 
" Fell's Point " or Deptford Hundred, as it was called, — there were 
6,755 individuals girdled by the defences of Whetstone Point and its 
floating chain. The population in this quarter of Maryland and in 
our immediate neighborhood, may be estimated from this record, 
and from the census of the original " Baltimore County " before its 
subdivision, which gave that district 10,490 slaves and servants, and 
about 20,000 free white inhabitants. Thus the growth of Baltimore- 
Town and its adjuncts had, in the second quarter century, largely 
exceeded the progress of the first twenty-five, at the end of which 
Mr. Moale had drawn his rough profile of the ungainly village.* 

In a sketch of a large city's growth, for which so small a space in 
the present work, can be spared, the writer is so much confined to 
annalistic details that it is quite impossible to dwell upon many his- 
torical facts which would be useful in elucidating a fuller narrative 
of Baltimore. For instance, we should have much pleasure in offer- 
ing our studies and views of the colonial establishments and legisla- 
tion of the Lord Baltimores and their Assemblies, as well as the 
legislation of Great Britain for its colonies and provinces. It, is 
indeed, difficult to comprehend growth, at all, in the swathing- 
cloths of such restrictive domination ; so that the allegiance of a 
people, — free in temper and spirit, — their endurance and apparent 
contentment for so many years, — are matters of wonder in this age 
of liberty and self-government. The navigation laws of Great 
Britain, which confined all of the colonial trade to British and 
colonial merchants and ships ; limiting intercourse to her European 
dominions for tobacco, and allowing no other trade but a restricted 
one to the south of Europe, were, alone, sufficient to mar the pro- 
gress and manhood of airy colony ; yet the Marylanders, wrought, 
traded, planted and steadily increased in numbers. The restrictions 
and revenue laws were, however, doubtless, often and lucratively 

* In May, 1778, William Stinson advertises in a Baltimore paper, the opening of 
a " Coffee- House, at the corner of Market and South streets," which, he says, "is 
much wanted in this great commercial and flourishing Town ;" — though before that 
time there were certainly inns for the accommodation of the country-folk. 



32 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

evaded ; — indeed, they were but invitations to duplicity. The dis- 
couragement, nay inhibition, of all manufactures, except flour, iron 
and " homespun" made the people dependent mainly upon tobacco 
and grain for their exchanges ; and thus, in the midst of a region 
unsurpassed for water power, they were reduced to agriculture, or 
the simplest trade, for subsistence and the hope of wealth. In addi- 
tion to this, they were cramped by their currency, and obliged to 
suffer losses by exchange ; £200 in bills of credit, being given for 
£100 sterling before the year 1750, though they afterwards recovered 
a better ratio of values. The legal currency and money of account 
remained, as fixed by the coins one hundred years before, at six shil- 
lings per dollar, while the real par, at this period, was by general 
consent, placed at seven shillings and six pence, — a rate which was 
confirmed directly after the declaration of Independence.* During 
all this period, too, the spirit of the Proprietary's enterprise, and the 
spirit of the Royal government, which, at times interposed and 
interrupted the Proprietary's control of his province, was to keep 
this " fishing and farming " colony, a " fishing and farming " manor 
for the Lord Baltimores, capable in time, of producing a princely 
revenue for the family and for England. Farms, forges, mills, and 
plantations, or manorial estates, were all that met the royal or pro- 
prietary approval. The edict to the people of Maryland was : " pro- 
duce from the soil your wheat and iron and profitable tobacco, and 
give them to us exclusively in Great Britain ; for which, we shall 
return you our manufactures and luxuries, supplying you also, with 
labor from our prisons and from Africa ; and thus you will be, and 
continue to be, dependent on your mother — England." The terms of 
settlement, as proposed for " adventurers " originally, by Cecelius 
Calvert the second Lord Baltimore, were liberal enough, so for as 
the indigent emigrant was concerned, after his four or three years 
of indented service had expired ; but neither for him nor for his 
master was the whole, paramount, colonial system, — either of the 
Crown or of the Proprietary, — calculated to develop so rich and 
various a territory as is grasped and penetrated by the bays and 
rivers, and crowned by the coal and iron mountains of our opulent 

* From an early clay Maryland was embarrassed by a want of currency. Cecelius 
Calvert (2d Lord) tried the issue of silver coins, shillings sixpences, and groats, but 
the experiment was probably not extensive enough. Government bills of credit 
were issued, and soon depreciated. In 1732, the Assembly made tobacco a legal ten- 
der, at one penny per pound, and Indian corn at twenty pence per bushel. The value 
of tobacco as a currency for legal costs, &c, was afterwards fixed again by law, — 
but the market value per pound seems, to a late date, to have regulated its value as 
a currency, according to the decisions of the courts in various cases. 



OF BALTIMORE. 33 

State. Yet, it is unquestionable that if this colonial or provincial 
policy did not produce the greatest results possible in wealth and 
material progress, it seems to have formed a very contented, a very 
cultivated, and a very polished people. The system made Annapolis 
everything. It was the seat of government ; and there all society 
centred, as well as the springs of all mercantile and commercial 
affairs. All entrances and clearances of vessels were made there. 
The governor and all the public officers dwelt in the political capital ; 
and around them, — generally born in Great Britain and highly 
educated and connected, — gathered the most learned persons in pro- 
fessional life, as well as the wealthiest planters and their families. 
Elegant and extensive houses were built, and the elaborate furniture, 
the ancestral portraits and pictures, and the current fashions, were all 
brought from what Marylanders were then pleased affectionately to 
call " home," — Great Britain. Accordingly it is not surprising to find 
in the old records and writings of that day, that Annapolis was con- 
sidered the " Court of the Colonies," and that the renown of the 
Sharpes and the Edens, and their courtly circles of Dulanys, Carrolls, 
Jennings, Ogles, Goldsboroughs, Carmichaels, Johnsons, and Chases, 
is remembered to the present day, not only in the ancient city itself, 
but throughout the State. Indeed, the culture of Annapolis was 
not external or showy alone, and confined to graces of manner or 
hospitality. The men were, in truth, " persons of quality " in in- 
tellect, education, and, better than all, in character; for it is from 
these very circles that the Carrolls, the Johnsons, the Tilghmans, the 
Pacas, the Stones, and the Chases, sprang, when the first call was 
made on our people for the defence of American rights. 



34 HISTORIC A LS KETCH 



BALTIMORE: 



FROM THE OUTBREAK OF THE REVOLUTION TO THE PEACE WITH GREAT 
BRITAIN. 1776 TO 1783. 



The summary character of this sketch confines us so much to gene- 
ral outlines that it is impossible to detail the numerous political events 
in Maryland, and especially in Baltimore-Town, from the origin of 
the discontent with the mother country, relative to taxation, to the 
period of the actual outbreak of the war. It must suffice to say that 
the Baltimoreans not only understood their rights as well as their 
interests, hut were quite resolved to maintain them whenever re- 
quired, in spite of the opinions of a few loyalists who were willing 
to abide by power and "its oppressions. The Stamps and the Teas, it 
is true, were sent to Annapolis, and the forcible opposition to their 
introduction or use occurred in the political and commercial capital 
of the Province ; but, doubtless, had the occasion arisen in Baltimore, 
its people would have been as stern and decided as the Annapolitans 
in their destruction of the obnoxious herb, and the vessels that brought 
it. When the news came from Boston, in 1774, that its port had 
been closed, a Baltimore Committee, to correspond with neighboring 
colonies, was promptly appointed by a public and very patriotic 
assemblage of the best citizens. The ablest men of character, prop- 
erty and influence were put upon it. Resolves against importation 
were passed; words of cordial support were sent to the Massachusetts 
men, and collections were made for the distressed Bostonians. Mili- 
tary companies were formed and supplied, and plans devised to 
obtain reliable arms and abundant ammunition. The zeal of the 
people was manifested in their outspoken earnestness. Timid or 
Lukewarm townsmen were marked, and so were all importations ; nor 
were strangers allowed to visit or sojourn among our people without 
examination into their characters and purposes. These inspections 
were rigidly observed by the Committee, and many persons were 
ordered away or required to give security for their behavior. A 
clergyman, who declared that: — "all persons who mustered were 
guilty of treason; and that they who had sworn allegiance and now 



OF BALTIMORE. ,« O f> >* O O O 35 

took up arms were guilty of perjury," — was summoned before this 
popular tribunal, and, — being informed that "such declarations were 
calculated to defeat the measures recommended for the preservation of 
America and Iter Liberties, and that it was, therefore, the Committee's 
duty to take notice of persons guilty of such offences," promptly 
made the apology required, and was dismissed with its acceptance. 
An imprudent letter from Mr. James Christie, a merchant, to a rela- 
tive of his in the British service, was intercepted, and caused his 
arrest. He was personally protected from violence, but the conven- 
tion at Annapolis fined him £500 sterling, and ordered him to leave 
the Province. A Captain Button was gently reprimanded, as a mild 
warning to super-zealous royalists ; while Mr. James Dalglieish, 
who had been somewhat intoxicated, it seems, when he repeatedly 
denounced the American movement, thought it best to decamp from 
Baltimore and was never heard of afterwards. The popular Com- 
mittee, appointed by the townsmen on the 12th of November, 1774, — 
the Revolutionary Fathers, in fact, of Baltimore, — were Samuel 
Purviance, Jr., Robert Alexander, Andrew Buchanan, D. John Boyd, 
John Moale, Jeremiah Townly Chase, William Buchanan and Wil- 
liam Lux. No record of Baltimore's history*, no matter how brief, 
would be complete without the mention of these honored, aged, 
patriotic men, whose descendants still survive and are respected in 
our city of eighteen hundred and seventy. These gentlemen, — with 
Messrs. William and John Smith, Thomas Harrison and Robert 
Christie, Sen., — had been previously appointed a Committee of Cor- 
respondence, on the 31st of May, 1774, at a called " meeting of the 
freeholders and gentlemen of Baltimore County," held at the Court 
House ; but the Committee named, on 12th of November of the same 
year, seems, — (with but one exception,) — to have been the effective 
administrators of the town and its vicinity, under the chairmanship 
of Samuel Purviance, Jr., whose ample correspondence shows that he 
was as bold, staunch and self-sacrificing in the cause as any merchant 
in the land at that dangerous period. His daring effort to arrest the 
Proprietary Governor Eden, previous to that functionary's departure 
for England, — (disapproved as it was by the Convention of delegates 
from the counties of Maryland, which had been formed and was sit- 
ting at Annapolis,') — shows the zeal with which he was ready to im- 
peril himself, for what he considered the welfare of Maryland. The 
Provincial Convention, in August, 1775, declared, "in the name of 
the inhabitants, that they would, to the utmost of their power, prose- 
cute and support the then opposition carrying on, as well by arms as 
by the Continental Association." It provided for regular elections 



36 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

of its members in succession, as well as of Committee men, by the 
"freeholders of each county and other freemen having a visible 
estate of £40 sterling, or qualified to vote for burgesses." Baltimore 
County and Town were allowed to send five Delegates and to have 
thirty-seven Committee men, whose powers extended to the general 
police and government of the county ; while the county, itself, was 
directed to furnish five of the forty companies of active minutemen. 
Before this, nay, even before the battle of Lexington, on the 19th of 
April, Baltimore-Town had formed several companies of each descrip- 
tion of arms, and made every exertion to procure ammunition. Among 
others, General Buchanan, Lieutenant of the County, distinguished 
himself and took command of a company of gentlemen of riper 
years ; while a company of their sons and younger companions, armed 
and equipped themselves in rich scarlet uniforms, under the orders of 
Captain Gist, who afterwards became well known as the General 
Mordecai Gist of the Revolutionary Army. Many vessels, returning 
home, were searched and stripped of their arms and ammunition. 

As soon as the Annapolis Convention spoke out in August, several 
gentlemen volunteered, and joined the army before Boston, among 
whom were Richard Carey, David Hopkins, and James McHenry, — 
subsequently a soldier of the war, a member of Washington's Staff, 
and finally, one of his Cabinet, while President. 

The five Delegates to the Convention and the thirty-seven Com- 
mittee men, were, of course, duly elected. Purviance, Lux, Chase, 
Alexander and Boyd, were appointed to superintend the trade and 
importation of arms ; while Moale, Harrison, Calhoun, Sollers, Ais- 
quith, Ridgely and John Eager Howard, were empowered to license 
lawsuits, in order to prevent the abuse of the legal processes which 
the disaffected might attempt. 

It was about this time that the Water Battery on Whetstone Point, 
— before mentioned, — was planned by Mr. James Alcock, and begun 
under the superintendence of Messrs. Griest, Griffith and Louden- 
slager, while Captain JS". Smith was put in command of the artillery 
stationed at that post. The chain was soon Btretched, afloat, over the 
narrow strait, whose channel was additionally impeded by sunken 
vessels. Men were enlisted in Baltimore by Samuel Smith, Mordecai 
G-ist, David Plunkett, Brian Philpot and William Ridgely, who held 
commissions in a regiment of which Smallwood, the future General, 
was Colonel. The Bermudian sloop Hornet, the State's ship Defence, 
the Lexington, and the Andrea Doria, commanded by the brave and 
well known .loslma Barney, were put into service; the Nicholsons, 
also, look service in this little navy that was preparing; and so the 



OF BALTIMORE. 37 

Town and Province united cordially in preparations for oft'ence and de- 
fence in the impending war. Never, with hut few exceptions, could a 
people have heen more decided, — both natives and Europeans uniting 
cordially in condemnation of Parliamentary taxation. Still, it was 
hoped by almost every one, that wiser counsels would prevail, and 
that the " rights of America " might be secured from a more enlight- 
ened Ministry and British Legislature, without resorting to an armed 
conflict for absolute and national independence. But, so mild an end 
of the quarrel was not in store for America. The die was, at length, 
cast ; and the Declaration of Independence was made by the Con- 
gress, in July, 1776 ; finally signed by nearly all the delegates in that 
month and the next, — and approved by the various delegations sit- 
ting at the capitals of the colonies. Its promulgation was the signal 
for the departure of the " Loyalists ;" and Baltimore afforded her 
faithless quota, in which we find the name of Robert Alexander, who 
had once been a delegate to the Convention and even to the Congress ; 
of Daniel Chamier, who had been Sheriff of the County ; of Doctors 
Henry Stevenson and Patrick Kennedy, the former of whom had 
built a splendid mansion and laid out superb grounds and gardens 
on the hills near the Falls, in the rear of the jail, and whose house 
still remained standing a short time ago ; of Mr. James Somerville, 
a respectable merchant, and several others, who, in retiring from 
Maryland, determined that, if they could not join their townsmen 
in the dispute, they would not oppose them by violence. Some, it is 
said, ended their lives in obscurity, and perhaps in poverty, abroad, 
while others took opportunities, during the war, to render kindly 
services to the soldiers of liberty, who fell into the hands ot the 
British. A very few returned after the peace, and remained in Bal- 
timore or the State. 

The history of the Town and of the Province during the Revolu- 
tionary war is a part of our national history, and its events and 
heroes are so well recorded in the books and memories of our people, 
that it is perhaps unnecessary in this rapid sketch to recount the local 
occurrences of the seven years' struggle and trial. The student who 
desires fuller details of transactions in the Town, at that period, will 
be amply rewarded by the " Narrative of events which occurred in 
Baltimore-Town during the Revolutionary war," published in 1849, 
by the late Mr. Robert Purviance, an accomplished merchant of this 
city, nephew of Samuel Purviance, Jr., the celebrated Chairman of the 
Baltimore Committee, during the war, and who compiled this valu- 
able work from the original papers, journals and correspondence of 
4 



38 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

the Committee and of his uncle, who, in 1788, fell a victim to the 
Indians while attempting to descend the Ohio. 

Our town's people, meanwhile rested quiet under all the discom- 
forts and self-denials of war. Having no importations, and no manu- 
factures but rough " homespun " woollens and coarsest linens, they 
were often at a loss for clothing, and, of course, made no attempts at 
display. They had no luxuries and few amusements. There may 
have been a " ball " or an " assembly " tolerated from time to time, 
when good news came from the battle-field. Now and then, a few 
contraband ounces of the " infamous tea," may have been smuggled 
into a private house, and consumed by even the patriotic and tea- 
loving dames, out of a "coffee-pot" but never out of a tea-pot! 
" However ditficult," said the Baltimore Committee, " may be the 
disuse of an article which custom has rendered familiar and almost 
necessary, yet we hope the ladies will cheerfully acquiesce in this self- 
denial, and thereby evince to the world a love of their friends, their 
posterity and the country I" 

Theatres were absolutely forbidden ; and, as a glimpse of the times, 
we cannot help presenting the reader a sample of the female feeling 
of the Colony, in a petition to the authorities for the performance of 
a play during these days of peril. It is an old manuscript of the time, 
and thus quaintly sets forth the wishes of the " ladies of quality " of 
that day : — 

" Mr. Thomas "Wall, having solicited several Ladies of this City,* 
that they would intercede with the executive Power to grant him 
Permission to exhibit Theatrical Performances : We whose Names 
are subjoined, Impelled by motives of Humanity for his distressed 
Family, and the pleasurable Improvement resulting from said 
Rational Entertainments, have thought proper to gratify his re- 
quest ; and therefore respectfully desire the Governor and Council 
to grant him License for that purpose. The Calamities of War, 
have in a great Measure Secluded the Fair-Sex from any Participa- 
tion in Public Amusements, and whilst the Gentlemen have frequent 
opportunities of enlarging their social Intercourse, over an Exhilarat- 
ing Bottle, the Ladies are frequently consigned to Solitude and 
Oblivion. Affected Sagacity, with formal Saws and Solemn Phiz, 
may incline to treat this Application with Cynical Reprehension, 
but from the known Urbanity of his. Excellency and the other Hon- 
orable Members, it is expected to meet with less Contemptuous 
Treatment. No Salique Law has hitherto excluded the influence of 

* Annapolis. 



OF BALTIMORE. 39 

Female Solicitation in a refined Society, and every G-enerous son of 
Liberty must wish to promote whatever may contribute to the Hap- 
piness of the zealous Daughters of Freedom." 

Here follow the names of Mrs. Carroll, of Carrollton, Mrs. Brice, 
and forty-one other leading ladies of Maryland ; while their earnest 
appeal to the authorities is backed by another, to the same effect, 
from ('harks Carroll of Carrollton, Samuel Chase, and forty-seven of 
the principal men of the district. How the petition tared we do 
not know ; but certain it is that Lafayette, on his way to Virginia 
during the war, in 1781, was entertained at a ball, where, with all 
his courtesy and address, he could not hide the sadness and anxiety 
which must then have oppressed every responsible officer of the 
army. His demeanor was noticed, and became the source of a 
patriotic outburst of the very women who " longed a little " for an 
occasional play, or dance, or sip of the " herb that cheers but not ine- 
briates." The gallant Frenchman told his questioners that he could 
not enjoy the gaiety of the scene whilst his poor soldiers were with- 
out clothes ; ragged, and destitute of even the necessaries for a 
campaign. " We will supply them ! " exclaimed the patriotic 
women ; and next day, the ball-room and fan were exchanged for 
the work-room and needle, and, in a short time, the clothing was 
made hj these Baltimore belles of 1781, out of materials furnished 
by their fathers and husbands. Lafayette never forgot the occasion ; 
and never did he neglect a Baltimorean in after life. When he 
visited this city in 1824, he recurred to the event we have men- 
tioned, and affectionately inquired for his "friend, the patriotic 
commissary, David Poe," who, out of his own limited means, had 
supplied him with five hundred dollars to aid in clothing the Con- 
tinental troops, while his excellent wife, without aid from other 
hands, had cut out five hundred pairs of pantaloons, and superin- 
tended their making, for the suffering soldiers ! 

Such were the times and the temper of all classes and both sexes 
in Baltimore-Town. Living was difficult, expensive, and danger- 
ous. But the place was, nevertheless, alluring, and in spite of the 
war, the exposure, and the necessity of surrendering even one's 
blankets for the soldiers in the field, it seems to have attracted 
settlers in considerable numbers. 

In 1778, all foreign fabrics had become so scarce or costly that 
many factories which had been prohibited in the colony were estab- 
lished for the making of necessary articles, either in or near the 
Town. There were a linen factory, a bleaching yard, a paper mill, 
a slitting mill, a cord factory, a nail factory, and a linen and woollen 



40 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

factory. Before the war, vessels, as we said, had to enter and clear 
at Annapolis ; but, in 1780, a Custom House was established here, 
and Thomas Sollers, the naval officer, authorized to grant registers 
for vessels. In May, during a single week, one brig from France, 
and one ship, three brigs and five schooners from the West Indies, 
took advantage of this arrangement and came to our wharves. There 
was, of course, vast difficulty as to exchange and currency : yet, out 
of fifty-six debtors to British merchants, who paid their debts into 
the treasury of the new " State " in depreciated money, there were but 
four or five residents of Baltimore-Town or county. In 1782, a line 
of stage coaches, — (afterwards extended to Alexandria,) — was estab- 
lished between Baltimore and Philadelphia, — our Town at that date 
containing eight thousand inhabitants and eight places of worship. 
During the very heat of the war, twenty gentlemen came to Bal- 
timore as residents, among whom we find the names of Curzon, Pat- 
terson, Gilmor, Torrence, Boyd, Levering, Payson, Frick, AVilliams, 
Difienderfler, Rayborg, Leypold, Heide, Shultze and Schafier, all of 
whom at once engaged in active business, as far as then practicable, 
and, at the close of the war, were foremost in developing the liberated 
commerce and industry of the Town. 

The suspension of hostilities with Great Britain was joyously 
celebrated by an illumination on the night of the 21st of April, 1783. 
It was not only a rejoicing for release from war and for liberty and 
independence, but of anticipated prosperity arising from freedom, 
personal, agricultural and commercial ; and, in truth, it is from this 
period that Baltimore may date a material progress unexampled in 
the history of American cities. Renewed attention to Baltimore- 
Town, as a seat of trade, followed the cessation of active warfare 
and the prospect of peace. Many merchants from other States and 
from Europe settled here, and in 1782, the streets were begun to be 
paved, especially the main, or Market street, which in spring and 
fall was generally impassable from Gay to the Falls. Sidewalks 
were laid, and the width of the cellar doors and of the old-fashioned 
porches of front doors limited, so that the burghers could not take 
up too much space allowed for pedestrians, while enjoying their even- 
ing chat or pipe before their dwellings. AVharves, too, were built, 
and laws made to guard the streets from nuisances, and the harbor 
from street drainage ; while the streets themselves were only to be used 
by vehicles of a certain breadth of wheel. To defray these expenses an 
auction tax was laid on the sales of the only auctioneer in this town ; — 
a tax was also imposed on public exhibitions and on assessed prop- 
erty : and, that common panacea, — an annual lottery, — was authorized 



OF BALTIMORE. 41 

to bring up the arrears of deficiencies in municipal expenses. The 
Executive of this system was a Board of Commissioners with 
ample powers to aid the Town Commissioners; so that the new 
board,— in fact the first " Civic Fathers" of Baltimore, — composed of 
William Spear, James Sterrett, Engelhardt Yeiser, George Linden- 
berger, Jesse Hollingsworth, Thos. Elliott and Peter Hoffman, — was 
made a sort of body politic and corporate, authorized to fill their 
own vacancies, appoint a Treasurer, collect fines for the use of the 
Town, appoint Constables, and to report their accounts to the Town 
Commissioners. At the ensuing session of the Legislature, it was 
thought that the powers thus conferred on a self-appointing and irre- 
sponsible body were too extensive ; and, accordingly, provision was 
made for the removal of the first set, and the selection of others, 
every five years, by elected electors. In recording these primordial 
city foundations, it is due to the memory of our excellent ancestry 
in town-government, to record the names of William Smith, John 
Moale, Richard Ridgely, Daniel Bowly, Hercules Courtenay and 
John Sterrett, who then filled the important function of Town Com- 
missioners of Baltimore. In 1783, the year of the peace, Samuel Smith, 
Samuel Purviance, Daniel Bowly, John Sterrett, Thomas Russell, 
Richard Ridgely, Robert Henderson, Thomas Elliott and William 
Patterson, were appointed AVardens of the Port of Baltimore, for five 
years, to be renewed by selection of the electors of the Special Com- 
missioners every five years in succession. Of this body Mr. Purvi- 
ance was chosen Chairman. Measures were also taken to make a 
survey and chart of the basin, harbor and Patapsco river ; to ascer- 
tain the depth and course of the channel, and provide for keeping it 
clear, while a penny per ton was imposed on every vessel clearing or 
entering, to defray the expenses. This impost was raised to two cents, 
and sanctioned by Congress, after the adoption of the Constitution 
of the United States. The Wardens were also empowered to make 
rules as to wharfage and wharves and their repair ; there being then, 
it is said, no "private wharves" extending over two hundred feet, ex- 
cept those of Messrs. Spear, Smith and Buchanan ; so that the space 
occupied by water, at that time, was perhaps double the surface of 
the present docks and basin. John and Andrew Ellicott owned the 
water-lot, and built an extended wharf on Light street, to make 
which highway they used the sediment of the basin, which they ex- 
tracted by a drag drawn by horses. This primitive and rude process 
preceded the iron scoops applied by a windlass, which were after- 
wards used by these gentlemen for the same purpose, and were the 
simple mud-machines of our ancestors. 



42 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

A company, chiefly composed of Baltimoreans was very soon 
formed and incorporated to make a canal on the Susquehanna, and 
in the year 1799, another corporation was created to unite the 
waters of the Chesapeake and Delaware by the same means. The 
intercourse with " the western country," too, was not neglected, for 
the value of the West was already known, and its virgin lands and 
mineral wealth coveted. This intercourse was promoted by roads 
through Frederick and Hagerstown and onward to the Monongahela 
and Ohio, while regular lines of stages were established and began to 
ply betwixt Baltimore and Frederick, and Annapolis. " The news " 
was more eagerly sought for than ever, and the want was supplied 
by a new gazette issued by Mr. John Hayes, who commenced the 
publication of his " Maryland Gazette." An attempt to establish a 
bank failed ; but a better project — to light the streets — succeeded, as 
well as the plan of a day-police and a night-watch to guard the vil- 
lagers while they slept. Our 8,000 townsmen of that day were, 
however, so exemplary in their demeanor, both in daylight and 
darkness, that but three constables were required for hours of busi- 
ness and but fourteen watchmen for the night I We have advanced 
in civilization and numbers since then I 

The greater part of the Baltimoreans who went to the wars and 
held commissions returned as permanent residents to the town, and 
were soon followed by such persons as General Otho Holland Wil- 
liams, Colonel Ramsay, Colonel McIIenry, General Swann, Colonel 
Bankson, the Tilghmans, Strickers, Clemms, Ballards and Harrises 
from other parts of the new State, or from other States, while the 
number of absolute settlers was largely augumented from France, 
Germany, Holland and even England. The principal emigrants 
from Europe were such men as Zacharie, Pascault, Monbois, Latil, 
Delaporte, Dumeste, and Paul Bentalou, in whose arms the brave 
Pulaski died after the siege of Savannah. A few years after, these 
well remembered merchants were succeeded by another influx of 
Europeans, the most prominent of whom were Messonier, Valck, 
Carrere, Labes, Mayer, Oliver, Schroeder, Brantz, Caton, Coopman, 
Seekamp, Ghcquere, Von Kapif, Brune and other intelligent and 
thoroughly educated merchants, who were well known in the com- 
mercial circles of our town during its greatest prosperity in foreign 
trade In fact, — what with enterprising men, public improvements, 
increased capital, a desire to open and extend domestic as well as 
foreign intercourse, and the establishment of an efficient civic appa- 
ratus, -the town began distinctly to assume the air of an important 
mart. Nothing indicates the multiplication of consumers so com- 



OF BALTIMORE. 43 

pletely as a difficulty of supplying conveniently and abundantly all 
the mouths that are to be fed. Up to this period the old and single 
market house had sufficed for Baltimore, but now the inhabitants 
of Old Town and of Fell's Point, — those on Howard's Hill, — and 
those in the centre of the settlements, began to dispute about the 
site of enlarged accommodations for the traffic in provisions. It 
was soon seen that one market would no longer satisfy the three 
widely separated classes of population ; and it was, therefore, wisely 
resolved that each should be accommodated. In early times it had 
been intended to get rid of " the Marsh" on Mr. Harrison's property 
at the junction of Harrison and Baltimore streets, by thoroughly 
excavating it so as to form a Dock connecting with the Basin and 
extending the whole distance thence to our principal street. This 
scheme was now abandoned, and the site of our present Maryland 
Institute was devoted to one of the three market houses, which was, 
accordingly, built thereon, and, for so many years bore the name 
of "the Marsh" or "Centre Market." Meanwhile the people of 
Fell's Point proceeded to erect a market for the Point on a space 
appropriated therefor by Mr. Fell, holding their markets on Tues- 
days and Fridays; while the dwellers on "Howard's Hill" built 
the third on the northwest corner of Camden and Hanover streets, 
opening it for traffic on Mondays and Thursdays ; — Wednesdays and 
Saturdays being devoted to the " Marsh." Thus the dispute was 
settled ; though our subsequent wants demanded the erection, in 
1803, of our renowned "Lexington Market," for the benefit of the 
AVestern Precincts, and, another for the Eastern Precincts, author- 
ized in 1807, on ground given by Colonel Rogers, which, however, 
was not erected until 1819. 

The description previously given of the town's topography in the 
middle of the eighteenth century, showed that the land in the neigh- 
borhood of the Falls, which then nearly touched the " Monument 
Square " of our day, in the " horsehoe bend " we described, was 
high and precipitous, affording steep banks for the curbing of 
that wayward stream. In truth, the bed of Monument Square, 
at that time, must have been quite twenty-five or thirty feet 
higher than its level in 1870. In the centre of that Square, about 
the spot where the Battle Monument now stands, the Baltimore 
County Court House had been built on the bluff overlooking the 
Falls. It was of two stories, built of brick, and tapered off in the 
centre of its roof with a tall lookout and spire, terminated with " a 
weather-cock and the points of the compass." 

The improvement of the town made it necessary to open Calvert 



44 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

street northwardly from the water, and accordingly measures were 
taken to effect this desirable change. But the Court House stood 
in the midst of the projected highway, and seemed too valuable an 
edifice to he destroyed for the opening of even so important a street. 
To do the thing, and yet to save the building, was the problem. It 
was solved by an ingenious mechanic of Baltimore, who engaged 
with the Town Council to remove twenty feet of earth from beneath 
the foundation of the Court House, and to support it by an archway 
and buttresses. The original of the subscription list of our towns- 
men, now before us as we write, is dated on the 21st of September, 
1784, and provides for payment of the sums set against their names 
respectively, for the projected " underpinning." The Smiths, Boyds, 
McIIenrys, Moales, Hoffmans, Bowlys and thirty-four other public 
spirited men subscribed various amounts, from £125 to £7 each, 
unconditionally, there being limitations expressed only by Colonel 
Howard, who required that the street should not be " extended so 
as to run through his grounds west of Jones's Falls ;" — by Griffith 
Hall and Lemmon, that the streets " should be extended eight 
hundred feet across the " Meadow ;" — and, Alexander and Andrew 
Robinson, that "Calvert street should not be prolonged so ; s to 
intersect the Conewago Road." The entire subscription was 
liberal, amounting to between six and seven hundred pounds 
sterling. 

The plan of Mr. Leonard Harbaugh was adopted, and carried into 
effect, — bold and reckless as the project seemed; and, until our 
modern Court House was erected, on its present site, the old one 
served all the purposes of County justice, "perched, as it was, on a 
stool," with the whipping-post, pillory, and stocks, in front of the 
archway, as perpetual warnings of their fate to all the idlers and 
petty malefactors of the vicinage. The Jail, of those days, stood 
higher up on the hills, about the site of the granite Record office, 
while the Powder House was in the declivity east of the Court 
1 louse, and near the original bed of the Falls, at the southeast corner 
of our Square and Lexington street, with a small wharf in trout of 
it, to which boats from the shipping came for powder during the war. 
The water was quite deep, and we have heard an "old inhabitant " 
asserl it was there that he learned to swim, and often dived from the 
banks in front of this edifice. The low swampy flat, embraced by the 
horseshoe curve of the Kails in this neighborhood, was called "Steiger's 
Meadow," — the name it was commonly known by to a very late 
period ; while, on the heights above the stream and flats, were the Old 
German Church, and "Old "St. Paul's, — a wooden, barn-like structure, 



OF BALTIMORE. 45 

on Charles street ; — and the Roman Catholic chapel on Saratoga, taken 
down to make way for Calvert Hall, since used by the Redemp- 
torists. 

The First Presbyterian Church stood on a cliff east of the Square, 
and of which it was a continuation, and so remained after rebuild- 
ing, on its original high ground, until it was sold, within a few 
years, to the U. S. Government, for public purposes. 

When the Old Court House was taken down, many years afterwards, 
gentlemen who had erected line residences around it, fearing that the 
site might be re-occupied by an unsightly building, memorialized the 
Legislature for leave to raise $100,000 for a monument to the mem- 
ory of Washington. This was the origin of the present Washing- 
ton's Monument, built, however, on land granted for the purpose by 
Washington's friend and fellow-soldier, Colonel John Eager Howard, 
and not, as originally proposed, in the Square. It seems that when 
the dwellers in that neighborhood reflected on the risks incurred 
from having so tall and isolated a column near their houses, and 
moreover, that, if not built with rock-like staunchness, it might, 
some day, fall down and crush them, or, that the lightnings of heaven 
might be attracted, by the bare monument, from passing thunder- 
storms, — they preferred to leave the Square a vacant space, until it 
was adorned with the shorter and less dangerous shaft raised by our 
townsmen in memory of their defenders in the second war against 
Great Britain. The erection of these "fine dwellings" near the 
future Square, attests the removal of the principal merchants and 
traders from Fell's Point, where, up to, and even beyond, the period 
of the Revolution, most of them had dwelt, as most convenient for 
their interests and business. Indeed, we remember perfectly, it was 
long afterwards that our fathers could be persuaded to abandon 
Camden, Conway, Barre', Hanover, South Charles and Water streets, 
and all the best vicinities of the Basin, or the Patapsco, and begin, 
even, to believe in the upper parts of Baltimore as suitable for trade 
or dwellings. The men of those days, on arriving at the Town, used 
to land at ■" The Point," and were entertained in some of its com- 
fortable homesteads, among the hospitable gentlefolks to whom they 
were introduced by correspondence, until able to obtain dwelling 
houses or lodgings for themselves and families elsewhere in this con- 
glomerate of settlements. Between town and point there was a vast 
space, with few houses, — and mostly covered with corn fields or forest 
trees ; so that, — (on a sort of waste-land,) — the original theatre of 
Hallam k Henry was built on a common, beyond what was after- 
wards known as " the Causeway," — which was long infamous for its 



46 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

vile inhabitants and sailor-brawls. At that time, the waters of the 
basin flowed up to this notorious causeway, close to the brewery, 
known as " Claggett's," on Pratt street ; while, on its banks, as well 
as in the Marsh below the market, multitudes of blackbirds, snipe 
and other water-fowl, were shot by the sportsmen of that day. The 
roads between the two sides of the Falls to Water street at Frederick, 
was then so frequently overflowed as to require two or three long 
bridgings to cross the swash made by the tide. At the foot of Gray 
street, within fifty yards of Lombard street, the waters of the 
Patapsco rippled on a sandy margin, and there was little interruption 
to the original shore line from thence to the commencement of Com- 
merce street and the foot of South street, — (which was then at the 
present line of Lombard,) — and so on to Light street, and south- 
wardly to the " City Spring," still existing not long since, on South 
Charles street near Camden. Thence the shores curved to the foot of 
Federal Hill at " Hughes's Quay." We have known eminent mer- 
chants, — dead within only a few years, — who, as boys, "crabbed" 
with a forked stick, the whole of this distance, and whose parents 
embarked for Europe, in 1782, at a little dock which came up to 
Exchange Place, within thirty feet of its present southern limit ! 

In those days, Market street (now Baltimore,) extended westward, 
beyond the Old Congress Hall, between Sharp and Liberty streets, 
from Gay and Frederick streets, where the Alarm-bell and Watch 
House were built. The Assembly room, over the " Old Market," at 
the corner of Gay, was frequented by all the fashion of the town and 
neighboring gentry during the season of winter festivity ; while the 
country people who came to traffic, finding the market accommoda- 
tions inadequate, lined both sides of Gay street with their wagons, 
while others occupied, with stands, the sidewalks on Market street, 
which, up to this time, had remained entirely unpaved. We remem- 
ber to have heard from an eye-witness that, when the Army passed 
through Baltimore in 1781, he saw a mounted soldier nearly swamped, 
opposite to North street, in a deep mud-hole from which the rider 
and his horse were with difficulty extracted. But, after the paving 
of Market street, there were no more pitfalls ; and the improvements, 
on both sides of the main highway, wont on with such rapidity that 
we seldom found old citizens able to give us the exact chronology of 
edifices as they fell before the modern rage for building. It is cer- 
tain, however, that there were not many brick houses erected at a 
very early day ; OUT quiet ancestors being contented with wood, until, 
after tin 1 Revolution, when the increase of means, from an emanci- 
pated industry and commerce, made the trading community rivals 



Or BALTIMORE. 47 

of the aristocratic landholders who dwelt on their estates, deriving 
ample incomes from plantations or rentals. 

In those days the bold heights north of Franklin street and on 
the lines of Charles and Calvert streets, were still covered by a thick 
forest, and formed part of " Belvidere," — the seat of Colonel John 
Eager Howard. This beautiful domain was then popularly known 
as " The Park," or, " Howard's Park ;" and, indeed, is so desig- 
nated even now, though the forest is gone, the hills have subsided 
into streets, and what was woodland is covered with costly dwell- 
ings. It was on the upper hills of this Park where, it is said, there 
was a spacious lawn, that the townsfolk repaired to show themselves 
whenever the alarm was given that " British Barges were ascending 
the river towards the town." The intention of this parade, it is 
said, was to intimidate the assailants by the display of their numbers 
and preparation. "We do not know whether this Chinese system of 
defensive warfare ever availed our worthy ancestors in frightening 
the enemy ; but it is within our own distinct recollection that 
" Howard's Park" was, many years after the Revolutionary War, 
the favorite resort of all our military people, — volunteers and 
militia, — on "Washington's Birthday" and the "Fourth of July;" 
and that thither they went, — in full array and grand processions, 
which were the delight of our boyhood, — to listen to the reading of 
" Washington's Farewell Address," " the Declaration of Independ- 
ence," and an appropriate Oration from the favorite speaker of the day. 
AVe remember, too, that independently of its resort as a place of holi- 
day display, Howard's Park was the elysium of school bo} T s, as a free 
range for their sports, when boys were less numerous and perhaps 
less demonstrative than at present ; — nor are we unmindful of the 
tender recollection, that many of the gray-haired grandsires and 
grandmothers of the rising generation, were there accustomed, on 
Saturday afternoons, to have their first meetings and lover-like 
walks, — many of which doubtless terminated in that longer march 
of life, in which they have gone down to the present time, hand in 
hand, with the fair companions of their boyhood.- 

Such was the physical aspect of Baltimore, in the memory of an 
old man, soon after the peace with Great Britain. 

The late John P. Kennedy, in an article written for a privately 
printed book, has given so graphic a picture of the village while 

* The Park was, also, the scene of less agreeable occurrences, —several duels 
having been fought there by the Hotspurs of the early time. Mr. David Sterrett, 
we have heard, was shot in one of them by Mr. Hatfield, at a spot in the woods near 
the present corner of Charles and Madison street, north of Washington's Monu- 
ment. 



48 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

merging into a metropolis after the Revolution, that the reader of 
these sketches will be best instructed as to the society of that day by 
the transfer to our pages of his excellent description. 

"It was a treat," says he, "for our ancestors to look upon this 
little Baltimore-Town, springing forward with such elastic bound to 
be something of note in the Great Republic. * * Market street 
had shot like a snake out of a toy-box, up as high as ' Congress 
Hall,' with its variegated range of low-browed, hip-roofed, wooden 
houses, standing forward and back, out of line, like an ill dressed 
regiment. Some houses were painted blue, some yellow, some white, 
and here and there a more pretending mansion of brick, with win- 
dows after the pattern of a multiplication table, scpiare and many- 
paned, and great wastes of wall between the stories ; some with 
court yards in front, and trees in whose shade truant boys and ragged 
negroes ' skyed coppers ' and played marbles. 

" This avenue was enlivened with matrons and damsels ; some with 
looped skirts, some in brocade, luxuriantly displayed over hoops, 
with comely bodices supported by stays disclosing perilous waists, 
and with sleeves that clung to the arm as far as the elbow, where 
they were lost in ruffles that stood off like feathers on a bantam. 
And then such faces ! — so rosy, spirited and sharp ; — with the 
hair drawn over a cushion, — tight enough to lift the eye-brows 
into a rounder curve, giving a pungent, supercilious expression to 
the countenance ; — and curls that fell in ' cataracts ' upon the shoul- 
ders. Then, they stepped away with such a mincing gait, in shoes 
of many colors with formidable points at the toes, and high tottering 
heels delicately cut in wood, and in towering, peaked hats, garnished 
with feathers that swayed aristocratically backward and forward at 
each step, as if they took pride in the stately pace of the wearer. 

" In the train of these goodly groups came the gallants who up- 
held the chivalry of the age; — cavaliers of the old school, full of 
starch and powder ; most of them the iron gentlemen of the Revolu- 
tion, with leather faces — old campaigners, renowned for long stories, 
— not long enough from the camp to lose their military brusquerie 
and dare-devil swagger; proper roystering blades who had not long 
ago got out of harness and begun to affect the elegancies of civil life ; 
* * * all in three-cornered cocked-hats, and powdered hair and 
cues, and light colored coats with narrow capes and long backs, and 
pockets on each hip, small clothes and striped stockings, shoes with 
great buckles, and long, steel watch chains suspending an agate seal, 
in the likeness of the old soundingboards above pulpits. * * * It 
Avas a sight worth seeing when one of these weather beaten gallants 



OF BALTIMORE. 49 

accosted a lady. There was a bow which required the width of the 
pavement, — a scrape of the foot and the cane thrust with a nourish 
under the left arm and projecting behind in a parallel line with the 
cue. And, nothing could be more piquant than the lady's return of 
the salutation, in a curtsy that brought her with bridled chin and 
most winning glance, halfway to the ground ! 

" It was really comfortable to see a good, housewifely matron of 
that time, trudging through the town in bad weather, wrapped 
up in a great ' roquelairej her arms thrust into a huge muff, and a 
tippet wound about her shoulders in as many folds as the serpent 
of Laocoon, a beaver hat close over her ears, and her feet shod in 
pattens that lifted her above all contact with mud and water, 
clanking on the sidewalks with the footfall of the spectre of the 
' Bleeding Nun.' " 

This picture of our great-grandfathers and great-grandmothers, from 
the clever pencil of our estimable townsman, has to our eyes, per- 
haps, a certain spice of wickedness and caricature ; but will the Bal- 
timoreans of ninety years hence be less entertained or surprised by 
the graphic delineations of the style and fashions of Anno Domini 
1870, as displayed in the parlors and promenades of our modern 
metropolis ? 

How these respectable ancestors of ours fared for certain classes of 
servants, who were not slaves, may be curiously seen in the gazettes 
published about the time of the Revolution. It is known that it was 
the practice to send out yearly, from England to this country, at least 
five hundred convicts, who were sold as menials for various periods ; 
but it is doubtful whether the readers of history have very adequate 
conceptions of the extent to which this system affected the condition 
and entered into the family arrangements of our forefathers. It will 
astonish students to discover the number of advertisements, relating 
to these convicts, to be found in the old newspapers, as well as to the 
class of " redemptioners," who entered into engagements to serve in 
payment for their transportation to America. Here is an example 
of this species of British merchandise, culled from the newspaper 
examinations of a friend : 

" Baltimore, November 8, 1774. 

"Just arrived, in the ship Neptune, Captain Lambert Wilkes, 
from London, a number of likely, healthy, indented servants ; viz. : 
Tailors, butchers, barbers, masons, blacksmiths, tanners, carpenters, 
tinmen, stay-makers, schoolmasters, brass-founder, grooms, brickmaker, 
clothiers, clerks, sawyers, gardeners, scourer and dyer, watch and 



50 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

clock makers, weavers, printer, silversmiths, biscuit bakers, several 
farmers and laborers, several women, viz. : Spinsters, mantua-makers, 
&c. : — whose Indentures are to be disposed of on reasonable terms by 
John Cornthwait, James Williamson, and the Captain on board." 
Immediately after this advertisement there is another, so singular as 
to be worthy of more permanent record in a notice of Baltimore : 

" November 12, 1774 : ' On board the Neptune,' — (the same vessel,) 
— lying at Baltimore, — I. Williams, late vintner in London, who has 
served as valet de chambre to several noblemen : his last place was that 
of Butler to his Grace the Duke of Bolton, and for these few years 
past kept a large tavern, but through honest principles surrendered 
his all, and was thereby reduced to bankruptcy. He shaves, dresses 
hair, is thorough master of the Wine-Trade and Tavern business ; 
likewise understands brewing and cookery ; would willingly engage 
with any Gentleman, Hair-Dresser or Tavernkeeper : — Also, a young 
man, xolio has had a college education, and whose principles will bear 
the strictest scrutiny, would be glad to engage as an usher, or private 
tutor in a gentleman's family: — he can teach the Minuet, Cotillion, &c, 
&c, and writes all the Law-hands. Any gentleman wanting such 
persons, by applying to the above ship within 14 days from the date 
hereof, will be treated with on the most reasonable terms." 

It may be easily understood why these accomplished persons could 
not quit the good ship Neptune to seek employment for them- 
selves ! 



OF BALTIMORE. 51 



BALTIMORE: 



FROM THE PEACE IN 1783 TO 1820; INCLUDING THE PERIOD OF ITS GREATEST 
COMMERCIAL PROSPERITY DURING THE EUROPEAN WARS, AND NOTICES OF 
THE WAR WITH GREAT BRITAIN OF 1812. 



The spirit of enterprise that began to manifest itself during the 
war, — which was fostered by the influx of some capital and popula- 
tion, — by the success of privateers that carried on a lucrative trade 
with the West Indies in the swift sailing craft of the Chesapeake, — 
and by the central position of Baltimore, — at the core, as it were, of 
the confederacy, — was not destined to be immediately gratified by 
vast success when the war was over. Between the period of the 
cessation of hostilities and the absolute peace, as well as between the 
peace and the adoption of the United States Constitution, there were 
doubts and hesitancy as to the extension and security of trade. Im- 
mediately after the Revolution, and, in fact, from 1784 to 1787, the 
commerce of Baltimore was languid. The country,' — still unconsoli- 
dated in absolute nationality, — was yet only a Confederacy of States, 
and came out of the war with a debt of forty-four millions of dollars, 
about eight millions of which were due to Holland and France. Con- 
gress solicited the States to raise revenues by duties, which the} T 
agreed accordingly to impose on some exports and imports, on condi- 
tion of reciprocity among themselves ; — three-fourths of the income 
to pass into the Federal treasury. The duties collected at Baltimore 
in the years between the peace and the adoption of the Constitution 
averaged, according to the best information accessible, about §200,000 
per annum ; and from this sum an estimate may be made of the com- 
merce of our port. The languor during these years was attributed 
to the general depression of a nation emerging from war ; to debt ; 
to the small tonnage of our vessels ; to adverse European policy ; 
and to the want of capital, — that great sinew and seconder of all en- 
terprise. Our shipping consisted principally of the smaller vessels, 
engaged in the West India trade, besides a few larger ones which 
were gradually constructing and beginning to partake in the carry- 
ing of produce to foreign markets. The staple productions of Mary- 



52 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

land were then tobacco, corn, wheat and flour, — the tobacco trade 
being principally conducted by foreign agents, mostly with European 
capital, and largely in foreign shipping. This trade has always 
been of great importance to our State and Baltimore, and largely 
availed of by foreign States for the imposition of taxes on their own 
people. Before -the Revolutionary war it was usual to ship tobacco 
for account of the planters, who received advances from the British 
agents at the " landings " on the Chesapeake, and who kept estab- 
lishments, throughout the province, in the small towns on the 
rivers, as well as at the Inspection houses, where they had stores for 
the supply of planters. As soon as the war was over, the English 
merchants, — supplied with capital and familiar with the business, — 
resolved, if possible, not to lose a traffic that had been so profit able ; 
and consecpiently they immediately attempted to resume the trade 
by extensive agencies at Annapolis, Upper Marlboro', Bladensburg, 
Elk Ridge Landing, and other convenient spots on the rivers, — 
Baltimore being still secondary in this commerce. Indeed, a great 
proportion of the Maryland staple which was consumed on the con- 
tinent, especially in Holland and Germany, — under the sway and 
influence of British capital, — had to find its way to the ultimate 
markets in Europe, by way of England. 

At this period, however, Baltimore began to be visited by many 
foreign ships, of other countries besides Great Britain. A large 
commercial establishment from Holland was formed and settled here 
in 1784, and made large purchases of tobacco for Dutch account and 
direct shipment. Other houses from Bremen and Hamburg followed 
the example about this period, and partook of the trade in a simi- 
lar way, still carrying principally in foreign vessels ; until, gradually, 
the Baltimore merchants themselves, with enlarged means, began to 
participate, for their own account, — building ships of considerable 
tonnage, to carry the staple abroad. Thus, by degrees the British 
became almost entirely excluded from the tobacco trade : — their 
various establishments, throughout the new State, declined very 
rapidly and Anally vanished; and thus, as they disappeared, the 
tobacco and grain trades became concentrated at Baltimore, with but 
a small share left for Georgetown. The tobacco trade may, accord- 
ingly, be said to have been the stimulus, if not the foundation, of 
Baltimore's commerce, which had thus found the means of inde- 
pendent development, and was soon augmented by intercourse with 
the back country, as well as by those increased agricultural settle- 
ments, which, springing up in the counties, began to pour their 
cereals into the growing mart, and to require, in exchange, the pro- 



OF BALTIMORE. 53 

ducts of Europe and the East, as well as the West Indies. Accord- 
ing to the Gazetteer of 1786, there were entered in Baltimore during; 
that year, 15 ships, 57 brigs, 160 sloops and schooners, as engaged in 
foreign commerce only. 

The mode of raising the taxes necessary for public expenses had 
been by poll, or by heads of families, and b} r laborers according 
to their number; but this being changed by the constitution, the 
property, in the town and county of Baltimore, was assessed at the 
sum of £1,703,622, or at the relative rate of values at that time, 
$1,542,992 ; so that the State tax was $17,036, and the levy of the 
county for the next year (1786) was seven shillings per hundred 
dollars, or $15,991 T 6 ° a . Mr. John O'Donnell arrived here from 
Canton, China, on the 9th of August, 17So, with a full Cargo of 
India goods, constituting the first direct importation into Baltimore, 
the value of which he realized in this town. Regular packets were 
established by Captain Joseph White and his associates, to ply be- 
tween Baltimore and Xorfolk ; Virginia beginning then to take large 
portions of her supplies from this place through Georgetown and 
Norfolk. Better accommodations were needed for the craft plying 
on the bay and river, and Harrison's wharf was extended on each 
side of South street by Daniel Bowly, one of Harrison's executors, 
from whom it obtained the name of " Bowly's wharf," which it 
bears to this day. Pile driving machines were introduced to in- 
crease and improve the water frontage ; and the private wharves, 
generally, were extended by such prudent merchants as Messrs. 
Purviance, McClure, the Ilollingsworths, and William Smith. 

There was at this time much agitation among our people on the 
subject of a Charter for the Town, including a Mayor's Court ; yet, 
as the scheme, as proposed, left the citizens but little share in their 
own government, and reposed it, after the fashion of old institutions, 
in the hands of a few, it was wisely opposed, and consequently not 
pressed by the originators. The German Calvinists erected the old 
church at the East end of the bridge, which after passing into the 
hands of the Episcopalians, was sold and taken down some twenty 
or thirty years ago, while portions of the congregation erected an- 
other church on Conway street, under the care of Mr. Otterbein, 
which was called the Evangelical Reformed. The church at the 
bridge was sold to the Episcopalians in 1795, and it was soon after, 
that the society erected the church in Second street, which for so 
long a time sounded the hours for us from its " Town Clock," and 
only yielded to the march of civil improvement a short time since 
on the opening of Holliday, south of Baltimore street. 
5 



54 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

The " floods" from which onr city has several times suffered, were 
known in its early history, and before it either rose to municipal 
honors, or had curbed the " Falls" with the walls and buildings 
which are now supposed to obstruct the free flow of the waters. On 
the 5th of October, 1786, there was a great "freshet;" "the tide," 
it was said, " being met by the current of the falls," and overflowing 
the Centre-Market Space and nearly all the made ground and 
wharves, carrying away all the bridges, destroying large quantities 
of property and merchandise, and drowning a citizen who at- 
tempted to ford the Falls below " Keller's dam," then existing near 
the present " Belvidere bridge." Market street bridge was rebuilt 
by Jacob Small, of wood, with a single arch of ninety feet span ; but 
on the 24th of July, 1788, a terrific storm of wind and rain again 
threatened these frail structures, and actually injured many of the 
wharves in the harbor by the sudden overflow of our streams. 

These recurring risks of inundation and loss seem to have caused 
one of those periodical spasms of prudence and good purposes which, 
on several occasions, have drawn the attention of our people to the 
troublesome water-course in our city's centre. Accordingly, they 
simply raised the level of the existing wharves, but did not touch the 
bridges until ten years afterwards ; nor was it until ten years more 
had elapsed, that stone bridges of two arches each were erected at Gay 
and Market streets, and soon afterwards, another, also of stone and 
of three arches, at Pratt street. Nevertheless, on the 9th of August, 
1817, another freshet swept off the wooden crossings at Bath and 
Water streets, drifting the debris against the bridges at Gay and Mar- 
ket and Pratt streets, and, of course, so damming the swollen stream 
that the stone structures were not only much injured, but the Centre 
Market and the lowlands of the "Meadow" and their vicinity, com- 
pletely submerged.* These scenes of destructive overflow have been 
repeated by the stormy rise of Jones's Falls in 1817, 1837, and again 
in 1868; until our authorities, alarmed by -losses, which, with each 
fresh deluge, increase from thousands to hundreds of thousands of 
dollars, have at last authorized the construction of an improved 
channel for the " Falls," which, it is hoped, will hereafter save the 

* The 7th, 8th, and 9th of August, 1817, were remarkable for the unusual fall of 
rain, ami consequent inundations, which extended on the Atlantic slopes <>t' Penn- 
sylvania, Maryland and Virginia. On the 8th at midnight the principal rain storm 
commenced, and continued with little intermission till about noon, falling some- 
times in incredible torrents. The lower parts of the city were inundated nearly up 
to the second floors. Six and four-tenths inches of rain fell, as marked by the rain 
gauge. The inundation of 1808 flooded the market-house at the Institute to the 
height of about eight feet from the lied of the street. 



OF BALTIMORE. 55 

city from floods, and restore the value of the " swamp" district, so 
distinctly marked on the old town map of 1756. Though some- 
what out of chronological order, we have thought it fitting to group 
these five deluges of Baltimore in 1786, 1788, 1817, 1837, and 1868, 
for the convenience of those who are curious in the history of our 
city's sufferings from the vile sewer that cuts the town in two, 
discharging filth and sediment into the harbor, impairing the 
channels of our bay and river, and causing vast expense from the 
incessant digging out by machinery of what the worthless Falls 
as incessantly pours in.* 

But, to return to our commercial history and to the regular train 
of our narrative. 

Notwithstanding her failing grasp on her ancient colonies, Great 
Britain did not relax the harshness of her navigation laws or en- 
deavor to recover by policy what she had lost by force. The British 
regulations for the fisheries on the banks of Newfoundland, and the 
closing of many West Indian ports, began to be felt severely by our 
people, so that societies were formed here, and in all the northern 
seaports, to consider the condition of affairs ; some urging non-im- 
portation of British goods, others seeking the creation of a paper 
currency, others desiring to promote and protect domestic manu- 
factures, while all, though in different degrees, appear to have ad- 
mitted the necessity of strengthening the Federal unity and power 
of the frail, war-born Confederacy. A committee of correspondence 
was formed in Baltimore, consisting of Adam Fonerden, John Gray, 
and David Stodder, to devise means, by interchange of opinion and 
action with other States, for the promotion of American industry. 
It was acknowledged at once, that true independence was not 
secured until we became able to satisfy our national needs within 
the bounds of our own country, and by the recompensed labor of 
our own people ; while it was generally believed that our affluent 
laud contained all the elements of perfect success, requiring only 
time and an increased population to develop them. 

2s o Companies had yet been chartered for insuring marine risks, but 
certain men of business prepared policies of that class which were 
subscribed to a large amount by merchants and others of responsible 

* It should be recorded in a foot-note, that it was not until 1789 (a year after one 
of the freshets) that a new channel was cut for the Falls from Bath to Gay street, thus 
destroying the horseshoe bend of the stream already described. It is to be regretted 
that the straightening process was not more effectually done by competent engineers, 
at that early day when the borders of the Falls were still vacant, or comparatively 
worthless. 



56 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

means. In 1787, the Baltimore Fire Company was incorporated, 
and followed by the Maryland, Equitable, and other companies ; 
while the turnpikes to Washington, Frederick and Eeisterstown 
were authorized, though not constructed for some time after. Balti- 
more (then Market) street was also extended beyond Col. Howard's 
addition on the west, and an unsuccessful attempt made to introduce 
water into the town by pipes. All these facts, dull as they seem at 
this distant day, display the interest with which our people were 
beginning to regard their town as a substantial mart. The main 
things still wanting, as in all new states and nations, just emanci- 
pated, were population and capital, as well as perfect independence 
and security from the mother country, which undoubtedly had her 
eyes yet fixed on America with a longing for the recovery of her 
trade, if not of her absolute dominion. 

The amount of the tobacco crop of Maryland has always been 
fluctuating. Before the Revolutionary War it rose to 20,000 hogs- 
heads yearly ; at the end of the war it did not exceed ten thousand ; 
since which it ascended, in 1860, to 51,000, and descended again in 
1868, to 27,064, rising, in 1869, to 27,782; the recent Ml and fluctu- 
ation being, of course, attributable to the conditions of labor in 
Maryland, under the disorders and results of civil war. In this 
early period of our trade, the Colonial Systems of the European 
powers were, of course, rigorously enforced, in all their possessions 
in the West Indies and elsewhere. Of course our careful merchants 
were obliged not to stimulate domestic production, for fear of running 
the agriculturists into excess, and consequent disappointment and 
debt. Accordingly, foreign trade became prudent, and the returns 
of Colonial produce scarcely sufficed for the consumption of the 
country ; generally selling at extremely high rates ; and a carrying 
trade — except in the staples — was, of course, out of the question. 
The export of flour from Baltimore was confined to the West Indies, 
where it was a prime necessity, and carried chiefly in American 
shipping of the smaller class. Wheat went in large quantities to 
Spain and Portugal, and, in one or two instances, while the ports 
were open, to Great Britain. Much of the European trade was con- 
ducted in foreign vessels; and Indian corn seems to have been 
extensively exported from Baltimore to Portugal in this way, as well 
as coastwise, to the Southern and Eastern States in our own craft. 
The importation of European manufactures was limited to the con- 
sumption of Maryland and the interior of the neighboring states; 
and, although the general and disastrous "credit system" did not 
yet exist, yet credits were in reality, already given as inducements 



OF BALTIMORE. 57 

to the country dealers, from whom collections were finally made 
with difficulty, and often with large losses to European merchants, 
who wore over-zealous in pushing their business. Even before the 
Revolutionary War, the agents of these Eng ish houses had estab- 
lished their connections in Fredericktown and the western parts of 
Maryland, and drove a thrifty trade with the rough hunter-pioneers 
of the country, bordering on the headwaters of the Potomac, the 
Alleghanies, and the Ohio river. 

When the Federal Constitution was adopted and ratified in 1788, 
and we became in truth a nation, with well denned national powers 
fitting us to regulate trade and to maintain a common defence; and 
when the country's debt was funded ; public and private confidence 
were increased, and the springs of commercial enterprise were again 
set in motion. The certificates of public debt, had, to that time, 
been selling at a fifth of their nominal value, but becoming at once 
worth par, and soon rising even beyond it, a large, active capital 
was forthwith created. This capital was naturally attracted to Bal- 
timore, as evidently the true business centre of the Chesapeake and 
Potomac regions. Many vessels of large size were built here ; though 
most of the larger shipping was constructed on the Eastern Shore of 
our Bay and on West river, on account of the greater quantity and 
better quality of the requisite materials. A simultaneous deficiency 
in the grain crops of Europe, caused a demand for Maryland wheat 
and flour, and made commerce therein extremely active; chiefly, 
however, in foreign bottoms, but of course bringing here a vast 
number of foreign ships.* It must be noted, too, that this was the 
epoch of the first two voyages from Baltimore directly, around the Cape 
of Good Hope to the Isle of France ; and that hanking first crept into 
Baltimore with the incorporation in 1790, of the Bank of Maryland, 
with a capital of 8300,000 ; — an institution that long survived and 
flourished, but expired in a mob, caused by excitement of its de- 
frauded creditors, in 1835. A branch of the Bank of the United 
States, in Baltimore, followed in 1792, and the Bank of Baltimore, 

* Laws being passed by Congress to carry the Federal Constitution into effect, 
General Otho Holland Williams was appointed the first Collector of this Port, 
with Robert Purviance as Naval Officer, and Colonel Rol ert Ballard, Surveyor ; and 
in 1789, a Society for the Promotion of the " Abolition of Slavery and the relief of 
Free Negroes," was organized, with Philip Rogers, President, and Joseph Town- 
send, Secretary ; but meeting with opposition in 1792, it was discontinued, and the 
building they had erected on Sharp street for an African school was transferred to 
the colored people for their church, and by them improved by additions. Another 
project, called the Protection Society, in 1817, under the auspices of Elisha Tyson, 
was more successful in serving the African race, though not in abolishing slavery. 



58 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

in 1795 : but the mercantile increase of the town may be best judged 
from the list of its shipping, which, in 1790, comprised 27 ships, 
31 brigs, 1 scow, 34 schooners, and 9 sloops, carrying in all 13,564 
tons; while, according to the first census taken by the United States 
Government, the population amounted to 6,422 white males, 5,503 
white females, 323 other free persons, 1,255 slaves; iu all. 13,503 
individuals.* 

The year 1793 was the epoch of the French Revolution, which 
was soon followed by the outbreak in the Island of San Domingo, 
which caused the foreign emigration to Baltimore already men- 
tioned, and the influx of wealth and industry, directed into new 
channels of enterprise. A large proportion of this population, with 
their property, remained for many years in our town, while many of 
the cargoes brought by the French ships were sold here, though 
others were transhipped in American vessels. This, at once, created 
a considerable "carrying trade" which was subsequently maintained 
\yy U g 5 — almost all of the Colonies of the belligerent European powers 
being thrown open to us, except the Spanish and British. The 
Islands required assorted cargoes, of which our staples formed an 
important share ; so that being entirely cut off from the parent 
countries, they became dependent on the United States for European 
and East India manufactures. This trade we were eager to seize. 
Baltimore, from its southern situation, and swift sailers, — besides 
possessing the commodities most in demand, — speedily became the 
emporium of this colonial trade. The importations from Europe 
were vast ; agencies and houses from all parts of the British Islands 
and the Continent settled in our town ; the tobacco, and flour and 
co'rn trades flourished ; the importation of German linens became 
an important branch of commerce for account of the manufacturers 
or merchants in Hamburg and Bremen ; and ship building grew in 
proportion to the carrying trade, which now began to be largely 
supported by American capital and credit. Freights rose to £4.10 
sterling, per hogshead of tobacco, while, before 1793, they had been 
but £2. Seamen's wages were $30 per month, and all mechanical 
labor increased in price proportionally, rendering the industrious 

* Since 1783, many of the gentlemen who afterwards hecame prominent merchants 
of Baltimore had settled there permanently, and among them we may mention Hugh 
Thompson, Edward Ireland, William Lorman, Thomas Tenant, John Holmes, 
Joseph Thornburgh, Robert Miller, John Donnell, Lnke Tiernan, Solomon Birk- 
head, Solomon Belts, James II. MeCnlloh, Stewart Brown, Leon Changenr, Henry 
Didier, A. McDonald, J. P. Pleasants, Barclay & McKean, James Corrie and 
James Armstrong. 



OF BALTIMORE. 59 

part of our workmen extremely prosperous. This new blood of 
active wealth penetrated every branch of trade. Real estate, which 
previously was of little value, became productive, — representing 
capital, — and affording the basis of credit which, of course, was 
turned to advantage in commerce. While Baltimore engrossed the 
"West Indian Colonial trade, — New England took advantage of the 
coasting trade and of that which went to the north of Europe, 
supplying the market in return, with the commodities of the Baltic, 
such as hemp, canvas, iron and tallow. The traffic of the New 
Englanders was not considered profitable to Baltimore; for though 
it took off our produce and thus helped our market, it caused an 
injurious drain of specie towards the Eastern States for the benefit 
of the East India trade of their merchants. But, Baltimore could 
spare the competition in this respect, as it had not sufficient capital 
for such long ventures, though it had the enterprise to embrace both 
trades. The town increased in people and prosperity. In time, new 
money facilities increased ; healthy capital came with healthy trade ; 
insurance offices were incorporated; and, while European imports 
were sold privately, West Indian produce was commonly disposed 
of in large quantities, if not in entire cargoes, at the great auction 
sales which, became celebrated throughout the states as a "specialty" 
of Baltimore. Nor, should we forget in this enumeration of the 
material progress of Baltimore, that our merchants and intellectual 
men did not neglect their minds, nor the minds of their children, in 
this prosperous period; for it was in 1795, that they established the 
old Library Company, and under the influence of Bishop Carroll and 
Rev. Dr. Bend, made that splendid collection of the best works of 
the day and age, which, within a few years past, was merged, and is 
stiil preserved, in the collections of the Maryland Historical Society. 
It was time for the town, thus grown flourishing, and cultivated, 
— the centre of a polished society, unsurpassed by its rival, An- 
napolis, — to assert its dignity, and to discard its village cognomen. 
Accordingly, in 1796, on the last day of the year, Baltimore was, by 
the General Assembly, declared of age, and became a City, after an 
adolescence and minority of sixty-seven years from the date of its 
birth on the " sixty acre lot" we long ago described. It had earned 
its manly emancipation by hard work, under provincial bondage and 
revolutionary war, followed up by prompt perception and use of ad- 
vantages, the founders had secured in selecting its birthplace. In 
the six years from 1790, the town had "waxed, but never waned." 
In this year, Judge Jones, who resided at North Point, on the Pa- 
tapsco, counted, in passing to Baltimore, no less than 109 ships, 162 



60 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

brigs, 350 sloops and schooners, and 5,464 of the " bay craft," or 
small coasters, so well known in the traffic between the eastern 
and western shores of the Chesapeake. The shad, herring, oyster 
and other fisheries had grown to consequence, as ma}^ be judged 
from the large number of these smaller vessels. And, according to 
the published reports, the value of merchandise entered at our Cus- 
tom-house for exportation from 1st October, 1790, to 1st October, 
1791, was $1,690,930; same period in 1792, $1,78l,861; in 1793, 
$2,092,660; in 1794, $3,456,421; in 1795, $4,421,924; making, in 
all, $13,444,796 ; while the exports from the whole State of Maryland 
for the same time were $20,026,126 ; showing that our City already 
exported two-thirds of the whole amount sent forward by the State. 
The tonnage of the State, reported soon after the adoption of the 
constitution, was 36,305 tons of registered and 7,976 tons of licensed 
and of enrolled vessels ; but, in 1795, the former was 48,007 tons, and 
the latter, 24,470 tons ; of which the proportion of the District of 
Columbia north of the Potomac was about one-seventh. So that, in 
five years only, the proportion of smaller vessels which, at the first 
period, had been less than one-fourth of the larger kind, had become 
equal to one-half of the increased tonnage, and afforded a conspicu- 
ous evidence of the great and growing importance of the Chesapeake 
Bay and its fringe of opulent tributaries. 

In these years many efforts had been made to add institutions, 
societies and churches, some of which were successful while others 
miscarried. The p. oject for an Exchange failed, but the wharves 
of Judge Chase, of Mr. Thomas Yates, of Cumberland Dugan, and 
Thomas McElderry, were successful ; as was, also, the establishment 
of several Lodges of Free Masons, and of a company of mounted 
Volunteers, under Captains Plucket and Moore, and Samuel Hollings- 
worth ; of Artillery, under Captain Stodder, and of Riflemen, under 
Captain Allen. In 1794, the site of a Hospital for the accommoda- 
tion of strangers and seamen had been selected, and an Asylum for 
these purposes was, alter some time, erected. The yellow fever raged 
here in that year, and in 1797 and 1799; recurring again in 1800, 
1819, and 1820. The earlier epidemics were the most fatal, 
depriving the city of many valued citizens, and causing all who 
could escape from the town to fly to the adjoining country, which 
was exempt from the malady. There the more opulent of our 
merchants and professional men selected sites for villas on the sur- 
rounding hills, and erected many of the country residences which, in 
the march of the city northward and westward, are becoming gradu- 
ally absorbed within our "limits of direct taxation." It should be 



OF BALTIMORE. 61 

mentioned, too, it was at this period that the old fort, erected in 
preparation for the Revolutionary War on Whetstone Point, was 
repaired, and the "Star Fort"' of brick erected, the ground being 
roiled to the United States, and the work called Fort McHenry, in 
honor of our Maryland Colonel, the Secretary of War. The demand 
abroad for our Hour stimulated the " milling interests" of our city, 
and the abundant water-power on Jones's Falls was taken advantage 
of by the erection of a new mill within a mile of navigation, while 
Gwynn's Falls was also improved by a mill-race, with sufficient fall, 
in succession, for at least three mills, within three miles of the city's 
wharves. In consequence of these enterprises of the Penningtons, 
Ellicotts, Taggerts, Tysons, and Hollingsworths, the manufacture of 
flour was greatly increased, so that but little wheat, in bulk, was 
subsequently exported from our city. Messrs. Gartz and Leypold, 
some ten years before this, had erected a sugar refinery in Peace 
alley, on the east side of Hanover street, between Conway and 
Camden streets; while Mr. John Frederick Amelung came from 
Germany with a number of experienced glass manufacturers, and 
erected an extensive factory on the Monocacy, in Frederick county, 
whence, towards the close of the century, the works were removed, 
enlarged, and re-established on the south side of the Basin, at the 
foot of Federal Hill, under the auspices of Mr, John F. Friese, and, 
in later days, of the Bakers. In 1798, the property of the city, 
subject to taxation, was valued at £699,519, 9 shillings and 2 pence ; 
and the revenue of the city from all sources, was $32,865. 

Nor were spiritual matters neglected. The Presbyterians and the 
Baptists had erected new, or improved their first Churches. The 
Methodists, as early as 1784, procured from John Wesley, in Eng- 
land, the appointment of a " Superintendent," in the person of Dr. 
Thomas Coke; and, on Christmas day, the first great "conference" 
of that Society was held in Baltimore. Dr. Coke, assisted by other 
preachers who came with him, constituted a new Church; and, on 
the presentation of sixty preachers, conferred equal powers with his 
own on the Rev. Francis Asbury. During the following year the 
Society sold the original Church in Lovely lane, and built the one 
in Light street, which has just yielded place for a new highway in 
modern Baltimore, on the opening and continuation of German 
street, eastwardly, from Charles to South. 

The Reverend Dr. John Carroll of the Roman Catholic Church, 
who, in the early part of the Revolution had, with Benjamin Frank- 
lin, Samuel Chase, and his nephew Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 
been employed by the Congress in a political mission to Canada, 



62 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

was consecrated Bishop in England, and returned to America in 
1790, to reside in Baltimore. The original Catholic Chapel on Sara- 
toga street, has been already mentioned. In 1796, a small ecclesias- 
tical edifice was built on Fell's Point, and, eleven years afterwards, 
succeeded by St. Patrick's, on the present Broadway. Other Roman 
Catholic Churches were erected as the demands of the increasing 
population, of that creed, required ; and, among them, we may 
especially single out for its remarkable beauty, grace and symmetry, 
the Chapel of St. Mary, erected by Maximilian Godefroy, for the 
Society of St. Sulpice which had established a College for lay 
students, and a Seminary for theological studies, on the extensive 
grounds still owned and occupied by it, between Paca street and 
Pennsylvania avenue. It was not until 1806, that the foundations 
of the great Metropolitan Church, or Cathedral, were laid according 
to the designs of Mr. Benjamin H. B. Latrobe ; the completion and 
consecration of which, however, in 1821, Dr. Carroll, who had 
become an Archbishop, did not live to witness. 

The European governments were not slow in perceiving the avidity 
with which " Young America " threw herself into commerce, and 
took advantage of the political quarrels and wars which ensued from 
the French revolution. They were surprised, perhaps, to see that 
a nation of farmers, planters and traders, could so quickly transform 
itself into an energetic community of sailors and merchants. They 
saw that our peaceful neutrality was rapidly strengthening us in 
wealth, material power, and all the elements of national solidity 
which would soon make the new a formidable rival of the old world, 
at least on the sea. "While they quarrelled, fought, failed to produce 
the necessaries of life, and destroyed each other's fleets and com- 
merce, we rested quietly as observers of the conflict, both producing 
and carrying for any belligerent who wished to buy and had the 
ability to pay for his purchases. Each nation, however, while it 
was willing to receive from us, was unwilling that his enemies 
should be furnished; and hence the weapons with which they 
assailed our commerce, by real and "paper" blockades as well as by 
" Decrees and Orders in Council." But these, instead of alarming 
or deterring our seamen and merchants, stimulated them to sock 
means for their evasion. They were brave, bold and willing to 
incur personal and pecuniary risks. Baltimore, however, was pecu- 
liarly successful by reasons of the fleetness of her craft. The great 
inland navigation of the Chesapeake and its affluents, had, at an 
early colonial period, excited the rivalry of the people dwelling on 



OF BALTIMORE. 63 

our waters in the construction of fast sailing vessels. The model 
of what was, at that clay, known as the " Virginia Pilot Boat," was 
unsurpassed elsewhere in America, and not even approached in 
Europe. The schooners and brigs built in this style, and larger 
vessels erected on the same principles, and commanded by expert 
and daring masters, soon became the sovereigns of the West Indian 
trade, and even of some of the European traffics ; so that, in the 
hands of intelligent merchants, they were the instruments of extra- 
ordinary enterprise and success. No one resource contributed so 
much to the rise of Baltimore as these " skimmers of the seas," and 
it is strange that their mould was for many years, unmatched out- 
side of the Chesapeake Bay. The secret of the Maryland builders 
was in the construction of schooner- rigged craft, which would "lay 
their course " within four or four and a-half points of an adverse 
wind, while they made comparatively little lee-way ; so that, when 
they got the " weather-gage," or " to windward " of pursuers, it 
was vain for vessels of any other construction or model to follow or 
chase them. 

Baltimore's commerce in such vessels continued with uninter- 
rupted success and profit from the outbreak of the European wars 
to the peace of 1801. The great trade of our city with San Domin- 
go, and the West Indies generally, furnished a surplus of colonial 
merchandise, which was not commonly carried from the Islands to 
Europe, but concentrated here, to furnish, with our staples, cargoes 
for the various markets of England and the Continent. This, of 
course, employed an increased amount of shipping; and Baltimore 
became the regular entrepot between Europe and the West Indies. 

Our town, at this epoch, began to participate in the East Indian 
trade. At the best period of the Batavian traffic, Baltimore came 
in for a considerable share. Several ships were engaged in the Ben- 
gal and Coromandel commerce ; but it was late when attention was 
pointedly directed to China. The commerce with Canton from 
Baltimore never flourished, as there was much difficulty in dispos- 
ing of the return cargoes; and, in this respect, the Northern States 
obtained, and long held the advantage over Baltimore, and will 
probably continue to hold it, until the direct importations of San 
Francisco, are poured into our city by the shortest line of railroad, 
about the fortieth degree of northern latitude ! But, if we had no 
quantities of Indian or Chinese merchandise, European manufac- 
tures were accumulated in vast amounts ; indeed Baltimore became 
the great American market for European goods : a single house 
paying $300,000 import duties, in one year, on German linens alone. 



64 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

Unfortunately, however, this successful carrying trade, tempted our 
merchants to permit a system of long or liberal credits on sales of 
merchandise, creating a large, and sometimes fictitious paper capital, 
which was again employed in fresh enterprises. Still, every thing 
seemed adding to the wealth of the city, though it is not to be denied 
that some wild speculations and consequent losses occasionally embar- 
rassed the prosperous march of our merchants. According to the 
first census, taken by the General Government, in 1790, the popula- 
tion of Baltimore town, of all descriptions, was 13,503; while the 
census of 1800, showed it to be 31,5 14 ; being an increase of 18,011 ; 
in ten years, demonstrating that the city had actually doubled its 
numbers in seven years and a half of this decade! 

Yet it is not to be supposed that all these results were always 
serenely accomplished. The vessels of our merchants, swift as they 
were, still were not omnipotent ; so that the " decree" and " orders 
in council," were not simply political vexations that could be evaded 
or avoided, but occasional^ became harmful by the captures and 
depredations the} T sanctioned, whenever the foreign cruisers caught 
a tardy sailer. Many merchants became their own insurers, when 
they owned a craft of unquestionable swiftness ; but others thought 
it better to pay the high premiums demanded for war risks, though 
they did not like these significant sums to go out of Baltimore to the 
underwriters of Xew York and Philadelphia. Accordingly, Insur- 
ance Companies were established here; and, notwithstanding the 
large depredations on our trade, these domestic institutions paid 
enormous dividends to the stockholders.* The tempting risks of 
insurance, with exorbitant premiums in w T ar time, were but types 
of the temper, into which the successful trade we have described, 
betrayed many of our people. Enterprise, at times, degenerated into 
adventure. The unequalled success of some encouraged others to 
engage in commerce without knowledge of its principles or practical 
details. This created unwise competitions for certain articles, always 
enhancing the prices and generally ending in losses, if not in the ruin 
of the wilder speculators. Still, this gambling in merchandise, while 
it unsettled markets, often amounted to nothing more than a change 
of its ownership, — the loss being simply that of the fictitious values 
given to merchandise by reckless adventurers. ITence, the commu- 
nity, at large, were gainers, especially when the object of competition 
happened to be a staple product of the country ; for, in that case, the 

* Baltimore Ins. Co., Maryland Ins. Co., established 1795 ; Chesapeake, Union 
and Marine Companies in 1804 ; Patapsco ami Universal Companies in 1813. 



OF BALTIMORE. G5 

farmer or planter, was generally sure to realize for himself the 
imaginary value affixed by the speculator. Very often, too, the 
adventurous losers happened to be foreigners, with whom there was 
but little sympathy : — a signal instance of which happened in the 
article of tobacco about the year 1798, when the exorbitant, specu- 
lation prices of this staple, caused such losses, introduced so many 
vile practices in the trade, and so unsettled the values' of inferior 
qualities, that its cultivation was for a time abandoned, in favor of 
wheat. Xevertheless, with these few blemishes on its prosperity, the 
period from 1793 to the end of that century, has been characterized 
to us by an experienced merchant of the olden time, as the " zenith 
of Baltimore's prosperity ;" for, although much of the increase of 
population, improvement, wealth, and general prosperity, became 
apparent in after years, yet they were all the results of the substan- 
tial benefits of those seven or eight years of opportunities wisely 
seized by intelligent enterprise. 

Xor was it seafaring success and European trade alone that made 
Baltimore populous and rich ; — these gave it a monopoly of the 
American grain and tobacco trade, but its capacity to sell and deliver 
by land, as well as its capacity to produce and carry by sea, made 
it the most accessible mart of foreign merchandise and produced 
its opulence. Hence the extension of settlements in the " \Vestern 
Country,"— as the borders of the Ohio, and the intermediate region 
were then called, — caused a great influence on our prosperity, and soon 
began to demonstrate (as water demonstrates its natural channels 
in descending) that Baltimore was, and, in fact, still is the original 
and natural terminus of our internal trade, indicated by the physical 
geography of the country. Baltimore had alreadj^ drawn to herself 
not only the greater part of "Western commerce, but also of the 
adjacent states ; insomuch that the secondary ports on the Chesa- 
peake and its affluents, declined and finally became tributary to our 
city. 

The navigation of the Mississippi was still unopened, and steamers, 
as yet, were undreamed of. Baltimore approached, nearer than any 
other seaport, to the Western navigable waters ; while all the great 
roads, from the richest countries of the interior, penetrating Mary- 
land, Virginia, the Carolinas, and Pennsylvania, concentrated natu- 
rally at this point as the nearest outlet. Thus our metropolis, 
young as she was, having commerce with all the world, was able to 
supply every demand on the most favorable terms, and this demand 
became regular, various and extensive. 

The growth of trade required the addition of banking capital, and 



66 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

accordingly new banks were incorporated. One of the principal 
modes of disposing of the large cargoes of foreign produce — 
European as well as Colonial — was, at that early time, necessarily, 
by auction ; for Baltimore, of course, could not consume its imports, 
and was from its vast accumulations of merchandise, owing to its 
carrying trade and facile position in the country, really the great 
continental wharf of the new Confederacy. The auction houses 
were limited to three only, operating on a large scale in disposing 
of cargoes. Most of the Colonial produce, either for consumption 
or exportation, was thus sold, and so even the East Indian and 
Chinese cargoes, as well as the assorted importations from France 
and the Mediterranean, especially wine, brandy and gin ; while 
British manufactures were seldom disposed of except by private sale. 
Thus, the Treaty of Amiens, in 1801, found our citizens exten- 
sively and profitable occupied with commerce all over the world, 
and it was, luckily, the short duration of the peace that prevented 
many of those bad results, which commonly befal enterprises begun 
in war, and winding up after an abrupt cessation of hostilities. 
The colonial system was, at once, rigorously enforced by the 
European states, so that our vessels were nearly shut out from the 
West Indian Islands. Accordingly, our redundant shipping remained 
unemployed, our seamen idle, and business grew languid in compari- 
son with the preceding era of adventurous prosperity. Fortunately, 
during this short truce of arms, a partial failure of the grain crops 
occurred in Europe, so that an opening of the British ports introduced 
considerable activity into this branch of commerce, and relieved our 
prolific State. But the recommencement of warfare in 1803, again, 
for a short period, cleared the field for mercantile enterprise, which 
was rewarded by success nearly equal to the prosperity of the first 
epoch. Our trade, however, was, perhaps, not as extensive and 
prompt as it would have been, had not much capital been withdrawn 
from active commerce, in the two years' interval of peace, while, 
much also had been lost or was locked up by failures. Vexed and 
depredated on as our merchants had been, between 1788 and 1800, 
the resumption of hostilities was a signal for fresh molestations by 
the belligerents. Neutral commerce — which might then have been 
considered exclusively American commerce — was excluded by all 
the military, naval and diplomatic machinery, that could be devised 
to intimidate our enterprise, and thwart our adventurous traders. 
Blockades and Orders in Council by England, were retaliated on by 
a variety of prohibitory decrees by France —the scheme growing 
into what was termed the "■Continental System," and almost shut- 



OF BALTIMORE. 67 

ting us out from all adventures, that were not conducted under 
every kind of hazard and disadvantage. Yet, during this time, 
and with but short interruption since the revolution in San 
Domingo, a close, active and extensive intercouse with that island, 
was carried on from Baltimore, notwithstanding the risks and 
prohibitions. Our swift vessels, were again our best friends; and 
the merchandise the}' carried, to and fro, was lucrative on account 
of the very risks which attended its transportation.* About this 
time, especially, the trade was conducted extensively, in armed 
vessels ; and a great portion of San Domingo produce — then princi- 
pally coffee, was concentrated at Baltimore, where it would have 
become a vast resource for the carrying craft of the country, had it 
not been for the belligerent vigilance, which naturally became more 
and more severe with the continuance of the wars. Nevertheless, 
under all these difficulties, Baltimore enterprise did not relax. Our 
merchants still had their swift schooners, and their daring captains 
who often and successfully eluded all impediments, until the vexa- 
tions became insupportable, producing the Embargo Act of 1808, 
as a retaliatory measure f This act suspended all our commerce for 
nearly eighteen months ; but it had the salutary effect of enabling 
our merchants to collect their widely scattered property from distant 
parts of the world ; so that when the embargo was removed, the 
state of the continent of Europe left hardly a single port open for 
our trade, which, it ma}' be supposed, was resumed not only with 
embarrassment, but with more caution than before. All the coasts 
of Europe, from the Elbe to the Turkish frontier, with the exception 
of the Spanish Peninsula, were effectually blockaded ; so that we 

* The Exports fiom Maryland— nearly all from Baltimore — from October, 
1805, to October, 1806, were : 

Domestic produce, $3,001,131 

Foreign produce, 10,919,774 

Total, $14,580,905 

The receipts into the U. S. Treasury, from this port for 1800, were $1,224,897 
" " " " " 1807, " 1,440,527 

\ Early in 1807, a company was organized in Baltimore, to procure regular 
supplies of Calcutta and Chinese merchandise, in demand among us, and for which 
we had hitherto been indebted to New England merchants. Robert Gihnor, Senior, 
was President, and James A. Buchanan, Vice President. The ships London Packet 
and William Bingham, were sent out and returned during the embargo. The 
company, it is said, realized a substantial dividend ; but was then dissolved. The 
receipts from customs at Baltimore, in 1807, was $1,440,527, and from postages 
$29,950. 

The assessed valuation of taxable property in Baltimore, in 1808, was $2,522,870. 



68 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

wore thoroughly excluded, except by special licenses, which then 
began to be granted, for " valuable considerations," by the French 
government. With these licenses, and our Clipper craft, Baltimore 
continued almost always to elude the British cruizers or blockades, 
and thus our commerce with the interdicted states of the old world 
became almost a monopoly. Both outward and homeward cargoes 
were extremely valuable ; the former consisting of Colonial produce 
aa well as flour, tobacco and cotton — which then bore high prices on 
the European Continent ; while the return cargoes of French fabrics, 
(then substituted for those of England, excluded by the non-inter- 
course of the United States,) produced much of the future 
substantial wealth of this community. 

Notwithstanding the hazard of these voyages, the nature of the 
risks and the modes of avoiding them were so well understood, that 
insurances were effected, either with the regular companies or with 
private persons, by which means a greater number of individuals 
became interested, and information was more generally diffused. 
The business of " underwriting" became lucrative and important, 
and obtained a great degree of reputation for those who pursued it 
properly. Premiums for these hazardous voyages were, of course, 
high — ranging from 25 to 35 per cent, for the single passage — which 
the enormous profits enabled the merchant to pay with entire con- 
venience.* 

The war on the Peninsula of Spain required large supplies of pro- 
visions, which, from the termination of the Embargo to the beo-innino; 
of our war with England, in 1811, afforded employment and relief for 
that part of our merchant marine that could not be safely engaged 
in the trade we have been describing. The flour and salted provi- 
sions — staples abundantly supplied by Baltimore in great perfection 
— gave our people an opportunity to furnish these necessaries of 
life : an opportunity and benefit which, by no means, pertained to 
the greater eastern marts of the United States. 

Such was our commercial condition until 1811 and even 1812; 
when the war which was declared against Great Britain did not, at 
first, much affect trade as it was then situated. The commerce with 

* The exports of Maryland, principally from Baltimore, of domestic and foreign 
produce, which, in 1S07, amounted to $14,308,984 fell, in 1808, to $2, 721,100, and 
rose again, in 1809, to $6,627,826. In March, 1800, Congress raised the embargo, 
and trade revived. The tonnage of that period (of Baltimore) was 102,4;)4, and of 
the whole State 148,892. In 1810, the population of Baltimore and precincts was 
46,555. White males, 19,01.1; white females, 17,147 ; other free persons, 5,671 ; 
slaves, 4,672. 



OF BALTIMORE. 69 

France became rather more active and general, while the British 
cruisers did not molest homeward bound ships on legal voyages ; nor 
did the British Government decline to grant special licenses for trade 
in provisions to the Peninsula. It was imperative on her to feed 
plentifully her soldiers in Spain. A large importation of British 
manufactures took place at this conjuncture, owing to some cessation 
of non-intercourse, which had been contingent on a revocation of 
certain British orders in council. This happened to be a seasonable 
supply, when the country was very destitute of that kind of mer- 
chandise, and yielded immense profits to all concerned. 

But, with the war declared and active, Baltimore, even in its first 
year, began already to feel the advantage she had in her fleet and 
superior vessels. The enemy's ships occupied only the entrance of 
the Chesapeake, so that our craft navigated the bay as unmolested 
as on the ocean. Numerous privateers were fitted out, and soon 
came back successful, making valuable prizes, carrying the greater 
part of them, unharmed, into ports of the United States. Compara- 
tively, indeed, it may be asserted, that commerce was rather relieved 
by the war from the restraints imposed on "neutrality." Every 
enterprise now became lawful, except direct intercourse with the 
enemy. But, if we could slip out to sea in our smaller craft, we 
were not allowed to navigate our larger vessels without greater risks 
than were justifiable. At the close of 1811, a blockade of the Dela- 
ware and Chesapeake was declared, and all the licensed ships return- 
ing from the Spanish Peninsula were turned off from the entrance of 
our bay to New York or some eastern port, so that, during the war, 
Baltimore was stripped of her larger vessels. As the conflict lasted, 
the enemy became more vigilant in its second and third years — 
getting entire possession of our Chesapeake — making it next to im- 
possible to get our small and swiftest vessels to sea, and absolutely 
impossible to re-enter the Capes and return to Baltimore. The 
British knew both our people and the capacity of their craft, and 
accordingly aimed to imprison the Baltimoreans within their own 
State, and reduced them to obedience by shutting them hermetically 
from the pursuit of a commerce for which they were so apt and 
greedy. Yet, the enemy mistook the character of our townsmen. 
The irresistible blockade was only a stimulus of our forefathers' in- 
vention. Enterprise was not abandoned. If they could not ply 
their trade from their own town directly, they resorted to more 
accessible ports, so that it may be now truthfully said of this period, 
that " the commerce of the United States became the commerce of 
Baltimore." Our people were, in fact, irrepressible in enterprise, 
6 



70 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

either in peace or war; a characteristic which, without boasting, may 
be attributed to them, (with few intermissions,) from the Indepen- 
dence to the present day. Mr. Niles, in his " Register," asserts that 
three-fourths of the commerce of the United States had been prose- 
cuted from Baltimore or from other parts of the country, on account 
of Baltimore merchants, in vessels of the Chesapeake construction. 

Events took place about this time which had a marked effect on 
the subsequent commercial interests of our City. The first Bank of 
the United States, established in 1791, had hitherto, with the banks 
in the chief cities, furnished a uniformly circulating medium, suffi- 
cient for all the legitimate purposes of commerce. But when the 
charter of the National Bank expired in 1811, and a renewal of it 
was refused, a great number of local banks were created throughout 
the United States. The enemy's early blows were struck at the 
heart of the country ; so that with the Chesapeake shut, and Bal- 
timore and the secondary ports in the neighborhood excluded from 
the sea, commerce retreated to Eastern and Southern cities which 
were still comparatively unmolested. So, it was soon perceived that 
the specie of the intermediate ports between the North and East 
would be drawn to places of greater activity, to the harm of the 
local banks whence it was drained, and, of course, to the detriment 
of the commerce of which it had been the basis. Recourse was 
consequently had to suspension of specie payments by the banks of 
the Middle and Southern sections of the Union. It was a measure 
dictated by necessity, and would certainly have been wise, if proper 
moderation had been practiced in the creation of fresh supplies of 
currency. It happened, at this time, too, that British exchange was 
cheap all over the mercantile world, and especially so in America, 
falling as low as twenty per cent, under par, and seldom being better 
than ten per cent, below it, This gave, naturally, a wide margin for 
fictitious values to the new currency issued by the greedy banks, 
which felt no longer the salutary restraint of specie equivalents. 

The wants of the general government tor war purposes constantly 
increased, and could only be supplied in this medium. The loans, 
if required, were taken up by individuals who were favored by the 
banks ; and thus the very exigencies of the nation, and the facility 
with which they were gratified, became the means of augmenting 
the illusory value of a currency which was poured into the mar- 
ket in such quantities that its redemption in coin could only be 
expected, if ever, at a very remote period. This inflation was 
aided by the exorbitant increase of prices of every species of foreign 
merchandise. Market values became double or threefold of what 



OF BALTIMORE. 71 

they had been before the war. But the banks made large dividends 
and large discounts; so that, as merchandise was constantly changing 
hands, the successful game in these "counters" was increased in 
amount in proportion as it increased in risk. Banks, of course, 
multiplied not only in the cities, but in the country ; and thus other 
property, besides ordinary merchandise, became swelled in value; 
and in turn, was assumed, with its inflation, as the basis of credits 
and discounts. Banks and the credit system seemed to have solved 
the long sought problem of the "philosopher's stone." Everybody 
wanted to be as wealthy as his neighbor. Loans were no longer 
limited to merchants, or credit to commercial men. Farmers, me- 
chanics, tradesmen, every one who could borrow on whatever he 
could pledge, rushed frantically into the arena where the rest were 
scrambling for riches; and when, at last, the "day of accounting" 
came, it is only surprising that even a wreck was left of what, in 
truth, was little more than ink and paper. The merchandise, 
which, with its exaggerated values, had, during suspension, been 
the basis of credit, was of course, mostly consumed, so that the real 
estate and its improvements were the chief relics of this period of 
delusion and enchantment. These, luckily, could not be destroyed, 
though they might change hands ; so that, with whatever still 
existed of substantial material wealth among the prudent who had 
not been deluded by the phantom of credit, and with augmented 
population and improved property, Baltimore still possessed her 
enterprise and zeal to enable her to escape from the crash at its 
crisis. This narrative of the first great calamity that assailed our 
commerce does not apply exclusively to the period of the war, or to 
our city, though Baltimore was a principal focus. It pervaded the 
whole county, for the whole country was equally affected by the 
destruction of the first Bank of the United States and the creation 
of the unregulated local banks. It was natural that such wild and 
visionary principles of finance and trade should end in a common 
distress, which was not permanently relieved, as we shall see, until 
several years after the peace with Great Britain. The only benefit, 
or good result from the banking of those days, is to be found in the 
facts that, the United States Government was largely indebted to 
it, as we have said, for the means of carrying on the war during the 
last two years of its duration, and that the Government's responsi- 
bility for its loans remained as a source of security and future credit 
for the people. 

The trade of our city, during the war, was modified and other- 
wise affected ; so that while we could no longer ship our staples of 



72 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

tobacco and flour, the Chesapeake being sealed against our larger 
vessels, an extensive intercourse by land,- — North, South and "West — 
by wagons, took the place, especially of the coasting trade, which 
had also been suspended. Besides this, the supply of the American 
armies required large transportation, and greatly increased consump- 
tion; and accordingly, there was no surplus of provisions left un- 
profitably on our hands. A modification had also gradually taken 
place in the two principal staples of Maryland, — flour and tobacco. 
The steadily increasing demands for the armies of Europe, had 
caused the price of wheat in America to rise proportionably ; nor, 
for several years before our war with Great Britain, did it fall 
below two dollars, and sometimes even more, per bushel. Tobacco, 
on the other hand, had never entirely recovered from the crisis of 
1798-1799, before mentioned, when its culture was so greatly dimin- 
ished for that of wheat. Nevertheless, the quantity of this staple, 
accumulated during our war, was large, so that the warehouses of 
Baltimore were full, and the prices low.* 

The reputation of Baltimore for unequalled prosperity and local 
advantages, attracted great attention in all parts of the Union as 
soon as peace was made in 1815, and commerce resumed its chan- 
nels. An influx of sanguine and enthusiastic immigrants imme- 
diately took place, and activity pervaded all classes, and every 
branch of industry. Founding the hopes of enterprise on former 
success, foreign commerce was resumed with avidity. Our ship- 
ping was collected from the ports of the United States, where it had 
been dispersed and sheltered during the war; while a large accession 
to our tonnage had been made by prize-ships captured from the 
British, as well as by purchase from Northern ports of the Union. 
The trade to China, Batavia, Bengal, and other parts of Asia was 
resumed extensively ; all the vast accumulations of produce in the 
country were exported to suitable markets, and an equally vast im- 
portation of European, and especially British, manufactures was of 
course made, in return. Still unrestricted in their issues, the banks 
granted almost unlimited facilities to the enterprising, thus creating 
"a system of accommodation by the interchange of paper responsi- 
bilities," the fatal tendency of which was never thought of as long 
as the banks themselves were not pressed. The experiences of disas- 

* Tlio assessrd value of property in Baltimore and its precincts in 1813, was 
$4,2K0,040 ; but that the City Assessors of those clays were lenient appraisers, is 
shown by the fact that the valuation of $3,32;>,848 worth of the same property, 
lying exclusively in the city, which was made, in pursuance of an act of Congress, 
at current rates, swelled the value to $31,270,20!) ! 



OF BALTIMORE. 73 

ter had not yet been sufficiently warning. The high price of pro- 
visions for the supply of the army during the war, and the creation 
of a great number of country banks, had heretofore enabled debtors 
to pay not only arrears which had been considered desperate, but to 
make fresh and extensive purchases, as well as to give them a new 
credit, which, of course, they used to its full extent. Real estate went 
beyond its former extravagant prices ; yet the increased population 
could hardly be accommodated ; so that extensive improvements in 
buildings were made while rents in the city became exorbitant. It 
was about this time that Baltimore was embellished with many 
public edifices; and especially (appropriate as the crown of its 
successful commerce) by the splendid Mercantile Exchange, which 
still exists, though, in our day, has been sold to the United States 
Government for a Post Office and Custom House. The new Court 
House, begun in 1805, had been already finished in 1809, when the 
old one, that encumbered the centre of Monument Square, was taken 
down. The Medical College, on Lombard street, a part of the Uni- 
versity of Maryland, was completed in 1812. In 1809 a public foun- 
tain was erected on North Calvert street, and, in this year, permission 
was given for the erection of " Washington's Monument," which was 
commenced, but not completed for many years after. In 1813, the 
first steamboat, called "The Chesapeake," was put on the line from 
Baltimore to Philadelphia, by way of Frenchtown, the passengers 
crossing thence in stages to ]S T ew Castle, on the Delaware. This was 
the enterprise of the late General William McDonald and his asso- 
ciates, who owned the old "Packets" to Frenchtown, on the Elk 
river, and who, at once, applied the invention on the Patapsco, which 
Fulton had proved, on the North river, to be successful. In 1813, 
the Masons laid the corner-stone of their old temple, lately abandoned 
for the new one on North Charles street. It was in 1811, that Heze- 
kiah Niles established here that wonderful repository of valuable 
information, which was, for more than forty years, continued by him, 
his heirs, and Mr. Jeremiah Hughes, in our city, under the name of 
" Niles's Register," and will forever remain a storehouse of facts for 
the historians and politico-economists of America. Social life had 
improved with all the vast resources of luxury and wealth. The 
young men of the city were liberally educated at excellent schools 
established by learned persons who came from abroad ; at St. Mary's 
College, established by Bishop DuBoing ; or in the universities of 
Northern States or of Virginia. Every leading merchant had his 
villa on the heights surrounding the city, as well as his dwelling in 
the city, which he occupied during the winter, and made renowned 



74 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

not only for its hospitality, but for the accomplishments of the 
beautiful women who presided over it. Indeed, everything bore 
the external aspect of great prosperity. 

In the meantime, Europe was convulsed by the short, final strug- 
gle for. the Empire in France. This did not last long enough to 
have any material influence on commerce, except to leave it languid. 
The European nations, at the first pacification, had already begun to 
become their own carriers ; so that when our shipping returned from 
those long or far distant voyages, undertaken directly after our war 
with England, we had no longer those exclusive vents for our 
Asiatic or Colonial cargoes which we once entirely commanded. 
Almost all of these enterprises, it is said, ended in loss. Men began 
to see that the peace of Europe, and our consequent deprivation of 
the exclusive carrying trade, and all its profits, would unveil a 
delusion as to the permanence of a prosperity that had bewildered 
every one. The wheel of fortune began to turn slower. The banks 
anticipated a quicker demand for the forgotten metals than was 
desirable. The circulating medium, or "currency," Buffered, in 
exchange, from sixteen to twenty per cent, discount between Boston 
and Baltimore. This loss extended in various degrees to the country 
banks in proportion as they lost credit ; traders in the interior, were 
constant losers by the decline of the currency around them, and 
consequently were unable to pay the wholesale dealers, from whom 
they had bought, except in the depreciated medium, which had 
diminished in value since the date of their purchases. This pro- 
duced great inconvenience; and the equalization of the currency 
throughout the land was, of course, the problem of the time. Gold 
and silver coin had nearly disappeared in the Middle States, or it 
was locked up by the few provident men who had foreseen disaster. 
There was no danger of drain of the precious metals on foreign 
account ; for the price was generally too high in proportion to 
European exchange, especially with England, whose bills remained 
nearly at par with our paper currency as long as specie payments' by 
the Bank of England was suspended. It would, accordingly, have 
been quite safe to suffer this paper medium to subsist, under proper 
modifications and provisions for its gradual reduction or redemption, 
as the national finances would permit. But, there were men who 
believed that the establishment of a new National Bank, was the 
panacea lor nil monetary maladies; and, accordingly, the Bank of 
the United States was re-established upon the principle that its 
paper, (which was to supply the whole country with an equalizing 
medium,) should be redeemable in gold and silver. How this was to 



OF BALTIMORE. 75 

be done, under the circumstances of the country, and especially of 
the Middle States or of Baltimore, without a ruinous subversion of 
credit and order, was a mystery to those of our merchants who 
reflected calmly, and perhaps disinterestedly, on the matter. Yet, 
on this principle, the new Bank of the United States went into 
operation, and several millions of dollars of specie were 'purchased 
abroad to stock its vaults with the metallic basis of credit. It 
became, of course, necessary for the State banks to prepare likewise 
for coin payments ; especially as orders from the United States 
Treasury to the Collectors, were abrupt and positive, forgetting 
entirely the relief which those very banks, by means of their paper 
currency alone, had been able to afford the Government in its utmost 
need during the war of 1812. Neither the banks nor commerce were 
prepared for so sudden a curtailment of discounts as this measure 
required, and devices to stay disaster, if not to overcome it, were 
invented in all quarters with more or less success, frequently with 
positive ruin. Institutions and individuals pressed each other ; 
there was a scramble for gold and silver ; and, for the most part, 
whatever of private credit remained, was employed in hazardous 
enterprises for the purpose of raising money for the moment. 

The facilities offered by the Bank of the United States for sub- 
scribing to its stock, and paying by instalments, in the very money of 
the bank itself, induced many men, who had influence in procuring 
facilities, to embark deeply in the venture, believing doubtless in its 
rapid rise in value.* In reality, and quite naturally, the stock 
advanced in price ; and the delusion of successful adventure, tempted 
the adventurers still deeper in the game. Bat the gold-phantom — 
borrowed from abroad — soon fled back from the American to its 
European vaults ! The borrowing Bank of the United States 
speedily began to feel the same malady that affected the community 
and other banks. It had to press its debtors ; the value of its stock 
became diminished ; things went back faster than forward ; the 
administration of the institution became unpopular ; no sympathy 
was felt for its embarrassments ; a harsh investigation probed its 
situation and prostrated its credit ; so that in a short time the stock 
fell from 125 to 90 per cent., which was an immediate loss to the 

* Subscriptions to the new Bank of the United States were opened for a capital of 
$28,000,000; $4,014,100 of which were subscribed here, in the name of 15,610 
persons, principals and proxies. A branch was opened in Baltimore in 1817 ; 
James A. Buchanan, President, and James W. McCulloh, Cashier ; upon which, the 
banks generally resumed the specie payments which had been stopped for several 
years. 



76 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

mass of stockholders of upwards of twelve millions. It sealed 
the fate of many who had made a desperate grasp in this wheel of 
fortune : and, with their fate, Baltimore was most sensibly linked 
and affected in 1818 and 1819. Many of our citizens had incau- 
tiously»adventured the principal part of their means in this vaunted, 
but ill-contrived, and ill-managed institution ; so that the city met 
a severe loss in the reverses of its people. They were prostrated by 
the blow ; and it is from this period that the falling off in the pros- 
perity of Baltimore may fairly be dated. There was, indeed, no real 
want of sound capital or just credit, but the foundations of confi- 
dence and faith between men — that essence of real commerce — 
seemed to have been totally destroyed. Taught severe lessons by 
excessive enterprise, which, by surprising success, had often degen- 
erated into over-trading if not speculation, men grew wary ; and 
they who escaped the storm were terrified and became timid. The 
exuberance of a commercial spirit that had, in twenty years, built 
up a metropolis with a rapidity unequalled in the annals of the 
whole world, was due, not only to the superior central situation of 
Baltimore, but to the fact that "among the inhabitants by whom 
the business of the city was transacted, scarcely one was a native. 
They had come together from various quarters of the world, from 
England, Scotland, Ireland, Germany , K Holland, New England, and 
the Middle and Southern States. Each emigrant had his personal 
motives ; but it was the spirit of enterprise that brought him here, 
and without it he would have staid at home." Baltimore, in the 
founding of the nation, was a national ^geographico-commercial 
and trading focus of concentration ; and it would be well for us and 
our friends everywhere to recur to these facts oftener than we 
do, when appalled, and in some degree paralyzed, by the efforts 
of rival cities or rival states. Enterprise and aggregation from 
abroad, uniting fresh blood and fresh spirit in the employment of 
capital, were the predominant characteristics of the men who 
thronged to Baltimore immediately after the Revolutionary War ; 
and who, uniting and inter-communicating their knowledge of the 
markets and commercial proceedings of the countries whence they 
emigrated, gave that wonderful and long-continued impulse to 
business, which was only injured by its unwise excess. This une- 
qualled prosperity, with the few drawbacks we have noticed, lasted 
until 1815.* From that time, the temper of our people and the 

*Tlic arrivals hero from sea in 1816 were 07 foreign and 436 American vessels ; the 
tonnage, registered and licensed, was 104,960 tons. In this year the Gas Company 
erected its works, and was the lust in the country to give a general city supply. 



OF BALTIMORE. 77 

former nature of their trade, were unsuited for the altered condition 
of Europe on the cessation of the wars that had deluged it with 
blood for twenty-five years. The conditions of foreign peace had not 
been anticipated: the future had not been guarded against; we had 
lived and believed too much in the present and actual alone ; so it 
was well said by a resident of those days, that "the very enterprise, 
which in other times wrought so much for public and private good, 
now opened a broad road to ruin and disaster." 

Nevertheless, during the period we have been describing, there 
were important fluctuations in the principal staple commodities of 
the United States, creating great commercial activity, and often em- 
ploying advantageously large amounts of capital and shipping. 

After the convulsions of Europe subsided, the manufactories of 
the Old World recmired a prompt and increased supply of our raw 
staples. Cotton was the first product of America that felt the 
influence of this fresh demand, so that shipments directly after the 
war yielded large profits, while the home prices rose, correspond- 
ingly, to a figure that had never been reached before. The price of 
" upland cottons of Louisiana" was from thirty-three to thirty-five 
cents per pound, and those of South Carolina (then not so much 
valued as the cottons of Louisiana) were nearly as high in the market. 
As this continued for two seasons, the greater part of two crops was 
sold at these extraordinary rates: but, at the close of 1817, the 
prices suddenly fell with the demand in Europe, so that as much, 
if not more, money than was gained, is said to have been lost by 
the speculators. Although this is not a staple of our State, still 
Ualtimoreans, whose vigor and capital had not been exhausted, par- 
took largely in the trade, and doubtless suffered in a corresponding 
degree. 

"While war lasted for so many years in Europe, the Continent had 
almost abandoned the use of Maryland tobacco, finding substitutes 
for the soothing weed so much cherished by the soldiers of later days. 
This, of course, reduced the cultivation; and a reduced cultivation, 
naturally contributed to a reduction of consumption. Accordingly, 
the first shipments of our formerly lucrative staple, found indifferent 
encouragement from foreign merchants. Nevertheless, the taste for 
the article had only been dormant. The appetite for it returned with 
the new temptation ; and when the factories and manufactures were 
re-established after peace, and labor began to be recompensed once 
more, the demand was at once restored. Competition soon became 
great ; and the European prices rising even higher than the prices of 
cotton had done, there was consecmently a simultaneous increase of 



78 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

rates on this side of the Atlantic, which were maintained, with occa- 
sional fluctuations, for several years. It certainly revived the culti- 
vation of tobacco in Maryland, so that yearly crops which, at the 
close of the war, hardly exceeded 10,000 hogsheads, rose progres- 
sively to 15,000, 16,000, 20,000, and 30,000. Baltimore became almost 
exclusively the market for this State ; large warehouses being, as we 
have seen, built for inspection, storage, and convenience of sale. The 
article seldom passed, at that time, directly from the planter to the 
exporter, but was commonly purchased by local speculators, who at- 
tended at the inspection houses ; and no commodity required more 
intimate knowledge of qualities, or a closer attention to the smaller 
peculiarities of its trade. It was not, therefore, surprising that it 
proved ruinous to adventurers who were neither perfect judges of 
the article, nor strictly attentive to every particular, so as to guard 
against imposition in a commodity which then varied from two 
dollars and a half to twenty dollars per hundred.* 

A failure of grain crops in England opened the British ports to 
our flour in 1817, 1818, and 1819 ; and kept the staple at what then 
were high prices, — eight to ten dollars, and sometimes upwards, — 
employing our larger tonnage in the transportation of the needed 
breadstuff's. As colonial restrictions at that time, excluded our 
shipping from the West Indies, and as countervailing laws prevented 
them from furnishing their colonies, in their own vessels, directly 
from the United States, a great part of the supply was forced to 
reach the colonies by way of England ; and thus the new as well as 
the old world demanded our fleet carriers for their necessaries of life. 

There is no doubt that such frequent and unexampled conjunc- 
tures in trade, commerce, war and opportunity, as we have been 
describing in the growth of Baltimore, and especially in the disposal 
of its staples, must have been of vast benefit to us and the country 
at large by the accession they brought to local and national wealth. 
Though money was lost, it was lost to individuals, not to the com- 
monwealth. Speculation changed ownership of capital, but did not 
destroy it. Hence it would be wrong to infer that the commercial 
community partook exclusively of the benefit. Indeed, the experi- 
enced merchants declared that almost all the benefits of commerce in 

* The gross revenue of the Government accruing here in 1815 from customs was 
$4,200,500, including *2S,l<i2 from tonnage. The tonnage of the District is stated 
to have heen 107, l;37. The Post-office revenue for the same period in Baltimore was 
$58,885. Postage received here by the United States Government, $51,410. The 
Maryland tobacco crop of 1818 was 32,2;34 hogsheads ; 13,377 of which wero 
shipped from this port, and from Georgetown 8,715 ; and some from other places. 



OF BALTIMORE. 79 

the staple productions enriched the agriculturist only, the share of 
the merchant being mainly and generally in the carrying of the 
articles to their ultimate markets ; in fact, that the merchant was 
but little more than the medium by which the cultivator realized, 
without personal hazard, the benefits of foreign markets, to whose 
risks and fluctuations the merchant was continually exposed. 

"We have alluded to the introduction of steamboats on the Pa- 
tapsco: their introduction on the Western rivers, also, about this 
epoch, gradually effected a change in the intercourse between the 
Western and Atlantic States. Baltimore, being the commercial 
mart, as we have shown, nearest by land to the then Western navi- 
gable waters, was the principal source of supply of most of the 
"Western and of all Southwestern States. To them we sent all the 
heavier kinds of merchandise, and all those colonial supplies known 
in trade under the generic name of "groceries." These branches of 
traffic opened others of lesser but still important value to our citi- 
zens. But, when steam became the motive power on the Ohio, the 
Mississippi, and their affluents, the people west of the Alleghanies 
be^an no longer to look for the slow " Conestosra wagons" that 
brought their commodities over the old " Braddock's road" or modern 
turnpikes to Pittsburgh ; or by the other well-known early routes 
southwestwardly through Virginia. Their intercourse, though cir- 
cuitous, was less toilsome and more continuous and cheaper by water 
than by land. New Orleans became the "El Dorado" of the West; 
and to that new city they directed their attention as their future 
great mart of exchange and supply. Baltimore, of course, felt this 
commercial change more sensibly than any of her neighbors. The 
opening of the navigation of the Mississippi was a heavy blow to her 
trade. Her customers not only diminished in numbers, but many of 
them tempted by a new market, became delinquent to the old. Nor 
was this change effected by the Western steamers alone. The facili- 
ties of traveling, as well as of transporting, had increased even more 
rapidly by their introduction on the Eastern rivers. Philadelphia 
and New York became accessible to the Western merchants without 
the old-fashioned delays and hazard of broken bones in the stage 
coaches, which had induced the men of 1805 and 1810 to make 
their wills before they ventured to cross the Susquehanna, Dela- 
ware, or Raritan, on Northern journeys. In fact, the Western 
trader had two or more new Eastern markets bidding for and tempt- 
ing him as a purchaser, and he discovered that he could get his mer- 
chandise transported by sea and river from New York, on cheaper 
terms than formerly, by land, from Baltimore. New York, also, 



80 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

generally offered a better market for such Southwestern produce 
as was not sold at New Orleans ; and thus, steam first began to 
outflank our city, both North and South, in its contest for that 
"Western continental commerce which its geographical position 
originally gave it, and to which its geographical position — and 
steam again — must ultimately bring it back. New York soon com- 
menced her canals, to compete with the Mississippi, by tapping 
the headwaters of the "Western rivers. It will be seen that, in a 
few years, warned by these enterprises, Baltimore lost confidence 
in turnpikes over mountains, (whether national roads or private 
speculations,) and commenced teaching the world how to make 
railways, by originating that great first link of the westward 
chain, which, lying between the Baltimore and the Ohio river, 
must finally bind our city and San Francisco. 

In the meanwhile, the revolutions in South America against the 
power of Spain, opened a commerce to foreign nations that had been 
altogether closed to them by Spanish policy. It opened a new as 
well as a rich, though somewhat perilous trade, which our citizens 
were not slow in availing themselves of. Whenever our vessels 
were not excluded from within the South American ports, they were 
sure to find their way through the external difficulties. The Rio 
de la Plata, the coasts of Venezuela and New Grenada, or what is 
commonly called the " Spanish Main," were the principal scenes of 
our activity. Provisions, mainly, constituted the cargoes until the 
emigation of the Portuguese Court to Brazil, when, under the 
influence of new habits of consumption, a fresh and great market 
was opened for our flour. The coasts of Chili and Peru were 
successively frequented by our trade in food as well as domestic 
and foreign fabrics ; and taught new tastes by the revelation of 
modern civilization through liberation from Spanish thraldom. 
All these countries have, at various times been, since then, tribu- 
taries to our trade and incentives to our enterprise. Our fleet 
schooners were some of the first to penetrate the western as well 
as the eastern empires of Spain, profiting by the accumulations of 
silver and gold which the people had managed to hoard. Our 
privatecrsmen even did not hesitate to employ their " clipper" 
craft, and to hold commissions under the insurgent governments ; 
nor did they fail in making rich captures in their cruises along 
the coasts. Among the provinces of old Spain, Mexico, alone, 
wanted few or none of our staples, but its people were rich, (in 
spite of the Spanish emigration with all its wealth,) and were 
eagerly tempted by the new-fashioned European productions and 



OF BALTIMORE. 81 

manufactures with which they were now first made acquainted. 
Our proximity enahled us to take immediate advantage of the 
Mexican revolution, under all the difficulties of dangerous navisra- 
tion, of want of safe and accessible harbors, and of the exactions 
at Vera Cruz by the Spanish forces commanding the fortress of 
San Juan d'Ulloa. Baltimore shared, perhaps equally with Phila- 
delphia, in the trade with Mexico, and enjoyed an ample, if not 
preponderating proportion of the commerce of the whole continent 
of South America. 

We considered it best to sketch continuously the history of Balti- 
more's chief commercial prosperity during the forty years following 
the first peace with England, comprising the periods of the great 
Napoleonic wars in Europe and of our second war with Great 
Britain. 

That war, it is well known, was not at first yielded to with 
universal assent by the people of the United States. It was opposed 
in different parts of the country, and from diverse motives, some 
of which were commercial and some political. A meeting of citi- 
zens of Baltimore belonging to the Democratic, party of that day, 
was called ; and on assembling in great numbers, a large committee 
offered the Government of the United States a pledge of support in 
case of war with England or France, or with both. On the 18th 
of June, 1812, the war against England was declared, and on the 
20th a vast collection of people, professing to be offended by the 
opposition to the war made by the " Federal " party and its news- 
paper organs, attacked and demolished the office, the presses, and 
the types of the " Federal Republican," at the northwest corner of 
Gay and Second streets. A week afterwards, one of the editors of 
that paper, Mr. A. C. Hanson and several friends, having printed 
their gazette in Georgetown, brought the issue to Baltimore and 
distributed it from the dwelling, in South Charles street, of Mr. 
Jacob Wagner, who was the other editor of the " Federal Republi- 
can." They were prepared and proposed to defend themselves and 
their house. In the evening an affray occurred ; but after killing 
one person and wounding others, among the assailants, one or two 
mortally, the house on South Charles street was surrendered by its 
defenders to the city authorities, while the editors and their friends 
to the number of twenty-two, were in the morning conducted, under 
a guard of militia and city officials, for safety, to the jail ; where, 
on the following night, the imprisoned gentlemen were again 
assailed by the mob, and torn from the violated prison. The refu- 



82 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

gees, generally, were beaten and wounded, while Genl. Lingan, of 
Georgetown, was killed, and Mr. Thompson tarred and feathered, 
carted to Fell's Point amid the jeers of the crowd, and otherwise 
treated with shocking cruelty. The mob seems to have had its 
sway, for many peaceful and influential citizens were either timid 
and shunned the scene of contention, or were absent in the country 
or at watering places. The rioters, by help of darkness and some 
artifice, eluded whatever efforts were made to restrain them, and 
supposing themselves masters of the city, proceeded to hunt out and 
expel all who were distasteful to them. But, at last, threatening to 
break open the post office, where the offensive paper had been sent 
for distribution by mail, they were finally dispersed, and tranquillity 
restored to the city, by the imposing force whose earlier employment 
would have saved so much outrage and slaughter. The times were 
turbulent and bitter, and the political animosities rankled deeply. 
Presentments were found by the Grand Jury against many indi- 
viduals of both parties, but all were acquitted and discharged, the 
Federal defenders of Wagner's house in Charles street, electing to 
be tried at Annapolis, doubtless distrusting the impartiality of their 
fellow-citizens of Baltimore. 

The sentiment here, however, was doubtless patriotic in the ma- 
jority of citizens ; and the continuance of the war, especially with 
the impediments it threw in the way of Baltimore's progress by the 
close blockade of the Chesapeake Bay, served ultimately to unite 
our people in that "era of good feeling" which we remember in our 
youth, to have prevailed politically throughout the country. Several 
citizens took commissions in the regular army. Among these were 
General William H. Winder, George E. Mitchell, Colonel Hindman, 
Stephen W. Presstman, Frank Belton, R. C. Nicholas, and that 
heroic Marylander, Nathan Towson, who died in the service long 
afterwards, and, as chief, made that organization of the Pay Depart- 
ment of our Army, which proved so efficient in the late war. 
Stephen H. Moore, long known among us, marched as Captain, at 
the head of a company of volunteers, to the Canadian frontier. 
Captains Barney, Boyle, Stafford, Leveley, Richardson, Wilson and 
Miller, fitted out privateers ; and in 1813, when Admiral Warren 
entered the Chesapeake with the British Squadron, it was no longer 
thought proper to await the preparations which might be made by 
the General Government, but that Baltimore itself should under- 
take its defence. Accordingly, a Committee of Supply, consisting 
of Messieurs Mosher, Luke Tiernan, Henry Pay son, John C. White, 
James A. Buchanan, Samuel Sterrett and Thorndick Chase was ap- 



OF BALTIMORE. 83 

pointed and authorized to spend twenty thousand dollars in guard- 
ing our city. This sum was soon found to be insufficient. A meeting 
of the citzens was therefore called in their wards and precincts, and 
forty gentlemen selected, who advised a loan not exceeding half a mil- 
lion of dollars, and an addition to the Committee of Supply of Colonel 
John Eager Howard, George Warner, John Kelso, Robert Gilmor, 
Christopher Deshon, William Patterson and Mr. Burke. Commo- 
dore Barney was appointed to command a flotilla, and was joined 
by Solomon Rutter, R. M. Hamilton, T. Dukehart, and others, who 
fitted out the little squadron of 13 barges and the schooner Scorpion, 
and about 500 men early the next spring, and proceeded down the 
bay to watch and harass the enemy. 

In April, 1813, General Pike took York, on Lake Ontario, but 
lost his life ; Lieutenant Xicholson also fell, and Captain Moore was 
desperately wounded by the explosion of the enemy's works. In 
June, a nigbt attack on Generals Winder and Chandler, at Stony 
Creek, in Canada, was successfully repulsed; yet both of our gene- 
rals were taken prisoners. In this action, Towson, Hindman 
and Xicholas distinguished themselves conspicuously and were pro- 
moted. 

In July, 1814, the battles of Chippewa and Bridgewater were 
fought, also in Canada ; and there again, Colonels Towson and Hind- 
man contributed essentially to the success of our arms, and, after- 
wards, defended the long besieged Fort Erie whilst possessed by us. 
General Winder being exchanged, was appointed Commanding Offi- 
cer of this district, and made preparation to defend his native State. 
That veteran of the Revolutionary War, General Samuel Smith, 
took the lead in organization and command. Towards the middle 
of August, it was ascertained that Admiral Cochran's fleet had 
entered the bay with the army commanded by General Ross, intend- 
ing doubtless to strike a blow at the National Capital and at Balti- 
more, and thus to hold the central parts of the Union. The landing of 
the British forces took place, and their march towards Washington 
began. The militia that had been ordered to hold itself ready, was 
directed to proceed in that direction. General Tobias Stansbury, with 
the 11th Brigade of County Militia, inarched towards the District of 
Columbia, including in his command the 5th Regiment of Baltimore 
Volunteers under Colonel Joseph Sterrett ; a Battalion of Riflemen 
under Major William Pinkney ; and two companies of Artillery, 
commanded by Captains Magruder and Myers. But our efforts were 
not successful. The American troops assembled at Bladensburg 
under General Winder, were overpowered by the British, who pro- 



84 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

ceeded at once to Washington, burnt the public buildings and prop- 
erty, and returned triumphant to their shipping in the Patuxent 
river. Our valiant little band, sadly battered and diminished, re- 
turned to Baltimore, in anticipation, of course, of an attack on the 
city. The corporation was aided by a Committee of Vigilance and 
Defence. Light entrenchments were hastily thrown up on the north- 
eastern side of the town on " Hampstead Hill ;" a redoubt or small 
additional fort was placed on the south ; several large vessels were 
sunk at the entrance of the harbor betwixt Fort McHenry and the 
Lazaretto ; the banks suspended specie payments ; and much valu- 
able property was taken by the numerous families that fled to the 
interior for protection. General Samuel Smith was conspicuous for 
his services during this hasty arming for the defence of the city 
which should long since have had the care of the Government. 
Every body, white and colored, worked on the entrenchments. From 
the city itself, volunteers poured forth for all the military organiza- 
tions. There were detachments, also, of Virginia militia and volun- 
teers, with Commodores Rodgers and Perry, and Captain Spence of 
the Navy, together with a few dragoons, regulars and seamen, under 
General Winder ; a company of volunteers from Hagerstown, Mary- 
land, and three others from York, Hanover and Lancaster, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

On the 11th September, 1814, the British squadron appeared off 
North Point, and landed General Ross's forces, while the fleet pro- 
ceeded further up the river to bombard Fort McHenry. The two 
attacks, by land and water, were however successfully repulsed by 
the militia and volunteers at the battle of North Point, under 
General Strieker, and the regulars and volunteer artillery at Fortr 
McIIenry under Major Armistead ; so that the squadron abandoned 
its fire and on the 14th proceeded down the river, to re-embark 
the retreated land forces which had lost their Commander-in-Chief, 
General Ross. 

The rapid and successful defence of Baltimore, — due to Smith, 
Strieker, Armistead, and the brave officers, militia men, and volun- 
teer citizens who obeyed their orders in the field and in the entrench- 
ments, — was not without fatal results to several of our worthiest 
citizens, who fell either in the field or in the fort, while others, who 
escaped with their lives, bore honorable wounds and maimed limbs, 
as tokens of their patriotic self-sacrifice. But their memory is indel- 
ibly recorded for posterity's example. On the anniversary of the 
Battle, in the following year, the foundation stone was laid of the 
superb monument which bears their names, in letters of imperishable 



OF BALTIMORE. 85 

brass, and which was completed by the general and voluntary sub- 
scription of their grateful fellow citizens.* 

The battle of New Orleans had been fought and gained by our 
troops under General Jackson, on the 8th of January, 1815, and on 
the 17th of the next month, a treaty of Peace with Great Britain 
was ratified, and next day promulgated. The news of the victory at 
New Orleans, as well as of the treaty, was received in Baltimore with 
joy, by men of all parties ; the houses of our citizens were brilliantly 
illuminated, and every one assented to the " Thanksgiving for the 
restoration of Peace," which was ordered by the General Govern- 
ment. 

~No notice of the war of 1812 would be complete, especially one 
that recounted the part borne by Baltimore in the conflict with 
England, without mention of the remarkable services rendered by 
our seamen and captains, in the craft for which our bay and city 
were celebrated. What they had been in peace, they continued to 
be in war — the "skimmers of the sea;" — save that instead of bear- 
ing with their swift wings the merchandise of friendly commerce, 
they carried the weapons that destroyed the merchandise of our 
enemy. Congress authorized the President to " issue, to private- 
armed vessels of the United States, commissions, or letters of 
marque and reprisal," in such manner as he should think proper. 
Baltimore soon availed herself of these commissions, for her fleet 
brigs, schooners, and pilot boats ; and, indeed, most of the future 
"privateering" was carried on in vessels built either here or in this 
vicinity. Usually manned with fifty seamen, besides officers ; carry- 
ing from six to ten guns, with a " Long Tom," on a swivel, in the 
centre of the craft ; armed, besides, with muskets, cutlasses, and 
boarding-pikes; they were directed to "capture, burn, sink, or de- 
stroy," the property of an enemy, wherever it might be found, either 
on the high seas or in British ports. The first prize, after the 
declaration of war, was sent into Baltimore by the Dolphin, Captain 
Stafford, and proved to be a British schooner valued at $18,000. 
Others soon followed this lead ; but, as a sufficient sample, in such a 
narrative as this, of the successful prowess of our commanders, and 
the superiority of our craft, it may be recorded that Commodore 
Joshua Barney, in a cruise of forty-Jive days, seized and captured 
fourteen vessels — nine of which he destroyed — of an aggregate 

* The original Subscription Book for this Monument, was lately found in removing 
the papers from the old City Hall, and at present is in the keeping of the City 
Register. It should be preserved sacredly in the Library of the new City Hall. 

7 



86 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

capacity of 2,914 tons, manned by 166 men, and valued, as prizes, 
at $1,289,000. The result of the Commodore's two cruises in the 
" Possie," was 3,698 tons of shipping captured, estimated at a mil- 
lion and a-half of dollars, and two hundred and seventeen prisoners ! 
The Dolphin, commanded by Stafford; The Falcon; The Globe, 
commanded by Murphy; The Highflyer, commanded by Gavit ; 
The Comet, under " the boldest of privateersmen," Captain Thomas 
Boyle ; The Nonsuch, under Captain Leveley ; all " gave good 
accounts " of the enemy ; one of Boyle's earliest exploits being the 
capture of the British armed ship Hopewell of 14 guns, ship and 
cargo sent into Baltimore and valued at $150,000 I His brave and 
successful adventures in 1813, in his " Comet " and afterwards in 
the famous "Chasseur," "ubiquitous as the Flying Dutchman," 
sometimes on the coasts of Spain, Portugal and France ; then in the 
British and Irish channels ; and anon, among the West Indian 
Islands, have become matters of history, and fairly rank him with 
the greatest of our naval commanders. The " Chasseur " captured 
no less than eighty vessels, three of which alone were valued at 
$400,000 ; and it was Boyle who issued the burlesque Proclamation 
in the British Channel, in which he declared " all the ports, harbors, 
bays, creeks, inlets, &c, &c, of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland in a state of rigorous blockade " by the Chasseur; 
a proclamation which he sent to London in a cartel, and desired " to 
be posted up at Lloyd's Coffee House !" Nor was this proclamation 
so ridiculous as it now seems to the sober readers of 1870, for the 
fear inspired in England by the daring and success of American 
privateers, indescribable to people of our day, may still be judged 
of from the fact that "thirteen guineas for one hundred pounds, 
was paid to insure vessels across the Irish Channel V 



OF BALTIMORE. 87 



BALTIMORE: 

FROM THE END OF THE WAR WITH GREAT BRITAIN AND OPENING OF THE 
SOUTH AMERICAN TRADE TO THE PRESENT TIME. 



The periods we have been describing comprise the history of 
Baltimore's wonderful and rapid growth in the years succeeding 
independence of Great Britain. This growth was so vast that it 
has been said to be unexampled in the history of cities. It was 
due, first, to the position of the city, geographically, in relation to 
the population, productions and internal trade of the whole coun- 
try ; secondly, to the assemblage here of mercantile men and others 
endowed with unusual energy, enterprise and talent, from all parts of 
North America and Europe, to take advantage of the two foremost 
staples of flour and tobacco ; thirdly, to the ship-building of our 
bay, which adapted a certain class of vessels for freight and fleet- 
ness ; and fourthly, to the pertinacious aptitude with which our able 
citizens improved their advantages, at all hazards, during the long 
European wars, employing their skill not only in domestic trade, as 
from a central distributing point, but for a world-wide commerce. 
The men and their opportunities were remarkable. They were men 
who knew that the greatest success in the pursuit of wealth is not 
to be obtained by a community from one branch of business, exclu- 
sively, but that importation as well as exportation must combine 
with supply, distribution, freight, and commissions, in order to 
create a substantial, enduring mart ; in other words, that local pros- 
perity, to be lasting, must depend on variety. Accordingly, it is 
not strange to see that the handful of 2,000 people dwelling in the 
Baltimore-Town of 1756, had increased to only about 5,000 at the 
Revolution; but, under independence, had grown to 62,738 in 1820, 
an increase of 16,183 from 1810, and of almost 50,000 from 1790. 
This was the unwonted civic growth, which was properly chronicled 
by one of our soberest historians — Dr. Jared Sparks — as " un- 
equalled in the history of cities." This was the time when the 
great and early commercial houses, founders of our prosperity, 
still controlled it, though many of them were crippled and dis- 



HISTORICAL SKETCH 



heartened by the financial misfortunes we have described, conse- 
quent on the calamities of the Bank of the United States and of 
the fatal "accommodation system" that had been practiced. This 
was the time, too, when the trade of Baltimore was in the hands 
of men, whose names, at least, should be most respectfully preserved 
in a work that purports to sketch its history. The leaders in 
mercantile circles were, then, Smith and Buchanan, the Gilmors, 
William Patterson, the Wilsons, Hollins & McBlair, Dugau, the 
Browns, the Olivers, the McKims, the Thompsons, Yon Kapff & 
Brune, Mayer & Brautz, Thomas Tennant, Henry Payson, William 
Lorman, Henry Schroeder, the Konigs, Carrere, the McCullohs, 
the Hotfmans, Luke Tiernan, the Ettings, Garrett, Talbot Jones, 
Jacob Albert, Taylor & Keys, Coale, Strieker, Sterrett, Harrison, 
Williamson, the Appletons, and others perhaps, whose names do 
not recur to us as we write this rapid catalogue. 

In other ancillary occupations, and in the professions, engaged 
in practice, or in manufacturing, or in agricultural pursuits, or in 
political life, were such men as General Smith, Edward Johnson, 
William Pinknej^, John Purviance, Bland, Hoffman, Meredith, 
Mitchell, Jennings, the AVinchesters, and Nicholsons, Colonel J. E. 
Howard, the Carrolls (of both families), Hughes, Pennington, Cooke, 
the Ellicotts and Tysons (pre-eminent in many things), Calhoun, 
Montgomery, Winder, the Revs. Drs. Bend, Kemp, Inglis, Glendy, 
Dorsey, Hollingsworth, Morris, Kell, Giles, Moale, Gibson, Moore, 
Rogers, Doctors, Davidge, Donaldson, Alexander, Gibson, De Butts, 
McDowell, and many more, all of whom, and in all classes, are still 
recollected when named, as persons of distinct individuality, men of 
mark, of public spirit, prompt and prominent in every scheme of 
merit and enterprise. 

The area of Baltimore, built over at that time, was, of coarse, by 
no means co-extensive, even as a skeleton, with the present occupied 
limits. The thickly inhabited parts of the city in the west were 
then confined between Jones's Falls and Greene street, and between 
the Basin and Mulberry street; while, in the east, from the Falls to 
the extreme end of Fell's Point at Waters's Wharf, there were wide 
gaps along the "Causeway," east of Harford Run; while, thence, 
north of Baltimore street and cast of Broadway, the county was 
still open or occupied by villas and burying grounds. West of the 
Falls and north of Saratoga street, the improvements were scattered. 
■- 1 Howard's Park" was still a wood, nor had the wealthy been per- 
mitted yet to purchase sites for future residences among its unfelled 
timber. At that day, Hanover street was the "Faubourg St. Ger- 



OF BALTIMORE. 89 

main" of our city — the quiet haunt of the older aristocracy — and, 
at its intersection with Baltimore (then Market) street, stood the 
famous "Indian Queen Inn," kept by Gadsby, and, afterwards, by 
David Barnum, and almost as renowned among Baltimore " hostel- 
ries " as the old "Fountain Inn" of Light street, in which was 
shown the untouched room of Washington and the Presidents, until 
the building fell, in the march of improvement, during the present 
year. Many leading families still dwelt in Sharp, Camden, Barre, 
and Conway streets. South Charles street was still occupied by 
some of the French refugees and their descendants ; while, north of 
Market street, it had become a fashionable quarter, as were, also, 
Lexington and Fayette streets leading from it to the " Monument 
Square," in which the Smiths, the Buchanans, the Swarms, the Gil- 
mors, Williamses, Beattys and Taylors, had erected those stately 
mansions now hardly discernible in the Police Buildings, the 
Mayor's temporary Headquarters, Guy's Hotel, the Gilmor House, 
and the restaurants and sporting houses that have usurped the 
homes of the long dead builders. A few merchants of eminence 
still kept near the water on Lombard street, where General Samuel 
Smith, Sherlock, Robert Gilmor, Junior, the Dugans and Hollinses 
had their costly and elegant homes, which are now couverted into 
offices or have yielded place for wide rows of substantial ware- 
houses. The old Baltimore Library Company, a noble institution in 
its day, occupied the Holliday street floor of the "Assembly Rooms," 
— still standing at the corner of Fayette — now the ricketty and 
unworthy tenement of the City College, but then the "Almacks" 
of Baltimore, and the resort of all the beau monde of our city during 
the regular "Assemblies" of every winter, and especially renowned 
as the scene of the " Silver Supper," spread therein after the ball 
given in the adjoining and connected theatre in honor of Lafayette, 
when he last visited us, in October, 1824. 

The city was, of course, adorned by many fine residences, the 
result of the wealth acquired by our people; but, as yet, no section 
had been fixed on as pre-eminently popular, suitable, or fashionable 
for an exclusive residence quarter. The consequence was a melange 
of old and new, of brick and board, of architectural taste and 
rude simplicity. Many of the streets were long unsightly from the 
un uniformed, militia-review appearance they presented of tall and 
short, of ragged and elegant, until the new comers gave tone to the 
district by improving not only the taste but the value of the property 
of the earlier inhabitants, thus enabling them to adorn their lots 
with costlier buildings. It was not until towards the end of the 



90 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

third decade of this century that the emigration, northwardly, 
along Franklin and Charles streets, began to denote the fashionable 
tendency towards "the Park," which, since then, has been shorn of 
its forest, leveled into squares, cut into streets, and covered with 
churches, institutions of learning, and thousands of exquisite resi- 
dences, forming one of the choicest dwelling districts in our country. 
Up to that period Washington's Monument, still not quite finished, 
loomed up on a stack of bare slopes, washed by gullies descending 
from the Monument's base to the natural drain now known as 
Centre street. The Cathedral and the Unitarian Church, stood 
"solitary and alone" in the midst of unoccupied spaces, while a 
house here and there, dotted the distances towards Mulberry and 
Saratoga streets. In fact, the town seemed to be thinking about 
its next step, and seriously engaged in making up its mind. At 
best, it was a sort of outline sketch of proposed grandeur. In the 
"New Town" all improvements were but "straggling" from Sara- 
toga street northwardly, from Eutaw street westwardly, from Barre 
street southwardly, and from Gay street eastwardly ; while in the 
"Old Town," all north of Baltimore street, was nearly as bare 
of edifices as "Hampstead Hill" or "Callow's Barrow." 

This is a time— before the introduction of railways — when it is 
proper to make mention of some three or four Old-Baltimore institu- 
tions, which are fast fading away in the world's progress: we mean 
the vast blue, white-canvased Conestoga wagons, their grand Penn- 
sylvanian horses, the Stage Coaches, and the Taverns or Inns, with 
their conspicuous " signs," their substantial fare, wide yards, and 
liberal stables; and the frocked wagoners and teamsters who drove 
or tended their stalwart beasts, for burthen or for market. These 
Taverns and their signs were frequent reminders to Englishmen of 
the country inns found in every British town and hamlet ; and, alas ! 
but few of them remain among us of the present generation. These 
were still the times of horseback and saddle-bag traveling. Most 
of our citizens who have not passed far beyond middle life, will still 
remember the "Golden Horse," which swung so gaudily at the 
northwestern corner of Franklin and Howard streets; and the 
" White Swan," which still floats, like a dim ghost of its former self, 
on the sign, a square beyond, at the southeastern corner of Franklin 
and Eutaw, while the "Golden Lamb" reclined on its rich yellow 
fleece, until a few years ago, at the northwestern corner of Paca and 
Franklin streets, until it was supplanted by a confectionery; or 
the "Black Horse," and some other country inns, beyond the turn 






OF BALTIMORE. 91 

of Franklin street into Pennsylvania avenue. Then there was the 
"Hand Tavern" and yard, still surviving, on Paea near Lexington, 
giving refuge to the market people and their wagons and cattle ; and 
the chained " Black Bear" Inn, designed for the same purposes, 
next to the corner of Howard, on Saratoga, street, where the Bevans 
now cut and carve their marble mantels and tombs. The more aris- 
tocratic "General Wayne" Inn, — Cugle & Frost's stylish "hostelrie" 
for Western travelers, horse-dealers, and cattle-drovers, — was at the 
corner of Paca and Baltimore streets, where the revolutionary hero 
still faintly survives on the weather-beaten sign, which we remember 
seeing raised to its present place more than forty years ago. The 
" May Pole " was still further south of this, on Paca and German, 
and the " Three Tuns Tavern," yet beyond, at the corner of Paca 
and Pratt. These were the main houses of entertainment, cattle 
yards, and stables, for horse-dealers, wagoners, and cattle men, west 
of the Falls ; while " Old Town" had its famous " Bull's Head," on 
Front street, the w ' Rising Sun," on High street, and the well-known 
" Habbersett's," whose hospitable doors and excellent tables were 
always open to the dealers and farmers of Harford county especially. 
The old "Fountain Inn," with its limpid, gushing sign, was always 
the pet of the Eastern Shoremen, (so accessible as they came up 
Light street from the Basin,) long after it ceased to be the pet of 
the Presidents, after Jefferson's day and the rise of the " Indian 
Queen," under Gadsby's auspices, and, long subsequently, to " Bar- 
num's," in the Square, and " The Eutaw House," which were the 
two first inns that wholly discarded the old-fashioned index of a 
"sign." At most of these, in the day of turnpikes, the daily, 
tri-weekly, or weekly Stage«,Coach called regularly, with sounding 
horn, to take up the passengers "booked" at the office. The 
Western taverns were filled with staunch, rough teamsters and 
drovers ; and the tavern yards, generally occupied by fat cattle for 
the shambles, and splendid horses, for sale, trade, or swap ; while 
westwardly from Howard street, along Franklin to its junction 
with Pennsylvania avenue, and out the avenue to George street, 
and often beyond it, in the busy season, one-half of this great high- 
way was nightly blocked up by the ponderous Oonestoga wagons, 
and their superb teams feeding or munching in a trough fastened to 
the wagon-poles. Xext day they delivered their flour, whiskey, and 
provisions along Howard and other streets, and quickly reloaded with 
groceries, dry and fancy goods for the West, and speedily set forth 
with their four or six-in-hand team, each animal tinkling his jolly 
crest of a dozen bells along the narrow defiles of the Alleghanies, 



92 



HISTOKICAL SKETCH 



the drivers cracking their huge savage whips, giving notice of each 
other's approach in the many passes of the mountains or valleys. 

But Baltimore was to take a fresh start in the race of prosperity. 
She had been temporarily disheartened and crippled, but not de- 
stroyed ; for her natural resources could not be taken away, and the 
people who had improved them in earlier days were still at hand to 
engage in new operations. The men of enterprise and talent were 
still there, and though not so young or hopeful, were nevertheless 
not without zeal and enterprise, tempered by experience. They saw 
that a change had come over the spirit of American trade, not only 
by the cessation of war at home and in Europe, but that great ma- 
terial improvements in transportation, steam, and the rivalries of 
successful trade were operating on the minds of younger men of 
equal intelligence, in other sections of the nation ; and that, when 
success creates rivals, peace not only affords but stimulates the means 
for successful rivalry. They saw that labor, patience, capital were 
to take the place of that rapid, daring, war-commerce, which had 
so magically assisted the fortunes of American, and especially 
Baltimore merchants, for twenty or thirty years. They saw that 
enterprise, to be repaid, must be content with slower processes, and 
that the clipper of our Bay was no longer the Aladdin of their 
counting-houses. 

With this patience at heart, though, of course reluctantly ad- 
mitted, an auspicious change took place in the commercial affairs 
of Baltimore between 1820 and 1825. Capital and enterprise 
again became active. The extensive establishments and ventures 
became more limited, but were still significant in both foreign and 
domestic trade. The tables of exports of foreign and domestic pro- 
duce from Baltimore in 1822 and 1823, disclose a substantial and 
less speculative commerce with Holland, England, France, Germany, 
Sweden, Turkey, Italy, the West Indies, South America, and the 
British possessions in America. The values of this trade were large: 





1S2'2. 


1K-J3. 


Domestic articles in Foreign vessels, 


$2,917,989 

323,245 

1,259,972 

19,150 


$3,058,543 

3(51,511 

1,747,574 

9(5,281 




$4,520,356 


$5,203,909 



OF BALTIMORE. 93 

In 1824 the increase of exports was still greater, as the trade to 
Europe and the West Indies gained considerably, while the com- 
merce with South America, in particular, began to advance very 
rapidly. Baltimore was then, undoubtedly, still the largest flour 
market in the world, sending forth in 1822, 205,345 barrels; and 
244,950 in 1823. Of tobacco, we shipped to foreign countries, 
19,250 hogsheads in 1822, and 21,733 hogsheads in 1823 ; as well as 
large quantities of provisions and manufactured goods. The 
inspections of flour in Baltimore for 1822, displayed a total of 
413,231 barrels, while the inspections of Philadelphia for the same 
period, showed but 270,527 ; being little more than two-thirds the 
amount for the same year in Baltimore. 

In the city, and within the compass of twenty miles around it, 
there were upwards of sixty grain mills, of various descriptions, in 
which it was said that fully a million and a quarter of dollars were 
invested. This, of course, was an element of great prospective 
wealth, especially as the water power for manufactures, within the 
radius of those twenty miles, at Patapsco Falls, Great Gunpowder 
Falls, Little Gunpowder Falls, Jones's Falls, Gwynn's Falls, Herring 
Run, Union Run, Winter's Run, and the Patuxent, was capable of 
running 1,013,000 spindles. Hence, the new direction of enterprise 
and capital began to find manufactures an important branch of Bal- 
timore industry with so much water power at command, eight of 
these streams being certainly capable of giving motion to ma- 
chinery. The first three cotton factories established in the neighbor- 
hood of Baltimore, the Union, the Powhatan and the Washington, 
were formed during the commercial restrictions before the war with 
England in 1812 ; and though successful as long as these restrictions 
lasted, they soon felt the depressing influence of foreign competition 
when they ceased ; yet, though they drooped awhile, they were not 
abandoned, for the people in many quarters had become habituated 
to the goods produced in this vicinity, and, in spite of the cheapness 
of foreign fabrics, preferred the American, in consequence of their 
more durable qualities. The Cotton Factory Companies in this 
vicinity in 1824, were the Union, on the Patapsco, with two fac- 
tories ; the Powhatan, on Gwynn's Falls, with one factory; the 
Warren, on the Great Gunpowder, with two factories; the Patapsco, 
on the Patapsco, with one ; the Washington, on Jones's Falls, 
with one; the Lanvale, on Jones's Falls, with one; the Maryland, on 
the Little Gunpowder, with one ; the Thistle, on the Patapsco, with 
one ; the Ivy, on the Patapsco, with one ; the Savage, on the 
Patuxent, with one ; and the Eagle, (run by steam,) in the city of 



94 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

Baltimore, with one; in all 13 factories, running 27,004 spindles, 
565 power looms, 6 printing tables, and employing 2,800 persons. 
On these same streams there were also 52 flour mills, 6 iron works, 
1 woollen and carding factory, 2 paper mills, 3 powder mills, 2 
copper works, 27 saw mills, 1 chocolate factory, and 2 old iron 
works, no longer in operation. The greater part of the yarn then 
manufactured was wrought into cloths either at the factories or by 
hand-looms in and about the city. The Western and Southwestern 
States consumed large quantities of these fabrics, w T hile the South 
American trade began to demand them for the Spanish and Bra- 
zilian provinces, as well as for Mexico. Our manufacturing interests 
seemed to be firmly established ; and so prosperous was the enter- 
prise that the Eastern States began soon to establish Eastern men 
among us to bring their fabrics into a Middle State market which 
was becoming perhaps a dangerous rival in that species of Xew 
England's industry.* 

The resources of Chesapeake Bay and its affluents, from land and 
water, were considered of themselves sufficient to support a great 
city; and, though most carelessly and uneconomically used, (so far, 
at least, as the fisheries and oyster' interests are concerned,) have 
within late years demonstrated this fact, as the statistics of our 
trade will hereafter disclose. But our commerce was not to be 
so confined or restricted. The shipments of 1822 and 1823 showed 
that we had no crushing rivalry to contend with in trade that cir- 
cumstances had so greatly changed. Our ships went principally to 
the Spanish Main, to Buenos Ayres, to Brazil, to Chili, Peru and 
Mexico, and this species of commerce, in succeeding years, has fixed 
itself upon a fair basis of equality, so far as our enterprise and 
capital were able to support it in competition with other ports. A 
commerce with India and China, has been maintained also, at times, 
on Baltimore account, from other cities, and occasionally directly. 
It is, we think, nevertheless, quite evident to any one who surveys 
the entire iield of Maryland foreign commerce, since the collapse 
after the last war with Great Britain, that our commercial enter- 
prise never assumed again entirely the proportions it showed in the 

* Manufactures (except of flour and pig iron) had been condemned and dis- 
couraged by the British government, so that, before the Revolution we may be said 
to have been little more than agricultural consumers of the productions of old 
England. We were allowed to fish and to farm, and to buy British commodities 
when wo could pay for them ; but our domestic industry was forbidden. There 
were attempts at woollen factories in Dorchester county, but unsuccessful; and 
in 171!) there were eight furnaces and nine forges in the Province. We exported 
y>i(j iron profitably to England before and after the war of 1770. 



OF BALTIMORE. 95 

years before it. Our people seem to have been impressed with the 
idea, since then, that the first duty of Baltimore was to recover pos- 
session of the internal trade of the country; and hence probably 
more reliance has been placed on the magical change which the 
" Internal Improvement" system was to produce, as soon as fresh 
modes of communication were opened with the growing West 
and its dependencies. The idea seems to have been that if we 
could soonest reach the vast Western trade by the shortest route, 
we should command it; and that Baltimore would be re-established, 
and advance to continental supremacy. While waiting these long 
years for the fruition of this hope, it is possible that the commerce 
and manufactures of our city have not advanced as rapidly as they 
might have done under different inspirations ; yet, certain it is, 
that, ever since 1824, 1825, the minds of our people have been 
greatly concerned with canals and railways, and the supreme results 
they were to produce for Baltimore and Maryland.. 

The only Western public roads practicable for wheeled vehicles, as 
late as 1772, were those from Fredericktown to Annapolis and Balti- 
more. The road to Annapolis, from the superior trading facilities 
of that place over those of Baltimore before the Revolution, was the 
first made by the settlers. It ran by Sandy Spring, an old settle- 
ment founded by James Brooke before 1730. The road to Balti- 
more, which passed the Patapsco Falls three miles above the Mills, 
was not in operation until 1760. There were many "bridle roads" 
traversed on horseback, or with packs; and numerous "rolling- 
roads;* adjacent to navigable streams, used by the neighboring 
planters for the transportation of their tobacco, which, tightly 
packed in staunch hogsheads, hooped in the most substantial way, 
were slowly rolled by at least two laborers to the place of shipment. 
Several of these primitive roads are yet distinguishable in Harford 
county, and one is still so designated near Elk Ridge Landing, a port 
which, in those days, was the favorite depot of the farmers of the 
vicinage, whence their commodities were taken in seagoing vessels 
of light draft directly to Europe.* After the Revolutionary War 
things improved, and the trains of pack-horses were gradually 
abandoned, as that well-remembered institution, the " Conestoga 
Wagon," came into use with improved thoroughfares. Between 
1805 and 1810 three turnpikes were chartered by Maryland, leading 
from Baltimore to Western Maryland and different parts of Pennsyl- 

* The relatives of the writer have loaded vessels in 1795 for Holland, with tohacco, 
on the Patapsco, a few yards east of the spot where the viaduct of the railroad to 
Washington now crosses that river near the Relay House. 



96 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

vania ; and their roads to York, Reisterstown and Frederick were 
built most thoroughly, so as to resist the weight and wear of the 
enormous burthens of produce brought over them to this market. 
The average cost of these roads was from 8,000 to 10,000 dollars a 
mile. Subsequently, four other turnpikes were finished to Wash- 
ington, Belle Air, Havre de Grace, and the Falls ; so that in 1825, 
there were seven broad, substantial, well-built avenues proceeding 
hence North, South, East and West. The great National road from 
Wheeling to Cumberland, too, was continued by the banks of our 
city, and three other banks in the west of Maryland. These insti- 
tutions being required by the State, as a condition of renewal of 
their charters, to make fifty-eight miles of this road on the same 
construction as the " National." 

But new ideas of progress were soon to change the slow systems of 
conveyance by horse and mule, by roads and sails. Turnpikes, and 
even canals, were to give place to steam and railways. 

In December, 1823, a town meeting was held in the rotunda of 
the Exchange, (now our post-office building,) to take the opinion 
of the people on the subject of canals, and especially to discover 
whether the citizens preferred a canal to be made first to the Susque- 
hanna river or to the Ohio. A great majority, it seems, preferred 
the canal to the Susquehanna. Accordingly, an act was passed by 
the Assembly then in session authorizing the corporation of the city 
to make a canal to the head of tide-water on the Susquehanna, and 
thence to the Conewaga falls in Pennsylvania, if such an extension 
should be permitted by the Legislature of that State. Another 
act was also passed incorporating a company to make a canal from 
the tide-water of the Potomac to the Ohio river, if assented to by 
the national government and the States through which the canal 
would pass. In the Assembly of the next year, 1824, the act of the 
Virginia Legislature, incorporating the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal 
Company, was confirmed ; and in 1825, stock to the amount of the 
State's interest in the Potomac Canal Company, with 5,000 addi- 
tional shares, were to be vested in the new Company on the part of 
Maryland. A similar number of shares was to be taken in the Sus- 
quehanna Company, then again incorporated, the old Susquehanna 
Canal Company's interest being secured in the new one. At the 
session of our Assembly in 18 20, another act incorporated the Penn- 
sylvania and Maryland Canal Company. 

The proposed Chesapeake and Ohio Canal had been cherished up 
to this year as the best scheme for the interests of Baltimore and the 
West ; but, in July of 1826, the estimates of the probable cost and 



OF BALTIMORE. 07 

difficulty of constructing such a canal over the mountains were made 
and published by an able engineer, General Bernard, and the hopes 
of our citizens immediately fell. They became satisfied that the 
completion of the work, even, would be of no practical advantage 
to our city, so long as the eastern terminus of the work was on 
the Potomac. For several months there was much doubt and much 
consultation among our mercantile leaders, until finally, it may be 
said that the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was inaugurated at a 
private meeting of about twenty-five or thirty influential men at 
the residence of Mr. George Brown, on the 12th of February, 1827. 
An act of our Assembly, comprising a charter, drawn up by John 
VanLear McMahon, Esq., was passed immediately, (in fact, the first 
railroad charter obtained in the United States,) and, the proposed 
amount of stock being speedily taken, the Company was duly organ- 
ized on the 12th of April, 1827, with Philip E. Thomas, President, 
George Brown, Treasurer, and twelve directors, (Charles Carroll of 
Carrollton at their head,) of whom but one survives in 1870. But 
this project, so successfully inaugurated, and now in such success- 
ful operation, did not obliterate the Pennsylvanian schemes of our 
people. The Susquehanna connections were always favorites with 
Baltimoreans ; and accordingly, the Baltimore and Susquehanna Rail- 
road Company was chartered by our Assembly on the 13th of Febru- 
ary, 1828 ; and when the books tor subscription were opened here in 
March of that year, such was the anxiety to secure shares that more 
than double the amount of the proposed capital was at once under- 
written. In 1854, this road was consolidated with the York and 
Cumberland Railroad; and now, under the name of the " Northern 
Central," unites at Harrisburg with the Pennsylvania Central and 
its great communications with the West, while, by other routes, it 
preserves its connections with the lakes at Erie and with Northern 
and Eastern New York. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal was not 
abandoned in this change of system ; but it stopped wisely at the 
foot of the Alleghany Mountains at Cumberland ; and, instead of 
fulfilling its original and boasted destiny of wielding the whole com- 
merce of the West, has long divided its operations between politics 
and the carrying of coal and grain to Georgetown from Western 
Maryland and Virginia. It was not until some years after, that the 
bill was passed authorizing the construction of a canal to tide on the 
Susquehanna, or that the canal, and afterwards a railroad, were 
made between the Delaware and the Chesapeake. The corner-stones 
of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and of the Chesapeake and Ohio 
Canal — the great rivals of that day — were both laid with imposing 



98 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

ceremonies on the 4th of July, 1828, Charles Carroll of Carrollton 
officiating for the road, and President John Quincy Adams for the 
canal.* Of the impracticability of the latter enterprise, General 
Bernard, as we have seen, had apprised the speculative dreamers of 
1826, 1827, and the truth of his calculations has been entirely veri- 
fied by the test of practical experience after vast and unrepaid ex- 
penditures by states and individuals. 

On the 14th December, 1829, thirty-seven persons were drawn, by 
one horse, in a car with four friction wheels, invented by Mr. Ross 
Winans, at the rate of ten miles an hour. This was done, to the 
amazement of crowds, on bar iron rails, imported duty free, fastened 
on pine scantling and supported by cross ties of locust and cedar, on 
the first track of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, which had 
been completed from the depot, on AYest Pratt street, near the 
Washington road, to G-wynn's Falls. This was regarded as an 
astonishing victory at a time when the speed of locomotive engines 
did not exceed six miles per hour ; nor was it yet determined what 
sort of propulsive power would be most advantageously employed on 
railways. Accordingly, in 1830, our old friend, Evan Thomas, brother 
of the President of the road, was not deterred from displaying his 
car called the "^Eolus," which, rigged with sails, was driven by 
the winds, and used to attract eager crowds of youngsters and old 
folks, who, like ourselves, considered these thiugs the solved marvels 
of the age. 

While these material improvements were devising for the future, 
Baltimore took other steps for intellectual advancement. The 
Academy of Sciences, of which Robert Gilmor was President, the 
Maryland Institute of Arts, W. Stewart, President, and the First 
Athenseum Library and Reading Rooms were incorporated, and 
the Athenreum building erected at the corner of St. Paul and 
Lexington streets — destroyed by fire, in 1835. Besides these, acts of 
incorporation were obtained lor the Pennsylvania, Delaware and 
Maryland Steam Navigation Company; the Fireman's Insurance 
Company ; the Lafayette Beneficial Society ; the Patapsco Fire Engine 
Company; the xEtna Company, for the manufacture of iron ; and 
the Seaman's Union Bethel. Charters were also granted for the 
American Insurance Company; the Maryland and Virginia, and 
Baltimore and Potomac Companies; the Baltimore Pittston Coal 
Company; the Elysville Manufacturing Company; the Baltimore 

* The corner-stone of the Baltimore and Susquehanna Railroad was laid on the 
9th of August, 1821), one hundred years from the date of the passage of the law for 
the laying out of Baltimore-Town in 172!). 



OF BALTIMORE. 99 

Flint Glass Company ; the Maryland Mining and Iron Companies, 
and the Shot Tower Companies, one of whose towers — two hundred 
and thirty-four feet high — still remains at the corner of Front and 
East Lafayette streets. On the 21st of September, 1829, the first 
public school was opened in our city, and the system inaugurated 
which, with various changes, has proved materially useful to 
thousands of our citizens. In March, 1827, William Patterson, one 
of our wealthiest and most active commercial men, presented to the 
city two squares of ground on Ilampstead Hill for a public walk, 
which, with additions since made by purchase, is now known as 
" Patterson Park," and includes within its boundaries a few of the 
remaining earthworks thrown up for the defence of Baltimore during 
the war of 1812. In that year, too, (1827,) the population had out- 
grown its customary supply of ice from home resources, and began 
first to import it from the Northern States. In 1832 and 1834, we 
did not escape from the Asiatic Cholera which, at that time, was 
running its course around the world ; the visitation of 1832 being 
more disastrous and of longer continuance than the subsequent one. 
In 1835, the stock debt of the city was but about one million of 
dollars, chiefly for internal improvements ; and it was, in this year, 
that another effort was made in favor of the Chesapeake and Ohio 
Canal, and the Susquehanna Railway. The branch railroad to 
"Washington City was also opened successful^' at this time ; and 
vast gambling speculations took place in the stock of the Canton 
Land Company, shares, on which $54 had been paid, selling as high 
as $260 in Northern cities, whose people were momentarily bewildered 
by the prospect of realizing immense fortunes by the sale of lots iu 
this finely seated property on our eastern limits. In this year, too, 
Baltimore suffered from the riots consequent on the failure of the 
Bank of Maryland and of several other money institutions, in which 
large numbers of our people had either deposited or invested. The 
mob destroyed much private property (for which the tax-payers 
were subsequently obliged to recompense the owners,) before the 
disgraceful outrage was finally suppressed, mainly by the tact and 
courage of the veteran, General Samuel Smith, who, at the age of 
eighty, headed the well disposed citizens, and produced order from 
the chaos of several days' rioting. 

Internal improvements by canal and railway advanced slowly, 
for it was discovered that the science of railroads was, in reality, 
to be developed while the roads themselves were building. In many 
respects, indeed, our Baltimore and Ohio and Susquehanna railways, 
were the pioneer roads of the world, as they certainly were of the 



100 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

United States. In 1836, the stock of the Susquehanna Tide Water 
Canal, was taken in the month of June, and in 1837, the Philadel- 
phia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railway was completed and put in 
successful operation, the passengers crossing the Susquehanna at 
Havre de Grace in a steamer, specially constructed for them, their 
baggage and heavy freight. 

On the 11th of May, 1837, the banks of this city, following those 
of Philadelphia and ISTew York, suspended specie payments, and 
continued the suspension until the 13th of August, 1838. On the 
10th of October, 1839, they again suspended and refused specie until 
February, 1841, when they resumed payment — but for eight days only. 
The final and lasting resumption, did not occur until the 2d of May, 
1842. The interruption of specie payments during these disastrous 
years, gave opportunities for all sorts of speculations and inventions, 
for the supply of what could or would pass among the people for 
money. This was the reign of foul rags, coarsely called " shin- 
plasters" whose speculative inventors palmed them on the credulous 
public, and, of course, failing, inflicted serious losses on the com- 
munity. " Orders " for money were issued, also, by the Corporation 
of Baltimore, and by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company ; 
and, for a long time, furnished the only reliable fractional currency 
during the specie suspension. But, through all these perilous times, 
Baltimore sustained herself bravely and successfully, improving the 
city, and doing a fair share of general business ; and, while other 
cities reeled before the storm, passed through it without serious 
calamity. From that time onward, until 1857, our progress was 
equal, though slow and substantial, receiving, indeed, considerable 
impetus from the opening of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, to 
the Ohio River in 1853 ; of the Susquehanna Road ; of the Tide- 
water Canal, and of the continuation of our railway systems, as far 
as St. Louis, (918 miles,) in June, 1857. But 1857, will be remem- 
bered by American merchants, as an unfortunate and disheartening 
year in commercial experience. Since the crisis, twenty years before, 
of 1837, there had been no revulsion in monetary and mercantile 
affairs, so embarrassing as that through which the trading com- 
munity then passed. Property of all kinds, real and personal, 
depreciated beyond previous experience ; and, of course, labor fell 
with commodities ; while loans of money demanded exorbitant 
premiums. This was the high-day of shavers and brokers and 
unconscionable moneyed-men. The calamity afflicted the old world 
as well as the new. " The best and the worst mercantile houses 
were alike prostrated by the tempest," writes a commercial au- 






OF BALTIMORE. 101 

thority, " and thousands who stood deservedly high in means and 
credit at the opening of the year, were reduced to comparative 
dependence or real indigence." The causes of these disasters were 
attributed to the usual initiatives of " hard times ; " viz., a mania for 
fancy stock speculations ; a gambling in the values of commodities ; 
a manifest increase of consumers over producers; and gross defects in 
the banking system of the country. 

But, in 1857, as in 1837, Baltimore fairly sustained her credit 
throughout the fatal year, the number of failures occurring here, dur- 
ing that period, not averaging more than one to twenty for those in 
all the other leading commercial cities of the United States. That 
we were not without trade of significance, in that year, is shown by 
the fact that we exported $1 1,398,918, in commodities, and imported 
to the value of $11,054,676, while the extension of our railway to 
the Ohio, already mentioned, put us in communication (though not 
yet perfectly) with most of the Western and Northwestern States, 
by continuous lines of railway extending over five thousand miles. 
The prosperity and the general advancement of the city were 
still further demonstrated by the census returns for 1850, which 
showed that in the decade between that year and 1840 our popula- 
tion had been augmented by the extraordinary increase of 66,741, 
the whole number of inhabitants being 169,054. This was a greater 
relative increase than in any of the decades between 1790 — the date 
of the first national census — and 1850, the augmentation being 
12,611, between 1790 and 1800 : of 9,469, between 1800 and 1810 ; of 
27,155, between 1810 and 1820 ; of 17,887, between 1820 and 1830 ; 
and of 21,688, between 1830 and 1840. 

The growth of the city was indeed perfectly visible to the most 
careless observer. As we had in 1816, been the first city of the 
Union to introduce the general use of gas as an illuminating material, 
and, in 1827 to require the incorporation of the first great railroad, 
so we were the first to enjoy the electric telegraph which was tested 
and established between Washington and Baltimore in 1844. But 
in late years, the taste and desire for building and civic adornment, 
was extensively indulged, and, of course, indicated the substantial 
character of our prosperity, as well as the city's attractiveness to 
people who came here from abroad to dwell and augment our 
population in addition to the natural increase of our numbers. The 
religious societies added to the beauty of our architecture by the 
erection of several splendid churches and ecclesiastical establish- 
ments, among which we may particularly notice the new Presby- 
terian Church on Madison street at its intersection with Park 
8 



102 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

street, and St. Alphonsns's, at the corner of Park and Saratoga. 
The Jesuit College and Church, were added; the Athenaeum,* con- 
taining the rooms of the Maryland Historical Society and the 
apartments of the Mercantile Library Association ; the Boundary 
avenues, or Boulevards, were laid out, and in some few quarters, 
opened ; the Maryland Institute for the promotion of the Mechanic 
Arts, was opened on the 21st October, 1851 ; the fire-alarm tele- 
graph; the uniformed and well established Police system; the 
lakes, reservoirs, and supply of water from Jones's Falls; the 
complete, paid, Steam Engine Fire Department; the City Passenger 
Railway ; the superb new City Hall, one of the noblest municipal 
edifices in the country ; the Bay view Poor Asylum ; the Moses 
Sheppard Asylum, a generous private charity ; the Peabody Insti- 
tute with its great Library and various establishments of music, 
art and general science ; the Asylum for the Blind ; the excellent 
House of Refuge ; the splendid Homes for Aged Men and for Aged 
Women; the Asylum for the Orphan Children of the late war, 
and the Plome for its Soldiers ; the various private hospitals under 
the kind auspices of religious societies ; the Concordia Opera House ; 
the generous Homes for Friendless Boys and Girls ; the passenger 
railways to Catonsville and Towsontown, and to the Powhatan 
factory ; and the Agricultural Fair and Cattle Show Grounds, and 
the Race Course, where we expect to renew the triumphs of the 
turf for which Baltimore was once renowned. 

Our fellow citizen, Johns Hopkins, whose active commercial life 
has been rewarded with vast wealth, has taken initiatory legal mea- 
sures for the endowment of an University and of charitable Insti- 
tutions, which will probably absorb several millions of his great 
fortune, and bestow on Baltimore establishments of learning and 
beneficence, whose advantages will be certainly commensurate with 
the broad designs of their respected founder. In all directions the 
city has extended in beauty, elegance and comfort. The Jones's 
Falls enlargement and improvement, costing millions perhaps, will 
be a vast relief and embellishment, as well as security for the city. 
There is to be a superb new hotel on the ruins of the old, historic, 
" Fountain Inn." A new theatre and a new opera house are to be 
built forthwith ; and it is hoped that the McDonough Educational 
Institution will soon erect an accessible and suitable edifice, for the 

* Tho Athcmeum Building, completely finished, was a free gift of the citizens to 
the Maryland Historical Society and the Baltimore Library Company or the sur- 
vivor. The Library being now merged in the Historical Society, the Athemeum 
is the property of that Institution. 



OF BALTIMORE. 103 

reception of the poor boys whom the donor — so many years ago — 
designed to receive in our city or its neighborhood, the benefits of 
his devised estate. 

No park in America vies, we believe, with the hundreds of acres 
of woodland and lawn, hill and dale, of our exquisite " Druid Hill." 
The property of one family for near a century, and maintained as a 
private, hereditary domain, adorned and cherished by its tasteful 
owners, it was a ready-made park for our city when the authorities 
determined to buy it in 1860. The cent contribution of every citizen 
or sojourner who rides in our City Passenger railcars, suffices to pay 
for and support this lifegiving lung of our metropolis, so that when 
the beauty of the lake, soon to be completed, is added to the natural 
charms of the forest scenery, Baltimore may boast of a crowning 
embellishment, that will be jealously cared for and prized by our 
people through succeeding ages. The cent tax, has already produced 
for our parks the vast sum of $758,887. 

The visions of Canton Company Stock speculators of thirty years 
ago, though not entirely realized, are still demonstrated to have 
been more than "baseless fabrics," by the wharves, factories, dwell- 
ings, and hum of business covering the once vacant spaces at the 
base of those eastern hills which are now crested with the groves 
and avenues of Patterson Park. There is no longer the stir of 
ship-building on Fell's Point, but it has only changed quarters for 
the shores of Federal Hill and Locust Point, on the southern side of 
the basin and harbor. There, too, a fresh town has sprung up on 
the " Whetstone Peninsula," with long lines of paved streets, 
houses, public buildings, quays, coal wharves, and extensive piers 
and fire-proof warehouses for the European steamers from Bremen 
and England, connected with the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. 
Still, onward, the city stretches, over the peninsula, to the Middle 
Branch and Fort McIIenry on south and east; and, on the west, 
threatens still to include " Moale's Point" in the city's limits, in 
spite of the denunciations of that ancestor of the family, who, in 
1729, refused his lands for the site of the future metropolis. North- 
westwardty and westwardly; northwardly and eastwardly, the city 
has run out its streets and avenues ; the forest has been felled ; the 
hills as well as the level grounds that, at our last descriptive outline 
of Baltimore, were still bare in 1820-1825, are now covered with 
substantial improvements, slowly but securely won by the patient, 
unostentatious accretions of wealth and people during the last thirty 
years. Large numbers of private, individual houses (not vast and 
crowded lodging houses) have been built for and are occupied by 



104 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

the working classes; demonstrating the demand for, as well as the 
recompense of labor, in our community. The old "Howard's Park" 
is tilled with residences and public buildings of a richer character, in 
substantial comfort and taste, comparing favorably with the dwell- 
ing-quarters of more boastful capitals. The observer of this busy 
and beautiful scene from the top of the " Washington Monument," 
in the centre of these luxurious dwellings, whence the whole pano- 
rama of Baltimore is distinctly visible, now beholds a magniticent 
city nestling under the sheltering slopes around the head waters 
of the branches of the Patapsco, where our ancestors planted them- 
selves so confidently one hundred and forty-one years ago. From 
the still wooded heights, north of the Northern Boundary avenue, 
to the waters of the Basin and across the Peninsula to the Middle 
Branch, the space is densely packed, quite four miles in width, with 
solid improvements while, from Canton and Fell's Point, on the 
east, to the House of Refuge and Druid Hill Park, on the west 
and nothwest, seven or eight miles in length, the substantial build- 
ings are centrally quite as dense, and only scattering in parts of the 
extreme outskirts. 

Baltimore's progress was thus rapid, sound and elastic until the 
winter of 1860-1. People were eager in predicting the city's pros- 
perity for years to come. Real estate maintained a steady, equable 
advance in value, according to the relative situation of property in 
business or residence districts. But, in 1861, the sad civil war broke 
out, and though Maryland did not become the theatre of battle until 
the Confederate invasion of 1863, its border situation made it an 
object of contest from a very early day, not only by both sections — 
North and South — but by the people of the State themselves. A 
"Middle State" and a "Slave State," the sympathies of the citizens 
were divided in many instances, and positively devoted to the South 
in, perhaps, a majority of cases. There was a decided anxiety to 
avoid an armed conflict, and many citizens cherished the impossible 
idea of " neutrality " in such a war. The city of Baltimore was, 
through business relations and personal affiliations, greatly allied to 
the South and its "institution." Yet, conventions held here in 1860 
and early in 1861, failed to elicit a positive decision in favor of 
"secession," which was openly discussed and voted on in Southern 
States. The views of leading men, on both sides, were very variant 
as to action as well as to policy ; many regarding procrastination and 
compromise as wise and practicable. But, the events of April, 1861, 
precipitated the question in this city, on the 19th of that month, by 
the violent interruption of a Massachusetts regiment in its passage 



OP BALTIMORE. 105 

through our streets en route to Washington, on the call of President 
Lincoln for 75,000 volunteers. War was inevitable after the capture 
of Fort Sumter. Baltimore, as an objective military position, was 
one of the most important in the Union; and, accordingly, the 
United States Government immediately began to occupy it and its 
neighborhood, as well as different parts of the State, with sufficient 
troops to ensure peace within our territory. The consequence was 
that large numbers of our j^ounger men went over the border and 
took up arms for the South, abiding there the fate and hardships of 
arms and privation, until the end of the war, in 1865. The State 
and the city, during'the whole period, were in the hands of citizens 
devoted to the Union cause; and large numbers, black and white, 
enlisted in the armies of volunteers raised by the General Govern- 
ment for the national defence. 

As in all states and communities, when war of opinion ends in 
war of arms, the violence and diversity of opinion were correspond- 
ingly great ; but, for the sake of all : — 

"Peraget tranquilla protestas 
Quod molenta nequit : mandataque fortius urget 
Imperia quies !" — 

The city of Baltimore, though its prosperity suffered from the 
civil war, still had certain partial compensations in the increased 
knowledge obtained by our countrymen of its geographical import- 
ance, of the value of Maryland lands, streams and mines, as well 
as in the temporary depot trade in military supplies and troop trans- 
portation. But the war stopped the great trade of Baltimore with 
the South, and broke the city's connection with the West. Since 
the conflict ended, the revival of this suspended prosperity has been 
steady and firm ; nor can any one observe our thronged streets, our 
crowded cars, our packed vans, the gay crowds of pleasure-seekers 
in our parks, the wide awake, healthy alacrity of our people at all 
times, the rows of comfortable houses built and building in every 
direction, without being aware of Baltimore's substantial growth. 

Prior to 1820, we were rich from foreign and domestic trade, 
combined and nearly monopolized in Baltimore. We are now 
endeavoring to reassert our lost supremacy, mainly through the 
continuation and increase of the Internal Improvement System, 
initiated, as related, soon after the disasters we have heretofore 
described. 

Before the days of sea-going and ocean-crossing steamers, it waa 
objected to Baltimore that it was " not a sea-port," being at the end 



106 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

of two hundred miles of inland navigation ; and it was replied that 
London, Paris, Antwerp, Bremen, Dresden, Berlin and Hamburg, 
the great European trade cities, and Amsterdam, the great financial 
centre of the continent, were not sea-ports. But, since the era of 
sea-going steamers, the geographical fact is of no appreciable, prac- 
tical importance, the vehicle of transportation being continuous. 

And so we return to the great idea of the founders of Baltimore, 
in 1729, that in truth, it is the original, and natural, terminus of 
internal American trade, on the Atlantic seaboard, indicated by the 
geography of the country. 

The canal and railway companies, incorporated over forty years 
ago, have been, and are still striving to demonstrate this. Their 
success in sustaining the city amid all the rivalries of trade, of com- 
peting States and cities, amid the disasters of war, with the small 
capital of a comparatively small State and small city exclusively, 
has been marvellous ; yet, that they have succeeded under all such 
discouragements and disadvantages, is proof of the soundness of 
their basis : the centred and national supremacy of Baltimore. It was 
from Baltimore-Town in Colonial and anti-revolutionary days that 
the trading adventurers, soldiers, or pioneers set forth, when they 
went westward, wending their way by "Fort Cumberland," until 
they penetrated the wilderness, with their long trains of "pack- 
horses," (before the days of wagons,) bearing luxuries into the forest 
to be exchanged for the peltries, which were then almost the only 
"circulating medium" of the region. Maryland, lying like a wedge 
between Pennsylvania and Virginia, and having, in its centre, 
another wedge, in its magnificent Bay and .River, whose affluents 
penetrated its extreme northwestern corner, afforded the easiest 
levels for a channel of trade for passing the mountains and reaching 
the navigable waters of the Ohio, then almost the outer boundary 
of civilized men. Thus, our State became the chief recognized line 
of travel, and our town the chief depot between the Atlantic slopes 
and shores, and the valleys beyond the Alleghany range. Historic- 
ally, as well as geographically, Baltimore is therefore to be reckoned 
the earliest commercial ally of the West. It was certainly so, in 
the days when Braddock and Washington pursued the line I have 
indicated towards Fort Pitt or "Fort Du Quesne ;" and also in 
periods when the common interests and common sense of men 
pointed out a trail for trade, independently of all extraneous rival- 
ries or influences. It continued so, indeed, till the opening of the 
Mississippi, by steam navigation, and until the establishment of the 
New York Canal. 



OF BALTIMORE. 107 

The geographical fact still remains — immutable. All the art, all 
the ingenuity, all the capital of other states and cities, are unable 
to change the surface of the earth, or their relative situation on it. 
They have been unable to destroy the great truth that Baltimore is 
not only the natural depot of American continental trade, but also 
the central point of the sea-board Union, in instantaneous inter- 
course with the National Capital, and that its great Western rail- 
way is the shortest, directest, and, of course, most economical com- 
munication between the West and the sea. 

A glance at any skeleton map of the United States, on which the 
great railways are truthfully laid down, will show this. It will be 
seen that while Boston, New York and Philadelphia stretch out their 
iron arms longingly to the West, every grasp they make drags com- 
modities over a longer road, and, of course, at greater cost. While 
seeking central communications westwardly, we have not been un- 
mindful that there were northern lands and lakes, and mines which 
might contribute to our, and the South's prosperity and convenience. 
Accordingly, we have threaded the Susquehanna with a canal and a 
road, which places Lake Erie nearer to Baltimore than to New York 
or Philadelphia. Our communications with the North and East and 
their connections are perfect, through the Philadelphia, Wilming- 
ton and Baltimore Railroad — the Western Maryland, — and through 
the Northern Central Railway, whose connecting lines at Harrisburg;, 
Williamsport, and elsewhere, throw into its power the products, not 
only of Western New York, and Western Pennsylvania, but of the 
Northwestern Lake and Prairie country of our Union. By the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad we are linked, inseparably, with all 
sections, under the alliances and systems inaugurated through the 
masterly administration of President Garrett. These roads and con- 
nections link our city, by direct and regular intercourse, with Wash- 
ington, Richmond, and the affiliated southern roads penetrating 
Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and Louisiana. 
Through Harper's Ferry and Winchester we penetrate the Valley 
of Virginia, and will shortly make complete southern connections 
in that direction. Through Grafton we wend northwardly to 
Wheeling, or westwardly to Parkersburg ; from the latter, striking 
straight forward, to St. Louis and its connecting Pacific Railroad ; 
and, from the latter, uniting with that griddle of railways which 
checkers Ohio, Indiana, Michigan and Illinois and the far Northwest. 
The Connellsville and Pittsburgh connection with our Baltimore and 
Ohio Road, will open a great line of travel ; and, especially, if the pro- 
posed independent Baltimore, Pittsburgh and Chicago Road shall be 



108 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

finally constructed. That line will be the shortest, cheapest, and 
most direct from the Northwest to tide water. New York has 
been hitherto held as the objective point of Chicago on the Atlantic ; 
but, by this proposed line, Baltimore, now a first-class port, will 
be one hundred and fifty-two miles closer to Chicago than by the 
average distances of the existing lines used to New York. By the 
New York Central Road, from Chicago to New York, it is 185 
miles further than from Chicago to Baltimore ; by the New York 
and Erie, 166 miles; and by the Allentown route, the distance is 104 
miles greater to New York than by the route now proposed from 
Chicago to our city. From Louisville to Baltimore, the distance 
through Cincinnati, is 696 miles ; or 291 less than to New York by 
the Ohio and Mississippi, and N"ew York and Erie lines ; and 293 
less than to New York, by the New York Central ; and 155 less than 
by the Allentown route of the Pennsylvania Road. 

Through the Ohio and Mississippi Road to Cincinnati, and the 
Marietta and Cincinnati Road, thence, the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
road presents a line 210 miles less in distance to Baltimore from St. 
Louis, than the average distance by the three trunk lines used from 
St. Louis to New York. The Baltimore and Ohio Company now 
controls and works, under a permanent lease, the Central Ohio Road 
from Bellaire on the Ohio River to Columbus the capital of the State; 
and it has, also,, a line which extends from Newark, or its Central 
Ohio division, to Sandusky on the lake. The proposed lines of the 
Baltimore and Ohio Road, in connection with its Metropolitan 
branch from the Point of Rocks, reduce the distance from Pittsburgh 
to Washington City, as compared with the route via Harrisburg, full 
seventy-five miles. 

Shortened distance is, of course, a main element of transportation ; 
but facility for transfer, and cheapness of handling, are not the least 
of the material advantages sought for in the competitions of com- 
merce. The establishment of the Locust Point Piers and ware- 
houses has shown the wisdom and foresight with which our great 
railway has been directed. This is, at once, a depot, on deep 
water, for coal, and also a depot for freight and passengers, — reached 
without change of cars from any part of the country. The coal is 
delivered in the hold from the original vehicle of transportation ; 
and the landed emigrant mounts the car for his western home, with- 
out delay, or a dollar's cost for the movement of his baggage, or 
danger of the impositions practiced in other cities by the greedy 
" runners" of rival railways. 

But the main purpose of this great Locust Point Depot and Pier, 



OF BALTIMORE. 109 

— 650 feet long and 100 feet wide, covered with fire-proof ware- 
houses, — is the accommodation of the Clyde built Steamers, at this 
marine tt rminus of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. It was believed 
until within a few years that Xew York alone, could maintain lines 
of steamers to Europe. The trials made by the Baltimore and Ohio 
Company, of a small class of these vessels, induced more extensive 
experiments. Accordingly, two first-class steamships, of 2,500 tons 
burthen were built and put on the sea between Bremen and this 
port ; and, in less than a year, it was found necessary to double the 
line ; and so successful had the attempt proved, that when the new 
stock was offered for the additional capital required, the astute 
merchants of Bremen, who entirely comprehended the advantages 
of Baltimore, offered subscriptions for forty times the sum desired, so 
that the apportionment of the stock made but two and a half per 
centum upon the subscriptions asked for. Another line for Liver- 
pool is necessary and organizing. The great ocean steamers of Xew 
York are supplied with coal carried by the Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad, and shipped from Baltimore. The cost of transportation, 
hence to Xew York, is $2.50 per ton ; and, as our Baltimore steam- 
ers, in their voyage hence to Bremen, consume 800 tons, they, con- 
sequently, save two thousand dollars on each voyage, as compared with 
Xew York. Accordingly, it is not surprising to see that we have, 
in addition to our railroad facilities, and our Bremen or Liverpool 
steamers, regular lines of steam packets, to Xorfolk, Petersburg, 
Richmond, Ya. ; "Wilmingtou, X. C. ; Charleston, Savannah, Key 
West, Havana and Xew Orleans. We have also, most successful 
lines of steamers, by canal and ocean, to Philadelphia, Xew York 
and Boston, and to all parts of our own bay and rivers. The 
old established "Bay Line" of steamers, is most important and 
successful in its connections with the railways of the South, thus 
feeding Baltimore with large supplies of staples, and sending back 
important cargoes of commodities purchased in our city. Our 
northern railways are sufficiently known, while those in connection 
with Washington and Xew York are now especially esteemed, by 
the thousands who yearly use them, for the ease and security of 
the transportation. 

These rail and water communications, with the vast advantages 
they have by comparative cheapness of fuel and facility for its re- 
ception, have certainly added largely, since the late war, to the com- 
merce of Baltimore. Two facts are striking;;. When the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad was chartered in 1826, the whole wealth of the 
city is estimated to have been scarcely more than about seventeen 



110 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

millions of dollars.* The assessed value of real and personal estate 
for taxation in the city in 1870, is $207,181,550; while, under the in- 
fluence of improved business connections, the revenue of the railroad 
has increased from $300,000 per month to $1,000,000 ! The lew 
York importer of coffee sends his ship to Baltimore to avail of its 
lower port charges and superior and economical facilities for trans- 
portation. The city has liberally fostered the road, by furnishing it 
riparian rights, on deep water ; and hence the Company was enabled 
to build its wharves, piers, and warehouses, and to furnish, without 
cost to European steamers, these admirable advantages we have 
described; by which sagacious course the wealth of Baltimore has 
been augmented by many millions in the course of the last six years. 
It has re-established not only our western internal trade, but effec- 
tually re-initiated a lucrative foreign commerce ; large and varied 
importations being now made through Baltimore for the Ohio 
and Mississippi valleys. 

Baltimore is nearest the North, nearest the South, nearest the 
West ; in fact so central on the seaboard as to be nearest all classes 
of industry and of production; it is nearest the manufacturer of the 
North, the agricultural producer of the West and South, the specu- 
lator and purchaser of Europe and the West Indies, and of pur- 
chasers everywhere. 

When our Great Road shall be prolonged to the Pacific Ocean, by 
the contemplated routes, partially in progress, near the 40th parallel 
of latitude, it will become the central belt of North Amerca, — the 
twin clasps of which must be San Francisco and Baltimore. 

But, thus far, we have in the main, flourished by transportation 
only ; yet, transportation is not omnipotent. Freight may be brought 
from the West en masse; for the policy of transportation is only to 
grow opulent by furnishing fresh outlets for productions by carrying 
them over the shortest routes at the most moderate cost. But, all 
the commodities conveyed will not add to the wealth of Baltimore 
more than the price of its transportation. The great commercial 
centres of the world have not become so by exclusive devotion to 
one branch of industry. Variety has always fostered the growth 
and wealth of cities, because variety and supply created a market. 
But, for t\ns, cajrital must be supplied and used with enterprise. We 

* Tho assessed valuation of Baltimore city property for taxation, in 1826, was 
$3,289,354; which, —as we are informed, — was on a basis of one-fifth of actual 
value, and would show the real value to have been $l(i,19(!,770; so that our figures 
are, doubtless, as nearly correct as possible in such estimates concerning long 
past periods. 



OF BALTIMORE. Ill 

do not disparage railways and canals and steamers, when we think 
it best not to rely on them exclusively ; for if railways, canals, and 
steamers fetch merchandise, their business is also to take it abroad, 
and not to deal with it otherwise here. A city never grew rich on 
freight alone; but it grows rich, when, as a market, it becomes the 
terminus of a trade, brought there by the commercial inducements 
offered by a mercantile community, which either takes the intro- 
duced commodities for home or foreign consumption, or for local 
sale, exchange or manufacture. It must, in truth, be a mart, and 
not a mew forwarding entre depot for New York and Boston, where 
commerce, which is the great realizer, shall effectually take hold of 
the transported merchandise, and through its maritime power make 
it the element of international exchange and domestic finance. In 
our observations, elsewhere in this article, on the Banks of Balti- 
more, we give our opinion of the lack of sufficient capital, and the 
danger we may encounter from the further postponement of its 
supply. An important lesson is legible in the financial history of 
New Orleans. That city had advantages even over Baltimore, for 
it was an absolute terminus, on the borders of Southern Civilization, 
of the most extensive and prolific river navigation in the world. As 
soon as steam was introduced, it became the reservoir of the valleys 
of the Ohio, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee, Cumberland, Red 
River, and all their affluents. It absorbed the hemp, cotton, to- 
bacco, sugar, breadstuff's, spirits and provisions of that vast region, 
and certainly then without a possible rival. Yet, what was the re- 
sult ? Who was to deal with this concentrated produce ? It could 
not be consumed or paid for there ; and, who was to take it away or 
sell it ? Louisiana, or Louisiana merchants had no vessels except a 
canoe, a steamboat, or a flatboat ; and of course the North and Eng- 
land, by their maritime power, secured the command of this splen- 
did magazine of Western and Southwestern labor, while, whatever 
income accrued to the local agriculturist, was reinvested in slaves 
and land, if not squandered in luxuries furnished, again, by Europe 
or the North. New York sent its ships, or its freighting vessels to 
New Orleans for the great staple of cotton demanded by England ; 
and, by its European combinations conclusively settled the values 
the South should receive for its products. The independence of New 
Orleans was resigned, notwithstanding the immense materials of 
enduring local wealth in its grasp. It became a mere temporary 
depot ; the commodities it contained being moved by foreign capi- 
tal, and mostly on foreign account. New York, thus made itself 
the central national market for foreign exchanges, founded on the 



112 HISTORICAL SKETCH 

cotton supply and debt, and, obtaining almost a monopoly of impor- 
tation, it forced the country to come to it for supplies ; and, thus 
too, by keeping the rest of the Union its debtor, it controlled the 
domestic exchanges. 

From late events it appears probable that our vast western com- 
munications, by rail and water, are likely to interfere materially 
with the descending navigation of the Mississippi and the trade of 
New Orleans. It is easier, quicker and cheaper to cross from the 
great river to the Atlantic by a straight line, on land, than to float 
around half the nation by water. Time and transhipment are 
money. Cotton and other merchandise that once went to New 
Orleans now come here. Nature always asserts or reasserts herself. 
But shall the ancient and losing game of that southern city be 
played over again in Baltimore, in consequence of local lethargy or 
supineness in the employment of capital in general commerce, — in 
Maryland navigation, — in direct importation, — in liberal advances 
that secure consignments and found a solid local market? With 
all the elements of real commercial success in our hands, shall we 
have no actual commerce ? 

We are thus earnest in attempting to foment an interest in the 
re-establishment of our mercantile marine on Maryland account, — 
once so prosperous in the early days we have described in this nar- 
rative. We are argent because we think the city's prosperity, in 
this age of competition, depends on a quick establishment of a fair 
combination and balance of local, foreign and internal trade. Co- 
operation is essential for the welfare of a great mercantile metropo- 
lis. The opportunity is now clearly presented to us of becoming 
such a capital ; and, through the agencies of steam, the electric 
telegraph, and personal sagacity, wealth and enterprise, our sea- 
going vessels may soon be placed on a footing of equality with 
our railways. 



OP BALTIMORE. 



113 



BALTIMORE: 



AS SHOWN IN 1870, BY THE STATISTICS OF HER POPULATION, PROPERTY, 
EDUCATION, PRODUCTIVE .INDUSTRY, TRADE AND COMMERCE. 



The material wealth and progress of a City, State, or Nation, 
may be reasoned about, or, sufficiently argued, from well arranged 
facts, probabilities or inferences ; but nothing is so demonstratively 
satisfactory as an honest array of " figures which cannot lie." Ac- 
cordingly, in compiling from the most authentic sources, this sketch 
of our city ; we consider it best to close our labors by assembling in 
one section, under proper heads, the statistics of our condition in 
1869 — 1870. These will not only be useful for present and future 
reference or comparison — embracing, as they do, the results of many 
years' growth and various industries — but will prove, beyond 
cavilling, our city's progress, prospects and prosperity. With the 
'augmentation of supplies from all parts of the interior of America — 
nay, from India even, across the Continent ; with our immense 
facilities of transportation, both domestic and foreign; with the 
richest coal in abundance, and of course, with steam in our prompt 
control ; we should surely look forward to a renewal of that world- 
wide commerce, which we fairly called our own, until the war of 
1812. 

POPULATION. 

The census returns of the United States for Baltimore-Town and 
city, from 1790 to 1870, are as follows : 



Years. 


Population. 


Years. 


Population. 


Years. 


Population. 


1790, .... 
1800, .... 
1810, .... 


13,503 
26,114 
35,583 


1820,. . . . 
1830,. . . . 
1840,. . . . 


62,738 

80,625 

102,313 


1850, . . . 

1860, . . . 

1 1870, . . . 


169,054 
212,418 
267,599 



An enumeration of the inhabitants, made by the police force 
makes the population, 283,375, being 15,476 more than the number 
returned by the U. S. Marshal. 

In 1775, there were, altogether in Baltimore-Town, 561 houses 



114 



HISTORICAL SKETCH 



and 5,934 persons of all descriptions ; and in 1829, 12,798 houses, 
and about 80,000 people. In the year 1868 there were 1,675 new 
buildings erected and 530 improvements made in Baltimore, adding 
$5,641,578, worth of property to the taxable basis, while in 1869, 
the increase was still greater ; 2,836 dwellings and 696 improvements 
having been erected and made during that year, yielding the 
additional sum of $6,615,275 to the taxable property, or, nearly a 
million increase over the additions of the previous year ; and, nearly 
one-fourth as many edifices erected in a single year, as existed here 
alogether in 1829 I 

We have taken much pains to obtain an early copy of the United 
States Government returns from the Marshal of our District, who 
has kindly supplied us with all the requisite materials for our 
various tableaux, which will demonstrate the solid growth and 
advantages of our city. And first, we shall exhibit the Population, 
Deaths, Dwellings, &c, by Wards: 

BALTIMORE CITY. 
Census taken by the United States in June, 1870. 




OF BALTIMORE, 



115 



To present a comprehensive glance of the progress of Property, in 
Baltimore, that solid basis of wealth — perhaps nothing will be more 
satisfactory than the following interesting tableau, which we have 
prepared, with much research and difficulty, of the taxable basis of 
Baltimore-Town and Baltimore City, from the earliest accessible 
data in 1729, to the year 1870, inclusive. 

PROPERTY VALUES AND ASSESSMENTS 

Of " Baltimore- Town," of Baltimore- Town and County, and of 

"Baltimore City," from the earliest accessible dates 

and most reliable authorities. 



1785. 
1790. 
1798. 



1813. 
1815. 
1*24. 
1826. 

1828. 



1839. 
1844. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 
1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 
1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 



Value of the original ground of Baltimore-Town, viz. 60 acres, purchased in 
1729. This comprises the space between Liberty street and the Falls, and 
the Basin and Saratoga street, 

At this time taxation was "per poll" or by head, subsequently abolished by 
the Constitution. The tax in this year was 172 lbs. of tobacco per poll, or 
altogether for town axd county on 7.410 persons, — Tobacco, 1,274,520 lbs., 
commutable at 12 shillings and 6 pence per hundred lbs., .... 

Population about 5,000. 

For Town and County of Baltimore, 



For Baltimore City, (Incorporated 1796,) 

Revenue of the City from all sources in 1797, 

" " " " " 1798 

For Baltimore City, 

Revenue of city from all sources in 1808, 

The United Slates Government assessed value of the same property and same 

year was 

The assessed value of property in the precincts of the city, by the city asses- 
sors was, 

For Baltimore City, 

Whole amount derived from direct taxatiox, in Baltimore City, was, . 

For Baltimore City (precincts assessed icith city), 



Revenue of city from all sources in 1826, 

For Baltimore City (precincts assessed with city), 

Revenue of city from all sources in 1828, was 

For Baltimore City, (estimates one-fifth current value,) 

(The rule adopted for assessment of values for taxation, up to 1800, was 
about one-fourth current value; afterwards, for years, about one-fifth cur- 
rent value.) 

Revenue of city from all sources in 1829, was, 

For Baltimore City, 



£ 120 



S 4,542,992 

£ 1.703.022 

1,424,502 

099.519 

3 14.412 

32,865 

2,522,870 

53,731 

31,270,269 

960,798 

3,325,848 

90,000 

3,218,571 

3,239,354 
200,282- 

3,279,121 
194,274 

3,424/240 



314,288 
55,793,370 
58,890,773 
77,847,546 
79,878,372 
83,575,254 
96,784,142 
101,165,204 
L04,915,238 
106,627,885 

110,605,079 
135,499,873 
138,505,765 
138,199,960 



116 



HISTORICAL SKETCH 
Property Values and Assessments — {Continued.) 



1862. 
1863. 
18G4. 
1865. 
1866. 
1867. 
1868. 
1869. 
1870. 



For Baltimore City, 



$134,532,804 
135,091,035 
139,417,797 
143,340,022 
144,926,217 
147,078,105 
206,144,348 
203,739,804 
207,181,550 



The taxation as made and collected is, on this property, in 1870, 
$380,863 for the State of Maryland, and $3,222,106 for the city. The 
paupers supported during the year were 1,749 of foreign birth, and 
1,163 natives, while the whole number of criminals convicted for 
same period was 554 natives and 30 foreigners ; the whole number 
in prison on 1st June, 1870, was 57 foreigners, 262 native whites, 
and 594 native blacks. 



COLLEGES, ACADEMIES AND SCHOOLS. 







Average 


Average 












No 


OF 


No 


OF 


Income : year ended June 1, 1870. 




Character, Rank, 
or Kind. 


Teachers. 


Pdpils. 








No. 


6 


6 

g 
fa 




en 

CD 

£ 
to 
fa 


W g 

e| 

£S 

fa -a 






5£«g 

O OT3.2 

ilfi 




Classical : 


















2 


Universities, . . . 


19 




230 










$18,000 


3 


Colleges, .... 


20 


9 


500 


340 






$2,500 


28,500 


9 


Academies, .... 
Professional : 


23 


42 


252 


327 








34,600 


1 




2 




32 










3,000 


2 


Medicine, .... 


20 




185 










8,300 


1 


Theology, .... 


5 




40 










8,000 


6 


Art and Music, . . 


20 


5 


624 


230 






3,000 


7,141 


3 


Commercial, . . . 
Public Schools : 


14 




733 






• 




21,240 


1 




2 


7 


55 


135 






9,800 




3 


High, 


10 


23 


280 


744 




$16,000 


13,800 


5,200 


37 


Grammar, .... 


22 


170 


3,259 


3,452 




160,800 


48,240 


18,090 


60 


Graded common, . . 




271 


4,641 


5,040 




165,200 


49,560 


18,585 


21 


Ungraded common, . 
Private Schools : 


18 


44 


1,170 


701 




29,948 


8,082 


3,662 


32 




25 


102 


742 


1,032 


$1,640 






32,700 


S 


Hoarding, .... 


22 


20 


711 


568 








55,910 


39 


Parochial, .... 


165 


173 


4,488 


5,185 








17,700 






No regular Charity School— the Parochial Schools are part Charity. 



OF BALTIMORE. 



117 



In this city there is one State collection of hooks, with 1,462 
volumes ; 1 bar or court library, 8,000 volumes ; Company libraries, 
41,500 volumes ; 162 church and college libraries, 98,210 volumes ; 
151 Sabbath-school libraries, 81,335 volumes ; and four circulating 
subscription libraries with 54,655 volumes. It is estimated by the 
Rev. Dr. J. Gr. Morris, that the number of Baltimore authors may be 
stated at 365, including those not natives, but who wrote here ; the 
number of pamphlets written by them being three-fourths larger 
than the number of books. 



PRODUCTIVE INDUSTRY OF BALTIMORE, 

As shown by the United States Census of the Twenty City IJVu-ds 
for 1870, exclusive of establishments, the value of whose pro- 
ductions is less than $500 per annum. 



ESTABLISHMENTS. 



Sugar Refineries, 

Tailors and Clothiers, 

Oysters, Fruit, and Vegetable Packers, . . 

Iron Rails and Plates, 

Boots and Shoes, 

Cigars and Tobacco, 

Cotton Duck Manufacturers, 

Transporters N. C. R., 

Copper Smelting, 

Furniture, Cabinet Makers and Undertakers, 

Bakers, 

Paints, Varnishes, White Lead, &c, . . . 
Tallow, Soap and Candle Works, .... 
Locomotive and Engine Builders, .... 

Planing Mill and Sash Factory, 

Distillers, . . . . ' 

Brick Makers, 

Coopers, 

Iron Founders, 

Carpenters and Builders, 

Tin Can Makers, 

Book and Job Printers, 

Petroleum Refiners, 

Saddles, and Harness Makers, 

Tin and Sheet Iron Workers, Roofing, &c, . 

■ Amounts carried forward, 

9 



Number 
of 


Number of 


Value of Produc- 
tions, omitting 


Establish- 


Hands. 


fractions of dol- 


ments. 




lars. 


4 


434 


$6,832,462 


211 


6,468 


5,357,871 


13 


2,476 


2,698,935 


1 


1,100 


2,692,612 


392 


2,135 


2,518,995 


254 


1,057 


1,843,922 


2 


521 


1,296,401 


1 


2,868 


1,226,046 


1 


140 


1,074,850 


64 


815 


1,145,740 


150 


387 


1,144,366 


4 


90 


1,017,500 


13 


104 


774,700 


7 


383 


660,000 


8 


214 


515,298 


1 


20 


600,000 


35 


808 


627,995 


34 


288 


523,413 


10 


408 


408,288 


50 


252 


978,880 


19 


235 


612,789 


32 


337 


559,821 


5 


26 


478,470 


48 


226 


466,250 


87 


333 


608,569 


1,446 


22,125 


$36,664,773 



118 



HISTORICAL SKETCH 



ESTABLISHMENTS. 



Amounts brought forward, 

Morocco, Leather and Lining Manufacturers, . . . 

Piano Makers, 

Pork Packer and Produce Dealer, 

Flour Mills, 

Linen and Cotton Bags, 

Pig Iron Furnace, 

Linseed Oil Manufactories, 

Stoves, Furnaces, &c, 

Tanners and Curriers, 

Agricultural Implements, 

Marble Workers, 

Fertilizers, 

Malt Mills, 

Carriages and Wagons, 

Box Makers, 

Brewers, 

Confectioners and Candy Makers, 

Broom Makers, 

Crackers and Ship Biscuit, 

Iron Manufacturers, 

Machinists, 

Patent Medicines, Extracts, &c, 

Mustard and Ground Spices, 

Glass Manufacturers, 

Blacksmiths and Wheelwrights, 

Boiler Makers, 

Bell and Brass Founders, 

Turning and Sawing Wood, 

Plumbing and Gas Fitting, 

Pitch, Felt, Cement and Roofing, 

Paper Hanging and Upholstering, 

Sail Makers and Awning Makers, 

Paper Bags, 

Steam Heating Apparatus, 

Wooden Ware Factory, 

Watches and Jewelry, 

Shirt Makers, Drawers, &c, 

Hats and Caps, 

House and Sign Painters, 

Engravers, Die Sinkers and Stencil Cutters, . . . 

Dress Makers, 

Photographers, 

Matches, 

Ship Building and Marino Railway, 

Picture and Looking-Glass Frames, Carvers, Gilders, 



Amounts carried forward, 1,927 



Establish- 
ments. 



1,446 
12 
6 
1 
3 
2 
2 
2 

11 

14 

8 

14 

1 

3 

39 

17 

8 

23 

10 

3 

4 

11 

10 

4 

3 

53 

3 

4 

8 

21 

1 

10 

10 

1 

1 

1 

39 

16 

10 

22 

12 

15 

21 

1 

2 

18 



Number of 
Hands. 



22,125 

180 

361 

24 

20 

84 

234 

41 

133 

101 

130 

232 

53 

48 

241 

207 

86 

85 

173 

68 

124 

141 

77 

24 

244 

148 

164 

52 

121 

79 

16 

78 

49 

. 25 

23 

100 

72 

220 

131 

69 

98 

94 

61 

105 

45 

79 



Value of Produc- 
tions, omitting 
fractions of dol- 
lars. 



,664,773 
567,635 
656,400 
526,125 
557,155 
430,000 
399,000 
396,034 
391,704 
379,884 
369,030 
369,907 
350,000 
339,500 
320,976 
268,700 
254,304 
252,759 
236,738 
245,002 
235,500 
220,168 
265,000 
255,000 
244,400 
186,246 
169,715 
168,435 
165,450 
162,350 
159,153 
155,284 
154,527 
153,275 
150,000 
150,000 
140,710 
137,060 
120,550 
116,550 
115,900 
115,890 
114,010 
110,000 
104,000 
102.732 



26,065 



3,147,531 



OF BALTIMORE 



119 



ESTABLISHMENTS. 



Amounts brought forward, 

Book Binders, Blank Books and Passe Partout, 

Vinegar Makers, 

Pearl Hominy and Corn Mill, 

Chemical Works, 

Gas Works, 

Whips, Canes and Umbrellas, 

Paint Colors, 

Queensware, 

Locksmiths and Bell Hangers, 

Furriers, 

Shot Works, 

Scale Manufacturers, 

Fire Bricks, 

Silver Ware Manufacturers, 

Handles and Spokes, 

Bone Dust Manufacturer, 

Metal Manufacturer, 

Copper Smiths, 

Mattress Manufacturers, 

Turning Stone, 

Rivet and Spike Works, 

Saw Mill, 

Soda, Mineral Water and Syrup Manufacturers, 

Potteries, 

Plaster Mills, 

Hoop Skirt and Corset Makers, 

Gas Meters, 

Tonic Bitters, 

Banners, Regalia, Flags, &c, 

Gold and Silver Plated Ware, 

Rope Makers, 

Steam Sawing and Splitting Kindling Wood, . 
Bottlers of Porter and Mineral Water, . . . 

Burr Mill Stones, 

Iron Safe and Vault Maker, 

Willow Ware, 

Trunk Makers, 

Stone and Granite Cutters, 

Soap Stone Worker, 

Building Materials, 

Brush Makers, 

Dyers and Scourers, 

Truss Manufacturers, 

Snuff Manufacturers, 

Carpet Weavers, 

Amounts carried forward, 



Number 
of 


Number of 


Value of Produc- 
tions, omittiDg 


Establish- 


II 11 11 'Is. 


fractions of dol- 


ments. 




lars. 


1,927 


26,065 


$48,147,531 


13 


120 


91,021 


3 


6 


88,000 


1 


12 


85,497 


1 


7 


75,000 


1 


411 


75,000 


10 


44 


77,000 


1 


12 


75,000 


1 


93 


75,000 


21 


52 


69,029 


5 


29 


65,500 


1 


12 


62,354 


2 


5 


62,000 


2 


60 


61,000 


2 


30 


60,000 


1 


50 


60,000 


1 


10 


58,000 


1 


5 


56,000 


7 


20 


52,625 


6 


26 


52,200 


1 


3 


51,636 


1 


11 


50,000 


1 


15 


50,000 


7 


28 


49,776 


5 


37 


48,249 


3 


22 


46,920 


5 


33 


46,270 


1 


25 


45,000 


3 


12 


43,600 


3 


22 


42,500 


G 


33 


42,317 


3 


35 


38,890 


3 


10 


38,000 


3 


15 


36,000 


2 


19 


35,530 


1 


12 


35,000 


2 


79 


34,500 


8 


31 


31,800 


6 


47 


30,853 


1 


24 


30,000 


1 


10 


30,000 


4 


25 


29,000 


10 


20 


27,450 


4 


13 


27.250 


4 


16 


26,955 


10 


21 


26,488 


2,105 


27,687 


$50,441,741 



120 



HISTORICAL SKETCH 



ESTABLISHMENTS. 



Amounts brought forward, 

Wig, Ornamental Hair Works and Hair Dressers, 

Cigar Box Makers, 

Curled Hair Manufactory, 

Horse Shoe Makers, 

Boat Builders and Oar Makers, 

Bark Mill, 

Gold Leaf Manufacturer, 

Tobacco Pipe Manufactories, 

Organ Manufactories, 

Show Case Manufacturers, 

House Furnishing Goods, 

Slate Roofer, 

Japanners and Bronzers, 

Wire Cloth and Wire Works, 

Scroll Sawing, 

Barrel Factories, 

Musical Instrument Makers, 

Gun Smiths, 

Horse Shoers, 

Block and Pump Makers, 

Shoe and Gaiter Uppers, 

Hydrants and Pumps, 

Coffin Makers, 

Type Founder, 

Basket Makers, 

Milliners, 

Mathematical and Nautical Instrument Makers, . 

Sponge Goods, 

Saw Factories, 

Dress Trimmings, 

Stereotype and Electrotype, 

Cotton Press, 

Glass Stainer, 

Shoe Blacking Maker, 

Leather and Riveted Hose, 

Cutlery and Surgical Instruments, 

Plane Maker, 

Hoisting Machines and Dumb Waiters, .... 

Belt and Calf Roller Skins, 

Provision Safe Maker, 

Sewing Machine Repairers, 

. Billiard Table Maker, 

Pyrotechnist, 

Chair Makers 

Copper Lightning Rods, 

Amounts carried forward, 



Establish- 
ments. 



±2M 



J umber of 
Hands. 



2,105 


27,687 


$50,441,741 


5 


13 


26,450 


4 


30 


24,964 


1 


12 


24.392 


7 


16 


24,000 


6 


12 


22,679 


1 


8 


20,400 


1 


9 


19,000 


2 


22 


18,900 


2 


14 


18,400 


2 


7 


18,300 


3 


11 


18,200 


1 


5 


18,000 


3 


8 


17,800 


3 


7 


17,600 


1 


14 


17,579 


3 


24 


17,488 


2 


3 


17,000 


7 


14 


16,600 


4 


10 


13,100 


5 


11 


12,298 


2 


5 


12,200 


1 


4 


12,180 


7 


12 


12,120 


1 


15 


12,000 


6 


8 


11,200 


9 


15 


11,000 


4 


10 


10,750 


1 


5 


10,500 


2 


8 


10,000 


10 


10 


10,000 


1 


14 


10,000 


1 


15 


10,00.) 


1 


4 


9,300 


1 


2 


9,000 


2 


6 


9,000 


5 


12 


8,950 


1 


3 


8,000 


1 


5 


8,000 


1 


1 


7,512 


1 


o 


7,500 


5 


6 


7,300 


1 


1 


7,200 


1 


4 


7,000 


2 


5 


6,700 


1 


1 


5,300 



28,110 



Value of Produc- 
tions, omitting 
fractions of dol- 
lars. 



$51,057,603 



OF BALTIMORE 



121 



ESTABLISHMENTS. 



Amounts brought forward, 

Toy Manufactory, 

Ornamental Plaster Works, . . 
Patent "Wheel Manufacturer, 

Edge Tool Makers, 

Plaster Centre Piece Maker, . . 
Pocket Book Makers, .... 

Hair Tonic, 

Tool Dresser, 

Roofing Paper, 

Show Cards, 

Last Makers, 

Gold Leaf Manufacturer, . . . 

Seine Maker, 

Thermometers, 

Smoking Tobacco, 

Tooth Powder Manufacturer, . 

Gold Pen Maker, 

Cotton Domestic Manufacture, . 

Stocking Weaver, 

Lace Repairer, 

Artist, 



Number 

of 
Establish- 
ments. 


Number of 
Hands. 


Value ( 
tions 
fracti 
lars. 


f Produc- 
omitting 
onsof dol- 


2,236 
1 


28,110 
10 


$51,057,603 
5,000 


2 
1 


3 
1 




4,100 
3,600 


2 
1 
2 
1 
1 


2 
1 
2 
3 
3 




3,125 
3,000 
2,800 
2,500 
2,500 


1 
1 


3 
1 




2,500 
2,400 


2 


2 




2,100 


1 


o 




2,000 


1 
1 
1 
1 


25 
1 
1 
1 




2,000 
2,000 
1,800 
1,700 


1 
1 
1 
1 


1 
2 
2 

1 




1,500 

1,500 

1,000 

800 


1 


1 




750 


2,261 


28,178 


$51,106,278 



Of all our industries the refining of sugar seems to have been the 
most extensive, affording a product of $6,882,462 ; while the industry 
that approached in value was that of the 211 tailors and clothiers, 
who, with 6,468 employes, realized $5,357,871 ; while the 4 sugar 
refineries had required only 434 hands to earn their nearly seven 
millions ! Significant as are the results displayed by this summary 
of the productive industry of Baltimore, derived from the census 
returns of June, 1870, we cannot but doubt their exactness in afford- 
ing a complete picture of our labor, capital, and enterprise. There is a 
morbid reluctance on the part of men to divulge the secrets of their 
factories, warehouses, or dwellings. When the " census taker" ap- 
pears, their reticence becomes aggravated. Some suppose there are 
hidden designs of taxation in the inquisition set on foot by the Gov- 
ernment ; others desire to conceal their business, — its extent, or its 
poverty, — from the knowledge of competitors ; others, again, regard 
the inquiry as simply impertinent and offensive, so that the mar- 
shals are generally either misinformed or thwarted while endeavor- 
ing honestly to comply with the requirements of law in presenting 



122 



HISTORICAL SKETCH 



an exact tableau of their local industries. These remarks apply with 
special force to the productions of individual or corporate industry, 
and we doubt whether any census, taken under existing systems, 
will ever do more than present proximate returns of the general 
results. 



STATISTICS OF RELIGION. 

Statistics of Religion in Baltimore, in 1870, shoiv the following 

Results : 



Churches. 



21 

17 
15 
42 
7 
2 
6 
6 
1 
4 
12 
2 
1 
3 
1 
1 
4 
6 
7 
3 



DENOMINATION. 



Protestant Episcopal, . .. 

Presbyterian, 

Roman Catholic, . . . . 
Methodist Episcopal, . . 
Methodist Episcopal (South). 
Methodist Independent, . 
Methodist Protestant, . . 
Reformed Church, . . . 
Christian Church, . . . 

Baptist, '. 

Evangelical Lutheran, . . 
Evangelical Association, . 
Independent Church, . . 

Friends, 

Universalist, 

Unitarian, 

Jewish Synagogues, . . . 
United Brethren, .... 
African Methodist, . . . 
Swedenborgian, .... 



Accommodate. 



14,050 

14,275 

25,000 

26,020 

5,000 

1,300 

4,600 

5,040 

600 

3,600 

10,000 

800 

1,600 

3,250 

700 

800 

2,750 

6,600 
900 



Value. 



(?) 



$808,000 

983,000 

2,080,000 

1,214,900 

130,000 

55,000 
157,600 
285,000 

20,000 

40,000 
296,000 

42,000 
150,000 
107,000 

30,000 
150,000 
650,000 

113,600 
2.7,000 



NEWSPAPER, PERIODICAL, LITERATURE. 



The newspaper, magazine, and quarterly literature of the city is 
comprised in the issues of seven daily newspapers, with an alleged 
aggregate circulation, in all, of 82,500 copies ; of ten weeklies, with 
an entire aggregate circulation of 67,694 ; of one tri-weekly, with a 
circulation of 5,000 ; of four monthlies, issuing 10,200 copies in all ; 
and one quarterly, with a subscription list of about 2,000 names. 



OF BALTIMORE. 123 



THE CITY PASSENGER RAILWAY. 

The City Passenger Railway is now so much of an "indis- 
pensable institution" to our citizens, and has produced so much to 
the development of Baltimore by its prompt and cheap trans- 
portation to all parts, that it deserves special record in an analysis 
of our resources and their prosperity. This association began its 
public operations on the 28th of July, 1859 ; and, during the year 
ending 30th April, 1862, in 50 cars and with 350 horses, carried 
3,738,162 passengers — all the lines, except those of Charles, and 
Albemarle, and High streets, being then in operation. The vast 
stride of Baltimore's advancement is seen in the increase seven 
years aftewards, when, in 1869, 75 cars and 600 horses, on 32 
miles of track, transported 11,385,464 people. The tax of one- 
fifth of gross receipts, payable to the city of Baltimore, for the 
Public Parks, has been, up to the 1st October, 1870, $758,887; 
while, since January, 1864, the Company has paid dividends on 
stock and government tax to the amount of $350,000. It is 
alleged that, from the large increase of value of labor and mate- 
rials, the cost of working the road is 100 per cent, greater than 
at the date of its charter. 



IMPROVEMENT OF THE HARBOR AND ITS RIVER 
AND BAY APPROACHES. 

Appreciating the harbor of Baltimore as important not only for 
its own private and general commerce, but, in fact, as a national 
port of supply and delivery, especially as a depot of coal and naval 
supplies, the United States Government has, for several years, united 
with this State and City in expenditures for the deepening of the 
river channel to our wharves. Up to 1858, the result was a practi- 
cable channel, 150 feet wide and 22 feet deep, from a point one mile 
and a half below Port Carroll, to a point just beyond !Korth Point, 
about four and a half miles in length, with several incomplete cuts, 
extending a mile or two below. The whole work was then left in 
an unfinished condition. In 1866, there was a careful resurvey by 
the general government of the river and bay below Fort Carroll, and 
the fact was developed by it that the tides and currents, setting 



124 



HISTORICAL SKETCH 



down the Susquehanna, had already materially injured the excava- 
tions that had been previously made below North Point ; and it was 
moreover shown that all the lower portion of the original line of 
channel, eastward of the Seven Foot Knoll light, was subject to 
obstruction by fields of floating ice. In consequence of this, a new 
channel was traced out by Col. Craighill of the IT. S. Engineer 
Corps, U. S. A., and now called after him, 200 feet wide and 22 feet 
deep at mean low water, with a length of four and seven-eighths 
miles, deflecting from a point of the Brewerton Channel three- 
fourths of a mile below the Seven Foot Knoll light, and running 
thence due south towards Sandy Point. A revised estimate of the 
whole route, from Fort McHenry, with an increased width of 50 feet 
beyond the original plan, was also submitted; and in November, 
1869, the new thoroughfare was opened to commerce, while that 
part of the Brewerton Channel, above the junction with the new 
one, was nearly restored to its original dimensions of 150 feet width 
and 22 feet depth. 

Thus, Baltimore, at length, has a deep, straight and secure 
channel for her commerce, and the Government a depot for that 
species of coal which is not only best for her steam vessels of 
war and transports, but, of course, more economically sujiplied in 
Baltimore from our Maryland mines, than from any other port 
in the Union. 



VALUE OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 
District of Baltimore, for the Years: 





Imports. 


Exports. 




Imports. 


Exports. 


1847, . . 


$4,146,743 


$9,826,479 


1854, . . 


$7,750,387 


$11,306,012 


1848, 




5,245,894 


7,209,609 


1855, . . 


7,772,591 


11,675,996 


1849, 




5,291,506 


8,660,982 


1856, . . 


10,140,838 


13,362,252 


1850, 




6,417,113 


8,530,971 


1857, . . 


11,054,676 


11,398,940 


1851, 




7,243,903 


6,466,160 


1858, . . 


7,954,422 


10,235,890 


1852, 




5,978,021 


7,549,768 


1859, . . 


10,408,993 


8,724,261 


1853, 




6,331,671 


9,086,910 









OF BALTIMORE. 



125 



STATEMENT 

Of Foreign Merchandise Imported into, and Domestic and 
Foreign Merchandise Exported from, the Customs District 
of Baltimore, Md., from July 1st, 1859, to June 30th, 1870, 
inclusive. 







IMPORTS. 


DOMESTIC 
EXPORTS. 


FOREIGN MERCHANDISE 
EXPORTED. 


Fiscal year 
















ending 


Free of 


Paying 


Total 


Total 


Free of 


Paying 


Total. 


June 30. 


Duty. 


Duty. 


Value. 


Value. 


Duty. 


Duty. 


Value. 


1860, . . . 


$4,563,593 


$5,221,180 


$9,784,773 


$8,804,606 


$24,178 


$475 


$24,653 


1861, . 




1,907,343 


4.541.762 


9,449,105 


12,949,625 


18S,202 


102,456 


290,718 


1862, . 




632,313 


3,064,307 


3,696,620 


8,375,303 


35,780 


62,21S 


97,998 


1863, . 




177.664 


4,306,735 


4.4S4,399 


11,013,871 


850,425 


224,776 


1,075,201 


1864, . 




159,882 


5,675,621 


5,S35,503 


8.741.755 


826,269 


112,781 


939,050 


1865, . 




94,456 


4.721,998 


4,816,454 


11,794,546 


33,357 


313,134 


346,491 


1866, . 




235,534 


7,920.4".7 


8,155,991 


10,804,012 


59,041 


44.030 


103,071 


1867, . 




616,877 


11.592,632 


12,209,509 


10,995,348 


6,073 


122,457 


128,530 


1868, . 




687,928 


12,242,805 


12,930,733 


13,857.:V.»1 


470 


164,664 


H.. "..134 


1869, . 




269.471 


15,593,561 


15,863,032 


13,657,530 


2,760 


237,790 


240,550 


1870, . 




776,088 


18,736,380 


19,512,468 


14,330,248 


846 


199,379 


200,225 



DUTIES 

Paid, in Coin on Imports, Baltimore, for the years folloicing : 
to December 31st, 1870, inclusive. 



1860, 
1861, 
1862, 
1863, 
1864, 
1865, 



$1,166,590 77 
T-2'2,443 04 
1,941,529 51 
1,919,2-29 99 
2,167,120 05 
2,983,202 33 




$4,665,064 35 
5,798,820 85 
6,217,496 41 
9,027,513 03 
9,122,239 29 



These figures, from 1860 to 1870, comprising the disastrous and 
paralyzing period of the civil war, (the last year of peace, and the 
last year since the end of the war,) compare advantageously with 
the thirteen years prior to the war ; and, in the last decade, show 
an actual doublino; of our commerce. 



126 



HISTORICAL SKETCH 



BANKS AND CAPITAL. 



In considering the interests of Baltimore and their development, 
we have rarely conversed with a well informed merchant who was 
not impressed with the deficiency of bank capital in our city, or of 
its occasional misuse by boards entrusted with its management. It 
is true that Baltimore suffered, as we have shown, in early days, by 
the miserable accommodation and credit system, fostered by the 
banks at that time ; yet these systems have not been altogether 
abandoned, notwithstanding our experience, so that a more liberal 
supply of monej^ through regular banking institutions would doubt- 
less afford a much more secure basis of trade than the private dis- 
counting which has prevailed at various times to so great an extent 
among us. The legalization of a higher rate of interest would, 
doubtless, be a step in advance. " The Bank of Maryland, with 
$200,000 capital, was established in 1790, and a branch Bank of 
the United States in 1792. In 1795, the Bank of Baltimore was 
chartered with $1,200,000 capital. ISTine years after, in 1804, the 
Union Bank appeared with $3,000,000 capital, reduced (we believe) 
25 per cent, in 1821. In 1810, the Commercial and Farmers, the 
Farmers and Merchants, the Franklin, and the Marine Banks, with 
a capital of $1,709,100. In 1811, the City Bank, with $839,405. 
In 1812, the Mechanics Bank was created with an original capital 
of $1,000,000, reduced 40 per cent, also in 1821, and in 1818, the 
Savings Bank of Baltimore was incorporated." 

These constituted our financial institutions, together with the 
branch of the second Bank of the United States — whose disastrous 
explosion we have mentioned — until 1834, when the Merchants 
Bank, and afterwards a few others were added, after considerable 
efforts and importunity. "We have in all nineteen banks, and three 
savings institutions. 

The able report of the Corn and Flour Exchange, of this year, 
alludes to our deficiency in striking terms: "In 1861, the banking 
capital of Baltimore was $10,408,000, it is now, nine years after- 
wards, only $11,606,000, showing an increase of but $1,197,000. 
Meanwhile our neighbors of Philadelphia, in 1861, had $11,963,000, 
and have now $17,117,260; an increase of over five millions of 
dollars; nevertheless, judging from the returns of the officer of the 
United States Customs of Baltimore, our city to-day outranks 



OF BALTIMORE 



127 



Philadelphia as a port of entry. Our custom receipts for the current 
year exceed those of Philadelphia ; our imports having increased 
during the five last years nearly 300 per cent. The increased aggre- 
gate trade, not including the great increase of our manufactures, has 
been fully one hundred per cent., while our banking capital, for the 
same time, has augmented but 10 per cent." The increase of 
legal interest to 7 per cent, would, doubtless, retain private as well 
as banking capital, legitimately belonging here, which, under our 
existing laws, seeks other points for investment, and it would, 
doubtless, cause capital to flow to us, for the same purpose, from 
other localities. 



GRAIN AND FLOUR TRADE OF BALTIMORE. 

The grain trade of Baltimore for the year 1869, demonstrates that 
our city maintains her position as the second grain market of the 
Atlantic coast. The aggregate receipts of every kind of grain for 
that year were 8,515,755 bushels, an excess of 722,247 bushels over 
1868. The receipts of wheat were 3,239,994 bushels, an increase of 
943,001 bushels; of corn, 3.923,563 bushels, a deficit of 162,914 
bushels; of oats, 1,171,354 bushels, an excess of 55,379 bushels; of 
rye, 180,844 bushels, an excess of 36,155 bushels. The total receipts 
of grain upon the Corn Exchange floor, for the five years beginning 
with 1864, were 34,995,964 bushels, showing the receipts of 1869 
to be 1,516,562 bushels in excess of the average of those preceding 
years. The flour market, specially is shown by the following 
tableau.'- ; 



Flour Inspections in Baltimore for I860. 



Total inspections of wheat flour for 1869, 
Dispersed as follows : 

Shipped foreign, 

Shipped coastwise, 

Taken for local trade and neighboring wants, 
Balance stock in hand, January 1st, 1870, . 



Barrels. 



350,121 
215,000 
444,860 
105,000 



Barrels. 



1,123,981 



1,123,981 



128 



HISTORICAL SKETCH 



Flour Inspections in Baltimore for the last six, years. 





1870. 


1869. 


1868. 


1867. 


1866. 


1865. 


Howard Street, . 
City Mills, . . . 

Ohio, 

Family, .... 


264,758 
369,-208 
281,790 
201,578 


242,508 
378,526 
306,607 
196,340 


216,635 
344 978 
200.870 
125,927 


215,985 
335,661 

78,598 
84,516 


189,871 

329,466 

328,788 

65,009 


244,246 

398,819 

262,080 

78,846 


Total, . . . 

Rye, 

Corn Meal, . . . 


1,117,314 

4,751 

19,641 


1,123,981 

5,497 

41,939 


888,410 

9,183 

46,099 


714,760 
14,115 
45,463 


913,134 
11,199 
46,061 


984,021 
12,255 
32,892 



Exports of Flour from, Baltimore for the last five years. 



DESTINATION. 

Great Britain, . . . 

Bremen, 

Holland, 

France, 

Brazil, 

River la Plata, . . . 
British N. A. Colonies, 
Venezuela, .... 
West Indies, . . . 
Other ports, .... 

Total, .... 



1870. 



36,777 

28 

579 

185,045 
18,882 
20,696 

74,875 
2,050 



338,932 



50,066 

337 

55 

180,524 

9,894 

19,645 

98,377 
223 



359,121 



7,740 

20 

3 

103,540 

32,025 

101,800 
1,318 



246,446 



1867. 



2,948 
103 
158 

78,683 

7,400 

19,456 

51,677 
835 



161,260 



6 
16 
33 

92,541 

16,507 

70,070 
125 



179,298 



These show an increase of export of flour of 112,675 barrels over 
that of 1868, and of 179,823 barrels over the export of 1866.* 



* The flour production of the city will be found in the general tableau of city 
productions, as given by the census returns of 1870, which is contained in this 
section. The flour and meal production of the adjacent county of Baltimore is at 
least $2,500,000 in value, and of the adjacent county of Carroll, half a million of 
dollars more. 



OF BALTIMORE. 129 



THE TOBACCO TRADE. 

The tobacco trade of Maryland, of all that staple produced in our 
State, may be said to centre at Baltimore, as the great depot of 
inspection, sale and shipment to foreign countries. Tobacco is still 
one of our most valuable agricultural products, notwithstanding the 
deterioration of qualities from the very early days, as well as the 
change of labor-system within the few last years. For many years 
it absorbed the attention of farmers and planters to the entire 
exclusion of grain, and it was not until the occurrences described by 
us in a previous part of this article, that, the failure of foreigners 
to buy the weed forced our planters into the wiser and healthier 
culture of the cereals which must always be needed, as they are 
the necessaries, and not the luxuries, of life. 

But the peculiar characteristics of our Maryland tobacco at 
present, afford it only a limited field for consumption, as it is 
unsuited for cigars, snuff or chewing, and used solely by smokers of 
the pipe, who are contented with, or confined to, a very cheap 
article. Hence it is consumed chiefly by the peasantry of Germany 
and Holland, who cannot afford the price paid for a richer tobacco, 
and would unquestionably smoke their wretched home-grown weed, 
if the rates were significantly raised. This has been often proved 
when European dealers and manufacturers were obliged to pay 
over four cents per pound to our planter for his commodity. As 
soon as this rise occurred, the foreign demand ceased, and the 
German cultivation began ; and Baden, which had raised but 
30,000,000 pounds, soon doubled her crop. Accordingly, tobacco, 
like most of the luxuries of life, has to be dealt with wisely and 
gently by legislators, especially when its inferior grade fails to 
commend it to the consumers of " Cabanas" and " Partagas," and 
leaves it exclusively to the poor abroad, to whom the stimulus and 
not the aroma of the plant is the only essential. In this respect 
bad whisky seems to have still a decided advantage over bad 
tobacco, and finds its recompensing consumers among the rich as 
well as the indigent. But whisky is more subtle than tobacco ; 
and can disguise its flavor from the palate ; while tobacco, in con- 
sumption, must forever disclose its qualities as soon as it touches 
our lips. Hence the poor buyers of our cheap tobacco will bear no 
interference with their rates, and begin to plant as soon as we begin 
to demand higher prices. In 1857, when a partial failure of the 



130 



HISTORICAL SKETCH 



tobacco crop and consequent speculation sent up the rate of ordi- 
nary Maryland to seven and eight cents per pound, the European 
markets did not respond, and it only led to increased cultivation. 
The high prices of 1857, caused Russian manufacturers to substi- 
tute Turkish and other varieties of similar appearance for "yel- 
low" and " spangled" Ohio tobacco, of which they had been previ- 
ously consuming more than 2,000 hogsheads yearly. The smokers 
probably were not at first pleased by the change ; but cheapness and 
the smoke satisfied them for the time ; and, gradually becoming 
habituated, they grew so contented that it is doubtful whether they 
will ever re-demand the Ohio staple, even when attainable at old 
prices. Rough smokers, like the majority of peasantry everywhere, 
soon become demoralized in taste ; and free from the plague of 
excessive sensitiveness, put up, in time, with " oak leaves" if they 
cannot get tobacco, or do not know that the artful cheater has mixed 
the oak with the genuine article. We trust, therefore, that in 
future State and National legislation, tobacco will be carefully 
treated ; and, especially, the products of Ohio and Maryland, for 
which it is far easier to find substitutes than for Virginia and 
Kentucky, and other similar Western tobaccos. 

As figures disclose most faithfully the fluctuations of production 
and consumption, and show the character of a trade more distinctly 
than mere narrative, I shall present some tables, carefully prepared 
under the auspices of the Baltimore Board of Trade, embracing the 
operations in Baltimore in this staple, from 1848 to 1870 : 



Tobacco Inspections at Baltimore from 18Jf8 to I860, inclusive. 



YEARS. 



1860, 
1859, 
1858, 
1857, 
1850, 
1855, 
1854, 
1853, 
1852, 
1851, 
1850, 
1849, 
1848, 







Kentucky 




Maryland. 


Ohio. 


and 
other kinds. 


Total. 


51,000 


23,000 


3,100 


77,503 


44,480 


15,331 


3,022 


62,801 


45,200 


22,300 


3,169 


70,669 


38,057 


7,640 


1,608 


47,305 


38,330 


12,959 


1,563 


52,852 


28,470 


10,097 


991 


39,558 


20,048 


10,362 


2,560 


38,970 


29.248 


17,947 


1,472 


48,667 


29,5G9 


17,720 


1,043 


48,332 


25,013 


10,798 


931 


42,742 


27,085 


13,965 


783 


41,833 


30,689 


13,664 


1,248 


45,601 


23,491 


9,702 


703 


33,906 



OF BALTIMORE. 



131 



Exports of Tobacco from the Port of Baltimore for the same 

period. 



YEARS. 



1860, 
1859, 
1858, 
1857, 
1856, 
1855, 
1854, 
1853, 
1852, 
1851, 
1850, 
1849, 
1848, 



24,700 
19,180 
16,542 
18,034 
20,612 
9,103 
18,016 
18,947 
22.860 
12,654 
15,864 
18,821 
12,787 



Rotterdam, 



22,700 

21,735 

18,059 

11,711 

14,215 

7,510 

7,407 

10,395 

11,473 

9,694 

7,815 

13,783 

7,910 



Amster- 
dam. 



5,244 
1,253 

3,825 
4,054 
7,779 
10 
5,583 
9,980 
5,067 
4,154 
5,973 
8,725 
3,103 



France. 



6,825 
8,311 

16,935 
7,438 
4.891 
7,527 

10,180 
5,380 
7,679 
2,327 
8,177 
9,562 
5,761 



All other 
places. 



7,677 
5,495 
11,173 
6,325 
8,301 
1,144 
4,006 
5,986 
7,734 
5,292 
6,940 
1,033 
131 



Total. 



67,142 
55,974 
66,534 
47,562 
55.798 
36,392 
45,192 
50,688 
54,813 
34,124 
44,368 
51,924 
38,890 



STATEMENT 

Of Inspections, Exports and Stocks Tobacco, from 18G1 to 1S70, 

inclusive. 



YEARS. 



1870, 
1869, 
1868, 
1867, 
1866, 
1865, 
1864, 
1863, 
1862, 
1861, 



Inspections. 



Exported. 



41,510 


32,519 


44,548 


44,494 


37,959 


32,800 


58,996 


61,930 


47,660 


52,663 


43,952 


42,005 


52,873 


45,052 


55,975 


44,137 


58,699 


55,447 


67,571 


85,237 



Stocks. 



7,345 

4,023 

8,779 

8,506 

17,645 

22,297 

20,938 

21,560 

6,470 

24,500 



132 



HISTORICAL SKETCH 



Tobacco Inspections at Baltimore from 1861 to 1870, inclusive. 



YEARS. 



1870, 

1869, 
1868, 
1867, 
1866, 
1865, 
1864, 
1863, 
1862, 
1861, 







Kentucky 




Maryland. 


Ohio. 


and 
other kinds. 


Total. 


25,696 


13,614 


2,200 


47,070 


27,782 


15,716 


1,050 


44,548 


27,064 


9,644 


1,251 


37,959 


41,387 


21,505 


905 


63,747 


• 31,515 


15,396 


566 


47,660 


25,479 


21,961 


3,077 


43,952 


28,518 


17,032 


2,140 


52,619 


36,676 


13,560 


2,267 


55,975 


41,493 


14,152 


3,646 


58,699 


50,407 


23,000 


3,012 


67,571 



SHIPMENTS 



Of Maryland and Ohio Tobacco from Baltimore, January 1st to 
December 31st, for fourteen Years. 





1857. 


1858. 


1859. 


1860. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


1866. 


1867. 


1868. 


1869. 


1870. 


Bremen, . 


17,427 


15,660 


18,593 


24,767 


31,911 


12,280 


10,288 


15,469 


13,738 


15,005 


22.190 


9,381 


17,358 


9,676 


Rotterdam, 


11,715 


17,985 


20.715 


22,949 


22,708 


11,542 


7,993 


11,868 


7,910 


15,198 


21,137 


5,632 


7,763 


8,014 


Amsterdam 


4,066 


3,759 


1,298 


5,221 


8,183 


8,024 


3,370 


4,837 


4,753 


4,192 


5,467 


7,910 


6,992 


5,893 


England, . 


2,148 


4,288 


1,950 


3,010 


6,440 


3,827 


3,109 


2,467 


1,084 


682 


2.358 


2,109 


1,192 


4,872 


France,. . 


7,438 


16,935 


8,401 


6,825 


5,215 


4,470 


6,383 


7,457 


5,863 


6,320 


9,959 


5,766 


9,672 


1,908 


Spain, . . 




2,601 




1,169 




6,296 


5,050 


2,280 


5,212 


818 




1,669 




202 


Trieste, 


1,213 


1,140 




900 




















46 


Russia, . . 






























Aut\verp,&c 


252 








1,133 




















Total, . 


44,259 


62,368 


50,957 


64,841 


75,590 


48,439 


30,193 


44,378 


38,560 


42,215 


61,111 


32,461 


42.077 


30,611 


Inspections 






























of Mary- 






























land and 






























Ohio foi 






























the same 






























period, . 


45,697 


67,50( 


59,811 


74,000 


64,559 


55,053 


53,708 


50,733 


Hi. ST.", 47,094 


58,091 


36,708 


43,788 


37.709 



The census returns (of 1870) that there were 254 establishments in 
Baltimore for the manufacture of cigars and tobacco, employing 
1057 hands, the value of whose produce was $1,843,922. This 
return, of course, does not include the manufacturers whose yearly 
product is worth less than $500. 



OF BALTIMORE. 



133 



COFFEE AND SUGAR. 

The Coffee trade of Baltimore, together with that of Sugar, has 
always been one of the most important of our commercial interests. 
When we enjoyed almost a monopoly of the " Colonial Trade," as 
we have shown we did during the European wars, Baltimore may 
be said to have been mistress of the market, and there is no reason, 
— with our enterprise and novel facilities, — why Ave should not 
approach, if not regain, our supremacy in supplying the great cen- 
tral portions of this Continent and their dependencies. It is alleged 
that in 1869 and 1870, Coffee importations were encouraged beyond 
all precedent, the excess over 1867 and 1868, — the largest imports 
previously known, — being very large. The comparative and pro- 
gressive figures of the last five years' transactions in Coffee imports 
are as follows : 



Imports of Coffee at Baltimore for the past five Years. 



FROM. 


1S70. 


18G9. 


1868. 


1SG7. 


1866. 


Rio Janeiro, 
Laguayra & 
Other Ports, 


P. Cabello, 


499,258 

4,288 
2,888 


333,842 

2,282 
10,240 


263,632 

1,335 

7,688 


266,926 
1,220 

581 
21,051 


160,487 

2,761 

14,770 

16,145 








506,434 


346,370 


272,655 


289,778 


180,870 



Imports of Coffee at Baltimore from Br axil for the past 
twenty -three years. 



YEAR. 



Bags. 



1848, . . . 

1849, ... 

1850, . . . 

1851, . . . 

1852, . . . 

1853, . . . 

1854, . . . 

1855, . . . • 

1856, . . . 

1857, . . . 

1858, . . . 

1859, . . . 

To" 



204,485 
186,173 
144,492 
256,142 
224,080 
185,980 
200,829 
249,060 
197,989 
203,560 
188,019 
230,984 



Y EAR. 



1860, 
1861, 
1862, 
1863, 
1864, 
1865, 
1866, 
1867, 
1868, 
1869, 
1870, 



Bags. 



181,292 
137,300 

;;. ;:."» 

73,957 
91,184 
86,725 
160,487 
266,926 
263,632 
333,842 
499.258 



134 



HISTORICAL SKETCH 



This solid increase from 1848, when the import was 204,485, — 
interrupted during the five years of war and its results, — demon- 
strates the superiority of Baltimore as a distributing point for those 
necessaries of life, Coffee and Sugar. 

The importation of Sugar is required at Baltimore not only for 
distribution of the raw material, but for the three large Refineries, 
the Baltimore, the Calvert and the Maryland. The Calvert com- 
pany has a capacity of refining from twenty-two to twenty-four 
millions of pounds yearly ; the capacity of the Maryland Refinery 
is about forty millions of pounds, and is equalled by that of the 
Baltimore Refinery ; and during the year 1868 the quantity of raw 
sugar worked by these three companies is estimated to have reached 
very near sixty-seven millions of pounds. If the inducements become 
sufficient, these Refineries can easily consume one hundred millions 
of pounds of the raw material. In addition to these companies 
there are three other refineries in Baltimore, working exclusively in 
molasses, and producing lower grades of sugar, and it is from all 
these late additions to our manufacturing interests that the stimulus 
has been given to importation; the two trades combined contribut- 
ing largely to the prosperity of Baltimore. The value of production 
of our sugar refineries for 1870, was $6,832,462. 

The following tables show the progress of Baltimore in sugar and 
molasses not only for 1869 but comparatively for the last 18 years. 



Imports of Sugar from January 1st to December 31st, for three 

years. 





1870. 


1869. 


1868. 




Hhds. 


Boxes. 


Hhds. 


Boxes. 


Hhds. 


Boxes. 


Porto Rico, .... 
English Islands, . . 
French Islands, . . . 
Louisiana, .... 


32,369 

38,575 

14,481 

4,213 

1,010 


57,717 


31,955 

34,169 

8,719 

2,596 

275 


59,412 


32,776 

31,647 

12,392 

1,640 

513 


46,833 


Total, 


90,648 


57,717 


77,714 


59,412 


78,968 


46,833 



Imports of foreign sugar reduced to tons were for 1870, 67,828 tons ; 1869, 59,673 
tons ; 1868, 57,395 tons ; 1867, 37,565 tons. 



OF BALTIMORE. 



135 



Imports of Sugar at Baltimore for eighteen years. 



1852, 
1853, 
1854, 
1855, 
1856, 
1857, 
1858, 
1859, 
1860, 
1861, 
1862, 
1863, 
1864, 
1865, 
1866, 
1867, 
1868, 
1869, 



COASTWISE. 


WEST INDIES. 


Hhds. 


Barrels. 


Hhds. 


Barrels arid 
Boxes. 


13,153 


307 


12,619 


2,653 


10,476 


383 


13,521 


13,967 


19,580 


347 


11,847 


1,023 


21,663 


1,705 


10,796 


4,411 


19,685 


1,540 


22,030 


11,839 


6,076 


966 


27,403 


9,7S1 


16,584 




20,838 




20,792 




21,787 




13,346 




34,827 




7,424 




17.719 




7,605 




26,059 




2,400 


204 


28,095 


6,046 


2,640 




19,611 


5,146 


6,300 


4,835 


40,730 


36,500 


955 


1,938 


52,024 


34,740 


1,108 


2,263 


50,814 


36,618 


1,292 


79 


78,968 


46,833 


437 


100 


77,714 


59,412 



1870, total from all points, 90,648 hhds., 57,717 boxes, 25,421 bags and mats. 



Molasses Imports for 1870. 



Cuba, . . . 
Porto Rico, . 
English Island, 
French Island, 
New Orleans, . 
San Domingo, 

Total, 1870, 

" 1869, 

" 1868, 

" 1867, 

" 1866, 

" 1865, 

" 1864, 



Hhds. 


Tierces. 


Barrels. 


17,817 


1,822 


160 


993 


38 




3,121 




30 


101 




2,081 


11 


7 




22,046 


1,867 


2,271 


23,819 


2,121 


3,824 


27.205 


2,274 


1,993 


17,962 


1,678 


526 


9,337 


2,430 


1,353 


6,146 


1,160 


401 


5,635 


1,812 


2,417 



136 



HISTORICAL SKETCH 



Importations of Molasses at the Port of Baltimore for the last 

eighteen years. 



1852, 
1853, 
1854, 
1855, 
1856, 
1857, 
1858, 
1859, 
1860, 
1861, 
1862, 
1863, 
1864, 
1865, 
1866, 
1867, 
1868, 
1869, 



WEST INDIES. 



Hhds. 



7,027 
3,820 
3,518 
2,124 
4,460 
5,907 
6,860 
8,518 
9,216 
2,933 
3,172 
5,380 
5,635 
6,146 
9,337 
17,962 
27,205 
23,819 



Tierces. 



2,064 

632 

1,105 

445 

1,758 

4,018 

1,557 

1,341 

725 

409 

2,550 

1,466 

1,812 

1,160 

2,430 

1,678 

2,274 

2 121 



80 

72 

157 

32 

1,115 

5,^737 

1,113 

1,492 

7,690 

489 

517 

608 

2,471 

406 

1,353 

523 

305 

1,191 



COASTWISE. 



Hhds. 



838 
192 

491 
826 

682 



32 

454 

1,529 

1,179 

45 

231 



153 

115 
278 

92 
168 

92 



36 
17 
10 



Barrels. 



14,798 

13,184 

32,807 

23,943 

14,819 

3,109 

13,739 

14,701 

9,294 

5,111 

756 

3,297 

1,124 

2,300 

524 

2,340 

2,400 

2,630 



1870, total from all points, 22,046 hhds., 1,867 tierces, 2,271 barrels. 



COTTON TRADE. 

The facilities afforded by sea going steam navigation, promoted 
so much by the cheapness and excellence of our Cumberland Coal, 
esteemed the best " evaporative material " in the world, have begun 
to make Baltimore an important cotton depot. This is owing to 
our proximity to the cotton growing States, being the nearest 
Atlantic port north of Norfolk and the natural outlet for the pro- 
ducts of Virginia and North Carolina, brought to us by the Sea- 
board Railway and the bay line of steamers. In addition to this. 
Baltimore is, by rail, the most accessible Atlantic seaboard market 
for the States of Missouri, Tennessee, and Arkansas, while the 
expenses of handling and transhipping commodities are much less 
in our city than in the Northern markets. The growth of the 
cotton trade is shown by the exports of 1869, by which 15,502 bales 
were sent to Bremen, 6,320 bales to Liverpool, and 875 bales to 
Holland, making a total export in that year of 22,787 bales ; against 



OF BALTIMORE 



137 



22,196 bales in 1868; 8,629 in 1867; 7,479 in 1866; and 965 in 
1865 ; the gratifying, solid, progress of five years only. 

The gross receipts of cotton at Baltimore for the past three years 
is shown in the following; table:* 



Receipts of Cotton for the past three years at the Port of 

Baltimore. 



F R (3 M 



New Orleans, 

Charleston, 

Savannah, 

Virginia and North Carolina, 
Per Railroad, 



1870. 


1 869. 


1 868. 


Bales. 


Bales. 


Bales. 


200 
15,662 

14,047 

42,879 
31,817 


1.418 
17,023 

17.132 
32, 758 
23,982 


653 
17,782 
14,963 

39,948 
19,702 


104,605 


95,313 


93,048 



Cotton Exported for the year ending December 31st, 1S/0, from 

Baltimore, viz. 



TO 



Liverpool, .... 

Bremen, 

Rotterdam,. . . . 
Halifax, 

Total for 1870, 
" 1869, 



Bales. 



11,970 

15,331 

2,316 

10 



29,627 
22,787 



The wants of Maryland and other cotton spinners, drawing their 
supplies principally from this market, are from 35,000 to 40,000 
bales per annum. 



COAL TRADE. 

The coal trade of Baltimore, from our own coalfields and from those 
of West Virginia, is so important not only in consequence of the 
quantity, but of the quality of the material — especially for steam 

* The value of the cotton manufactures of the adjacent Baltimore county are 
about $2,500,000 per annum, and of Carroll county at least half a million. 



138 HISTOKICAL SKETCH 

navigation — that it is important to dwell on it emphatically, as an 
element of our city's wealth. This is especially the case, in con- 
nection with the sea-going steamship lines, which we are establishing 
with Europe, as well as all parts of our own coasts. The area of our 
coal fields has not been defined with absolute precision, but there 
are unquestionably about two hundred millions of tons of the " big 
vein," untouched. Fourteen millions eight hundred and fifty 
thousand tons, have been mined and taken to market in twenty- 
eight years, between 1842 and 1869 ; and at the same rate of mining 
this " big vein," will last one hundred years. The four and six feet 
veins have been scarcely more than tapped, and, together, they con- 
tain more than the big vein, for there is a greater area of these veins, 
less being swept out of them by the water courses. " It is therefore 
safe to say " — alleges a competent authority — " that the minor veins 
will yield 2,000,000 of tons per annum, for another century ; so, if 
we may feel sure that we can go on duplicating the production of 
1869, until the year 2,070 or for 200 years, it is hardly necessary 
for the present generation to be anxious about the exhaustion 
of the coal measures of Alleghany. The production of 1868 was 
1,380,000 tons, while the mining of 1869, was about 1,900,000 
tons, showing an increase of 46 per cent., against the quite uniform 
increase of 15 per cent., in the preceding years, when there existed 
no such impediments in the avenues of outlet — as were caused 
by war and injuries to the canal. The products of 1869, were as 
follows : 



By Cumberland and Pennsylvania Railway, . . . 
By Cumberland Coal and Iron Company's Railway, 
By Hampshire tramway Railway, 



Total, 



Tons. 



l,57o,000 
200,000 
125,000 



1,900,000 



ISTow, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, brought to Baltimore 
from the Cumberland and other mines, along which it runs, for 
1869, 1,388,157 tons, against 815,506 tons in 1868. There was also 
brought from the same mines by the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal to 
Georgetown and Alexandria, 663,491 tons, against 485,070 tons the 
previous year, being an increase by canal, of 178,421 tons. These 
figures show an increase in the development of the Maryland and 
West Virginia mines in 1869, of 741,062 tons. Of the receipts by 



OF BALTIMORE 



139 



the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in 1869, 28,000 tons were shipped 
to California and foreign ports, while 785,240 tons were sent to 
Northern ports, in which last shipments 133,378 tons of gas coal 
from the West Virginia mines were included. The Anthracite coal 
of our market, is supplied by the Northern Central Railway Com- 
pany, and the Tidewater Canal Company, whose combined capacity 
of delivery, per clay, has been lately stated at 1,400 tons, a limitation 
causing, it is said, the high cost of that sort of coal to Baltimore 
consumers in late years. The coal delivery capacity of the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad, is stated as four times greater than all the com- 
bined water and rail capacity from the Anthracite regions, as thus 
represented. In 1869, 168,000 tons of Anthracite were brought to 
this market by the Northern Central Railway, and about 83,000 
tons, by the Tidewater Canal. 



WOOL, HIDES, LEATHER, GUANO, NAVAL STORES. 

The greater part of our "Woolen mills were running during 1869 ; 
the receipts of foreign wool were 813,275 pounds and of domestic, 
682,500 pounds; a total of 1,495,775 pounds, against 1,125,000 re- 
ceived from both sources in 1868, showing an increase of consump- 
tion here of 370,775. 

Hides were more liberally imported in 1869, into Baltimore ; re- 
ceiving 49,564 from the Rio de la Plata, and 3,916 from other ports, 
making 53,590 of direct imports, against only 4,306 in 1868 ; an 
enormous increase of 49,284. The coastwise importation, however, 
was diminished to 54,744, while the city-slaughter furnished, doubt- 
less, full 50,000 more, and the bordering counties of the State, 
additional numbers. The inspections here increased 18,245 in 1869. 



Leather Inspections since 1863. 



1863, 
1864, 
1865, 
1866, 



Sides. 



238,463 
261,257 
311,300 
313,726 



1867, 
1868, 
1869, 
1870, 



Sides. 



294,362 
292,500 
310,745 
337,230 



140 



HISTORICAL SKETCH 



There are in Baltimore, in 1870, 452 establishments engaged in 
manufacture of and from leather ; employing 2,541 hands, the pro- 
ductive value of whose labor, as given by the census of 1870, is 
$3,552,880. The boot and shoe business is increasing solidly in im- 
portance and wealth. 



The fertilizing Guano is not yet displaced, among our agricul- 
turists, by any of the late inventions, the 

Imports of Guano for Three Years. 



FROM 



Chincha Islands, 
Guanape, . . . 
Navassa, . . . 
Orchilla, . . . 
West Indies, . . 
Hod tin da, . . . 
Coastwise ports, 

Total, 



4870. 



Tons. 



14,450 

26,793 

7,666 

490 



49,399 



4 869. 



5,900 

1,525 

7,105 

470 

951 

3,800 



19,751 



4868. 



Tons. 



1,700 

4,661 

4,192 
4,334 
1,000 



15,887 



The trade in Naval Stores should be promoted more in a market 
situated so favorably for its expansion. The following table exhibits 
this commerce, comparatively, in 1867, 1868, 1869 and 1870 : 

Receipts of Naval Stores for the past Four Years. 





4 870. 


4 869. 


4 868. 


4 867. 




Barrels. 


Barrels. 


Barrels. 


Barrels. 




15,156 
65,495 

8,872 


15,800 

52,123 

6,000 


15,000 

70,000 

8,300 


12,000 
40,000 




9,500 


Total number packages, . . 


89,523 


73,923 


93,300 


61,500 



OF BALTIMORE. 



141 



IRON, WHISKEY, FISH TRADE. 

The production of home furnaces of Iron, in 1860, was about the 
same as the two previous years — estimated at 35,000 tons, including 
both anthracite and charcoal." 

For several previous years, under the burthen of an excessive tax, 
the production of Whiskey was either greatly diminished, or con- 
cealed ; but since the Act of Congress reducing taxation, went into 
effect in the latter part of 1868, together with the stringent pro- 
visions for the collection of the impost, the revenue from whiskey 
has increased and the trade assumed a legitimate and, of course, 
much more satisfactory shape, at least in the market of Baltimore. 
The receipts here, for 1869, are estimated to have been 100,000 
barrels, from the West ; while the city and county production was 
30,000 barrels more. The number of our small refiners has largely 
increased, and competing, as they do, with the larger ones, they 
have kept the market steady. 

The Fish trade, always an important one for Baltimore, from 
very early dates, owing to the prolific character of our bay and 
rivers, has steadily maintained itself, as will be seen by the re- 
port of 

Imports and Receipts of Fish for 1870, and the total Compared 
with a Number of Previous Years. 



British Provinces, 
New England, . 
Southern, . . . 

Total, 1870, 

" 1839, 

" 1868, 

" 1867, 

" 1866, 

" 1865, 

" 1864, 

" 1863, 

" 18C2, 



Herrings. 




* The iron production of the adjacent Baltimore county is at least $700,000 
yearly, in value. 



142 



HISTORICAL SKETCH 



PROVISIONS. 

The Provision market, too, has been also at all times a main reli- 
ance of Baltimore trade. The aggregate crop of hogs reported as 
slaughtered in the season of 1868-69 in the "West amounted to 
2,477,264, against 2,793,032, slaughtered in the season of 1867-68, 
the decrease being estimated in pounds at fifty millions. The receipt 
of the pork product, mainly from the West, in 1869, as near as can 
be satisfactorily ascertained, reduced to tons, amounted to about 
35,000. The foreign demand during that year was light compara- 
tively, and, as usual, confined to the British Provinces, the West 
Indies, with some bacon and lard to South America, and from 
35,000 to 40,000 hogsheads of bacon to the Southern States of the 
Union. Comparatively, for five years, the exports of provisions 
from Baltimore were as follows: 





1870. 


18C9. 


1868. 


1807. 


1866. 


Beef, tierces, . . 
Pork, barrels, . . 
Bacon, boxes, . . 
Bacon, pounds, . 
Lard, kegs, . . 


967 
4,426 

253,132 

29,853 


1,412 

3,228 

243,769 
31,069 


1,720 
5,674 

80 

400,000 

38,240 


1,363 

5,216 

21 

494,518 

45,392 


960 
7,680 

527, 6S0 
46,000 



The aggregate receipts here of Beef cattle for the year 1869 were 
91,000 against 75,891 in 1868, and 55,713 in 1867 ; figures which 
show a marked } r early increase of this important trade. Out of the 
receipts of 1869, 50,000 head were taken by the butchers of our city, 
and # thc balance sent further east or north, or taken by farmers for 
stock. Of the live hogs sent to this market, the quantity taken by 
packers was small, the weather and season being unfavorable; and 
almost the entire receipts of this species of stock were slaughtered 
for local consumption. 

There is a large consumption of ice by the butchers and packers, 
the ice being stored generally by themselves and of inferior quality ; 
but at least 55,000 tons of Northern and other ice are yearly con- 
sumed by our citizens for their domestic purposes. Its introduction 
from abroad began as late as 1827. 



OF BALTIMORE. 143 



OYSTER, FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PACKING. 

In connection with the provision business of our city, the packing 
of Oysters, Fruits and Yegetables, has, within the last twenty years, 
grown to an importance in Baltimore, which has not only given our 
city a special reputation in this trade, but by attracting attention 
from abroad, has induced a large immigration. In fact, Maryland 
has a monopoly of the best kinds of two of the greatest luxuries: 
oysters and \Vhite Heath peaches. 

The trade in oysters, hermetically sealed, it is reported, has, within 
the two last years, greatly exceeded that of any previous year. It 
was estimated, in a review of the commerce in this article during 
186S, that ten millions of bushels of the Chesapeake bivalve were 
consumed during that period, two-thirds of which quantity were 
hermetically sealed, requiring fully 20,000,000 of cans annually. 
If we add to this an equal number of cans for the fruits and vege- 
tables packed within our borders, the vastness of this trade becomes 
evident. 

The census returns furnished to us in advance for this work show 
that, in 1870, there were, in Baltimore city, thirteen oyster, fruit 
and vegetable packing establishments, employing two thousand four 
hundred and seventy-six hands, the productive value of whose labor 
is recorded to have been 82,692,612. This is the official return ; jet, 
we confess, it seems scarcely to comprehend the large capital and 
industry employed in this important and lucrative branch of Balti- 
more trade. 

The extent of the oyster beds of the Chesapeake Bay and its 
affluents is about 373 square miles, ninety-two of which are closely 
covered, and the remainder scattering. This field could be made to 
give profitable employment to 20,000 laboring men, under the wise 
administration and enforcement of proper laws for the culture, pro- 
tection and taking of this delicious shell fish. Almost every bend 
of our bay shores, protected from storms, would become a source 
of abundant supply, if not wealth, to the husbanding planter of 
oysters ; while the shores of the whole bay and rivers, honestly and 
discreetly managed, would yield wealth to the proprietors for cen- 
turies to come, and sufficient revenue to the State to save the people 
from a large part of present taxation. But, under the present reck- 
less system of dragging and dredging, it has been predicted cer- 



144 



HISTORICAL SKETCH 



tainly that our renowned oysters will in a few years be almost 
entirely destroyed. 

The extent of the beds is shown by the following tableau given in 
the last, and excellent, report of the Commander of the Maryland 
" Oyster Fleet." 



LOCALITIES. 



Swan Point, Kent county, 

Chester river, 

Sandy Point to Thomas Point, Anne Arundel county, 

Love Point to Kent Point, Queen Anne's county, . . 

Thomas Point to Horse Shoe Point, including South 

and West rivers, Anne Arundel county, .... 

Eastern bay and Miles river, including Poplar island, 

Horse Shoe Point to Holland's Point, Anne Arundel 
county, 

Holland's Point to Patuxent, Calvert county, . . . 

The Choptank river, including Sharp's island and the 
outside of Tilghman's island, 

The Hudson river, Dorchester county, 

From the Patuxent to the Potomac, 

From the Hudson river to Hooper's straits, Dor- 
chester county, 

Honga river and Hooper's straits, Dorchester county, 

Pishing bay, Dorchester county, 

Nanticoke river, Dorchester and Wicomico counties, 

Monie bay and Wicomico river, Wicomico and Somer- 
set counties, 

Holland's straits, Dorchester county, 

Kedge's straits, Somerset county, 

Manokin river, Somerset county, 

Big and Little Annamessex rivers, Somerset county, 

Tangier Sound, including Holland's straits, Dor- 
chester, Wicomico and Somerset counties, . . . 

Potomac river and tributaries, 

The Patuxent river, 

From Hooper's straits to the Virginia line, on the 
Bay shore, 

Total, r . . . . 



Square 
Miles. 



30 

11 



20 
50 



373 



Remarks. 



Scattering. 



10 Close, 

10 Scattering. 

Scattering. 



30 


it 


15 


Close. 


8 


Scattering. 


10 


(i 


12 


u 


10 


It 


14 


It 


12 


Close. 


7 


Scattering. 


2 


a 


7. 


Close. 


10 


Scattering. 


50 


Close, but thin 


20 




10 


Scattering. 


15 


Scattering. 



OF BALTIMORE. 



145 



TJie following is the list of the Vessels and Canoes licensed in 
Baltimore City and each County in the Season of 1S6S- 
1869. 



COUNT T ES. 



Queen Aune's, . 
Talbot, . . . . 
Worcester, . . , 
Kent, 

Anne Arundel, 
Somerset, . . 
Wicomico, . 
Dorchester, . . 
Prince George's, 
Charles, . . . , 
St. Mary's, . . , 
Calvert, . . . . 
Baltimore city, . 

Total, . . 



Dredging 
Vessels. 


Tonnage. 


1 


25 


1 


24 


20 


25G 


338 


4,726 


12 


143 


46 


1,316 


1 


42 


1 


29 


2 


32 


1 


28 


240 


6,039 


503 


12,660 



Tong'g 
Canoes. 



105 
246 
81 
93 
222 
246 
110 
257 

22 
336 

189 



1,907 



The five hundred and sixty-three dredging vessels last season em- 
ployed 2.107 white men and 1,453 negroes. The canoes employed 
about 3,325 in all, with the same proportion of white and negro 
labor, making a total of 6,885 men, independently of the labor em- 
ployed in the carrying trade, which would probably swell the 
number to between 9,000 and 10,000 hands employed afloat in the 
oyster business. 

That the exhaustion of the oyster crop of the Chesapeake by im- 
provident modes of taking the fish, is surely and rapidly going on, is 
proved conclusively by the inadequate supply and inferior quality of 
the last season; so that it is to be hoped we shall not, in a very short 
time, be deprived not only of the trade, but of the luxury its< If, by 
the failure of our Assembly to exercise that prudent firmness of 
legislation which will protect the beds of our bay from the senseless 
rapacity of fishermen and packers. 

In what quarter of the world would not the failure of the Chesa- 
peake 03-ster be mourned as a calamity? 

And this leads us, finally, to remember, that it is to our bay and 
rivers that the country is indebted for the " Canvas-back duck," the 



146 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

"Red-head," the "Bay Mackerel," the "Soft Crab," the luscious 
" Hog-fish," and those vast stores of " early vegetables and fruits," 
which, transported from our warm Southern shores, in our fleet 
steamers, gratify the gourmands of New York and Boston within 
twenty-four hours after their departure from the Chesapeake. Our 
gardens are renowned for the excellence of their products. We 
gave, through our French gardeners, (refugees from Acadia and San 
Domingo,) the salsafis, and egg-plant, and okra, and tomato to the 
Union. No where in the nation can people " live better" than in 
Baltimore; and no where have they a finer and more healthful 
climate, or a more genial society in which they may enjoy their 
living. 




.#. 



&~~y-vuxjt-^ 




HORACE ABBOTT. 



We have been so long accustomed to regard the brilliant and daz- 
zling successes of our arms on land and sea as alone deserving 
commemoration, that those of civic life have been in great measure 
overlooked. But "Peace hath her triumphs no less renowned than 
War," and they who build cities and develop States deserve com- 
mendation no less than those who defend and adorn them by their 
skill and heroism. Truly the representative men of this century 
are self-made, and their lives serve to "point the moral and adorn 
the tale" which, telling what has been accomplished by honest firm- 
ness and persistence, incites others to improve "the golden oppor- 
tunity," to attain eminence and influence among their fellow-men. 
These men, whose humble beginnings and earnest efforts, controlled 
by an accurate and self-reliant judgment, have won them the admira- 
tion and respect of the communities which they have benefited, are 
living examples which prove that industry, endurance, and willing 
hands are the essentials to success. Prominent among these, and 
whose energy and enterprise caused him to achieve those herculean 
labors which proved of such incalculable value to the Government 
during the late civil war, stands Horace Abbott, who was born in 
Worcester county, Massachusetts, in July, 1806. 

Trained from early boyhood in the ISTew England school of thrift 

and industry, he was at the age of sixteen bound apprentice to a 

blacksmith. Faithfully serving his term of apprenticeship until he 

was twenty-one years old, he worked for two years longer at his 

trade as a journeyman, and may then be said to have fairly entered 

upon the successful career which has since distinguished him. First 

starting upon his own account, he set up a country blacksmith shop 

which he continued in successful operation for six 3 T ears. In 1836 he 

removed to Baltimore. His attention had already been drawn to the 

business of forging heavy ironwork; and the facilities offered in this 

city — the convenience of its supplies of iron and coal and means of 

water-shipment — determined him to devote himself here to the 

development of this important branch of manufacturing industry. 
11 



150 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

He secured the " Canton Iron Works," then owned by Peter Cooper, 
Esq., of New York, and for fourteen years prosecuted steadily the 
business of making wrought-iron shafts, cranks, axles, &c, for steam- 
boat and railroad purposes, during which time he forged the first 
large steamship shaft wrought in this country. This shaft was for 
the Russian frigate Kamtschatka, built in New York for the Emperor 
Nicholas I., and such was the interest manifested in this huge pro- 
duction of wrought iron, as it was then considered, that it was 
exhibited at the Exchange in New York, and was doubtless the 
means of stimulating others to similar feats of enterprise and skill. 
This shaft weighed about 26,000 pounds. Other heavy shafts were 
subsequently forged at the same works, which had now acquired a 
just celebrity throughout the Union for the great size and excellence 
of its productions. Not satisfied with his achievement in this line 
alone, Mr. Abbott, in 1850, built a rolling mill, capable of turning 
out the largest rolled plate then made in the United States'. The 
advantages enjoyed by such an establishment over the manufacturers 
of smaller plates, led to a vast accession of business, so that in 1857 
Mr. Abbott was induced to erect another rolling mill of the same 
size and capacity with the first. In 1859 he found it necessary to 
add a third rolling mill to his now extensive works, which addition 
was just completed at the commencement of the civil war in 1861. 

The immense demands which the war occasioned at once gave full 
employment to Mr. Abbott's works, and the heavy and urgent requi- 
sitions of the Government were met with a corresponding energy of 
production. The largest orders were filled with a promptness and 
fidelity which elicited the special thanks of the departments and the 
praise of the officers to whom the work was delivered. On one occa- 
sion, in 1863, Mr. Abbott completed an order for 250,000 pounds of 
rolled iron in forty-eight hours, and received from the Secretary of 
the Navy a letter in commendation of his fidelity and energy. When 
Ca] »tain Ericsson designed the first " Monitor" he was apprehensive 
that this country contained no mills of sufficient capacity to furnish 
armor plate of the requisite thickness and dimensions for this form 
of iron-clad, and was under the impression that he would be com- 
pelled to order them from England. Before doing so, however, he 
applied to Mr. Abbott, who, realizing the emergency, but feeling 
equal to the task, promptly undertook "to furnish whatever was 
needed. The plates were manufactured and delivered in a shorter 
time than had been anticipated. The Monitor was completed and 
ready for sea in time to engage the hostile ram "Mernmac" in 
Hampton Roads, and prevent her from accomplishing her mission of 



HORACE ABBOTT. 151 

destruction among the wooden craft of the navy then lying in the 
roads. In her encounter with her formidable adversary, the Monitor 
was so effectually protected by her armor that not a plate was pierced 
or injured, and a new era was inaugurated in the history of naval 
architecture and warfare. Subsequently Mr. Abbott furnished the 
armor-} dates for nearly all of the vessels of the Monitor class built 
on the Atlantic coast, and also for the JRoanoke, Agamenticus, Monad- 
nock, and other large iron-clads. At the close of the war, in 1865, an 
association of capitalists purchased the "Canton Iron Works," and 
organized a joint stock company under the corporate name of the 
Abbott Iron Company of Baltimore City. Mr. Horace Abbott was 
unanimously elected President of this company, which position he 
held for some time. 

The works themselves, commonly known as the Abbott Iron 
Works, situated immediately on the line of the Philadelphia, Wil- 
mington, and Baltimore Railroad where it enters the city, and close 
to the water's edge, present a striking and imposing spectacle to all 
travelers entering or leaving Baltimore either by that road or by 
water. At night the effect is peculiarly picturesque. The works 
lit up by the glare of numerous forges and furnaces, with tongues of 
flame darting from their many chimneys, alive with the bustle and 
resounding with the labor of hundreds of stalwart men, working 
not unfrequently in the tierce heat stripped to the waist, suggest to 
the imagination the fabled workshops of the Cyclops. The glare 
illumines the river and the sky, and at a distance presents the effect 
of a city on fire. One thousand men are employed night and day in 
these extensive works, whose capacity of manufacture in one single 
department, that of railroad iron, is equal to one hundred and forty 
tons per day. 

The rolling mills are now four in number, with a fifth in course 
of erection. The original mill, built by Mr. Abbott in 1850 for 
rolling plate and boiler iron, contains four heating and two puddling 
furnaces, a pair of eight-feet plate-rolls and a train of muck-rolls. 
At the time it was built, this mill was the largest of the kind in the 
United States, and it was predicted that it would ruin its projector. 
Now, mill No. 2, completed in 1857, contains three heating and two 
puddling furnaces, a Nasmyth steam hammer, one pair of eight-feet 
and one pair of ten-feet rolls, — the latter being the largest plate-rolls 
ever made in this country. Mill No. 3, built by Mr. Abbott in 1858 
for manufacturing thin plates for gas-pipe, boiler tubes, &c, contains 
two heating furnaces and a pair of five-feet rolls. Mill No. 4, com- 
pleted in I860, contains three heating and four double puddling 



152 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

furnaces, a pair of ten-feet rolls, a pair of " breaking-down" rolls, a 
Nasmyth hammer, and other machinery of the most approved 
character. 

Although now retired in great measure from active business life, 
Mr. Abbott is still an earnest and efficient worker in many ways. 
He is identified with various enterprises of public utility, and is 
always ready to assist from his ample means those which tend to 
benefit the community, particularly in the construction and de- 
velopment of railroads. He is a director in the First National 
Bank, of which institution he was one of the founders, and also a 
director in the Baltimore Copper Company, and in the Union Rail- 
road of Baltimore city. Mr. Abbott now resides permanently at 
his country home, immediately adjoining the limits of Baltimore 
city, overlooking from its commanding site the scene of his former 
labors and successes. He married in 1830 Miss Charlotte Hapgood ; 
but of seven children which have crowned their union but one sur- 
vives, a daughter, married to Mr. Isaac M. Cate, of Boston ; another 
daughter, now deceased, married Mr. John S. Grilman, president of 
the Second National Bank of Baltimore, and for many years the 
junior partner of the firm of H. Abbott & Son. 

A man of deeds rather than words, and of irrepressible perse- 
verance, his straightforward manner and practical knowledge have 
won him the confidence of his associates: while his exertions have 
enabled him to surmount all obstacles, and made him an exemplar 
to all on the eve of entering active business life. Throughout a 
long life of usefulness he has maintained a character unsullied by 
any act which could detract from his value as a citizen or his merit 
as a man. 




^^z^t^C^^^ 



ARUNAH S. ABELL. 



Arunah S. Abell, the founder and now sole proprietor of that 
widely-known and influential journal, "The Baltimore Sun," and 
for more than thirty years a co-proprietor of the Philadelphia 
Ledger, necessarily finds a place among the most prominent and use- 
ful citizens of Baltimore. As none, perhaps, among those of whom 
mention is made in this volume, have exercised a more immediate 
and controlling influence over the community than he, so it may he 
safely affirmed that none can furnish a more instructive or honor- 
able record of success achieved by patient industry and well-directed 
effort, and of a triumphant rise from small beginnings to position 
and wealth. 

Mr. Abell was born in East Providence, in the State of Rhode 
Island, August 10th, 1806. His grandfather, Robert Abell, was the 
grandson of Sir Robert Abell, a member of Parliament, four of 
whose sons emigrated to America to avoid religious persecution, and 
to find a peaceful asylum in this country. 

Robert Abell served with honor and distinction in the war of the 
Revolution. His son, Caleb Abell, the father of the subject of this 
sketch, was an officer in the war of 1812, connected with the Quar- 
termaster's Department ; during the whole of that contest he dis- 
charged the duties of his position with a scrupulous integrity and 
fidelity which were his distinguishing characteristics through life, 
and when the war was ended, resigned his commission and retired 
from the service of the Government a poorer man than when lie 
entered it. In the community in which he lived and died, he was 
held in the highest esteem, and for a period of thirty-six years was 
called successively to till various local and civil offices of trust and 
honor. His wife, the mother of Arunah S. Abell, was Elona Shep- 
herdson, daughter of Colonel Arunah Shepherdson, and is described 
by those who knew her, as a person of superior character and intel- 
ligence. 

Having received at school— to which he was early sent and where 
he obtained credit both for good natural parts and for habits of 



154 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

application — the elements of a plain education, Aran ah S. Abell was 
placed, when little more than fourteen years of age, in the store of 
Mr. P. Bishop, a dealer in what were called, in those days, " West 
India goods." Here, while employed as a clerk and a salesman, and 
receiving his first practical initiation in the methods and habits of 
business, young Abell conceived the idea that for him the road 
that leads to fortune Jay in another direction. He had a strong 
desire to enter a printing office, and, beginning with the practical 
part of the profession, to qualify himself eventually for the manage- 
ment of a public journal. To this step the consent of his father 
was necessary, which having obtained, in October, 1822, he forsook 
the counting house, and entered, as an apprentice, the office of the 
Providence Patriot, to learn the noble art of G-utenberg, of Caxton, 
and of Benjamin Franklin. The Patriot was a Democratic journal 
of the Jeffersonian school, at that time conducted by Messrs. Jones 
& Wheeler. These gentlemen were printers both to the State and 
Federal Governments, and had necessarily an extensive book and job 
office. With them, Mr. Abell served a regular apprenticeship, and 
when " out of his time," bidding adieu to the home and associations 
of his youth, started out to seek his own fortunes and to see the 
world. For the purpose of seeing to better advantage so much of it 
as lay between Providence and Boston, he took a seat on the outside 
of the coach which, in those days, before railroads were, furnished 
the usual conveyance between the two cities. Arrived at Boston, 
armed with letters of introduction to Mr. Greene of the Post, and 
Mr. Buckingham of the Courier, two of the most influential news- 
paper men in that city, he speedily obtained employment as a 
journeyman in one of the best offices in Boston, where he soon gave 
such evidences of his capacity, that he was promoted to the position 
of foreman. About this time, his friend, Mr. Greene was appointed 
by President Jackson, Postmaster of the City of Boston, and offered 
Mr. Abell a lucrative clerkship in the Post Office under him. This, 
however, the latter declined, thanking Mr. Greene for his kindness, 
but at the same time telling him that he had a definite object in life 
which he was resolved to pursue, and from which he would not 
permit any prospect of gain or promotion, in any other career, to 
divert him. 

In those days, as now, New York was the great centre to which 
young ambition and enterprise turned for the realization of their 
hopes, and to that larger field young Abell was tempted to direct 
his steps. lie carried with him letters of introduction and recom- 
mendation to Major Noah and Colonel Webb of the Courier, Colonel 



ARUNAH S. ABELL. 155 

Stone of the Advertiser, and Colonel Morris of the Mirror. By 
these gentlemen he was received with kindness, and put in the way 
of immediate employment. He formed the acquaintance, in New 
York, of numerous members of the craft, who, like himself, have 
since, in other cities and parts of the country, become distinguished 
as editors, proprietors, and publishers of newspapers, and with many 
of whom he has kept up unbroken relations of friendship and habits 
of intercourse. Among others he became acquainted with "William 
M. Swain and A. H. Simmons, both practical printers ; and men of 
shrewd sense and observation. One of these gentlemen proposed 
to Mr. Abell to join them in establishing a penny paper in Xew 
York city. It was then the infancy of the "Penny Press." Acting 
upon the hint thrown out by the celebrated Henry, afterwards Lord 
Brougham, men of sagacity and enterprise both in England and 
America, had taken the initiative in establishing cheap newspapers. 
The experiment, then only recently tried in Xew York, had already 
proved a success, and Mr. Abell considered that particular field so 
far occupied, that he was unwilling to repeat the venture in that 
city. He accordingly declined the proposition which was made to 
him, but offered, if the others were willing to join him, to engage 
in the same undertaking in the city of Philadelphia, where no 
penny paper then existed. His offer was accepted, and on the 29th 
day of February, 1836, the following articles of agreement were 
drawn up, and signed by the parties whose names are appended. 
The original document, handsomely framed, hangs in Air. Abell's 
dwelling, and will, doubtless, be handed down as a cherished heir- 
loom in his family : 

[copv.] 

" This article of agreement made at Xew York, this twenty-ninth 
day of February, in the year one thousand eight hundred and 
thirty-six, between William M. Swain, Arunah S. Abell, and 
Azariah H. Simmons, printers, all of said city, witnesseth : — That 
said parties have this day entered into partnership as equal partners, 
both in law and equity, under the firm of Swain, Abell & Simmons, 
for the purpose of publishing, and in the publication of, a daily 
penny paper, (neutral in politics,) to be entitled " The Times," in 
the city of Philadelphia, State of Pennsylvania, to be commenced 
so soon as the requisite materials, room, &c, can be advantageously 
procured. Said parties are to appropriate each an equal amount 
in money, and are each to devote his time and energies either as 
printer or in such other capacity as shall be deemed most conducive 



156 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

to the interest of said firm, to the commencement, establishment 
and success of said paper. In case of a difference of opinion with 
regard to any measure of policy to be pursued, not expressed above, 
the views of two shall be the governing principle. In witness 
whereof we, the parties to these presents, have each hereunto sub- 
scribed our names, the day and year above written. 

(Signed) William M. Swain, 
(Signed) Arunah S. Abell, 
(Signed) Azariah H. Simmons." 

Such was the beginning of the memorable association of Swain, 
Abell & Simmons, which lasted for nearly a quarter of a century, 
until dissolved by death, and which resulted in the establishment of 
two of the most successful, widely circulated and influential jour- 
nals in the United States, published in two of its largest cities, 
the Public Ledger, in Philadelphia, and The Sun, in Baltimore. 
Having formed their plans, the partners lost no time in putting 
them into execution. They gave up their situations in ISTew York, 
removed to Philadelphia, the necessary orders for type and mate- 
rials were given, and everything gotten ready for the issue of their 
first number. As will be seen from the above " Agreement," they 
had given to their paper beforehand, the name of "The Times" and 
a heading with that name had been cast for use. They then sud- 
denly learned that a paper had been previously published in Phila- 
delphia under that title, and had failed. ISTot wishing to start with 
a name of ill-omen or to have their young enterprise regarded as an 
offshoot or revival of a defunct concern, the partners resolved upon 
a change of name. Mr. Abell made the happy suggestion of the 
title " Public Ledger" which was adopted, and has since become in 
the city of Philadelphia, and throughout a large portion of Penn- 
sylvania, a household word. 

On Friday, March 25th, 1836, within less than a month after the 
partnership had been formed, the first number of the Public Ledger 
made its appearance — "price one cent, or six cents a week." It 
-was at first coldly received, and two of the parties became so much 
discouraged as to propose a discontinuance of publication. Mr. 
Abell, however, urged so strenuously the policy of holding on, at 
least until their funds were exhausted, that the confidence felt 
by his copartners in the soundness of his judgment led them to 
deter to his wishes, and they did "hold on," with what splendid 
results need not now be told. A series of vigorous articles, taxing 



A RUN AH S. A BELL. 157 

the citizens of Philadelphia with a want of liberality and public 
spirit, with an unreasonable prejudice against the enterprise of 
persons "not to the manner born," and a general narrow-minded- 
. ness and sluggishness to business matters, served to awaken atten- 
tion to the new daily, and contributed to its popularity among 
the younger and more enterprising business men who felt the 
truth and force of its pungent observations. The business of the 
paper was now established upon a sound and paying basis, and 
having no further misgivings about the future success of the 
Ledger, it occurred to Mr. Abell, in the spring of the following 
year, to visit Baltimore for the purpose of determining the feasi- 
bility of establishing a penny paper in that city. A suggestion 
from him to that effect meeting with the hearty approval of his 
partners, Mr. Abell, in April, 1837, visited the Monumental City 
for the first time. There were then published in Baltimore, a 
number of respectable and well-conducted journals, but not a single 
penny paper. They were all "six pennies." To the editors of these 
journals, Mr. Abell brought letters of introduction, and he then 
formed the acquaintance, among others, of Messrs. Dobbin, Mur- 
phy & Bose of the American, Mr. Gwynn, of the Federal Gazette, 
Mr. Harker of the Republican, Mr. Poe of the Chronicle, Mr. 
Monroe of the Patriot, and Messrs. Streeter & Skinner of the 
Transcript. It cannot be said, however, that any of these gentle- 
men with whom Mr. Abell conferred in regard to his plans, held 
out much encouragement as to the success of a new paper. In 
fact the times seemed singularl}' inauspicious for any enterprise of 
the kind. The year 1837 was one of unprecedented disaster and 
gloom in all commercial and business circles, and all classes shared 
the general depression. Mr. Abell, however, felt persuaded that a 
penny paper would make its way where other enterprises might 
fail. He returned to Philadelphia, impressed with this idea, and 
obtained the approval of his partners to hazard the experiment, 
upon condition that he should assume the immediate responsibility 
and personal control. This, although he had just passed through 
a similar trial of patience and faith, incident to the first estab- 
lishment of the Ledger, he consented to do. "With the same 
rapidity that had characterized their proceedings in regard to that 
paper, when once their minds were made up, type and materials 
were ordered, one of the best cylinder presses of that day pur- 
chased from the Messrs. Hoe, an office taken on Light street, and 
on the 17th of May, 1837, the first copy of The Sun was left at 
the door of nearly every house in Baltimore. In its salutatory, 



158 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

the new paper clearly defined its mission to which it has since 
faithfully adhered. It declared that its object was to furnish a 
paper, equal to any, at a price which would bring it within the 
means of all who could read, and of the large number of persons* 
to whom the more expensive dailies were inaccessible. The ex- 
periment, novel in Baltimore, was justified by reference to the 
success which had attended the penny press in England, in Xew 
York and in Philadelphia. The article boldly magnified the office 
of that press as a beneficent, moral agent, diffusing information 
and knowledge among the poor and humble. It also made some 
distinct pledges as to the rules which should govern the editorial 
conduct of the paper, from which we extract the concluding portion. 

" We shall give no place to religious controversy, nor to political 
discussions of merely partisan character. On political principles and 
questions involving the interest or honor of the whole country, it 
will be free, firm and temperate. Our object will be the common 
good, without regard to that of sects, faction or parties ; and for 
this object we shall labor without fear or partiality. The publica- 
tion of this paper will be continued for one year at least, and the 
publishers hope to receive, as they will strive to deserve, a liberal 
support." 

The Sux was well received. In less than three months, it had a 
larger circulation than the Ledger had attained at the end of nine 
months. Within a year it circulated more than twice as many copies 
as the oldest established journal in Baltimore. It is believed that 
its success was more immediate and more rapid than has attended 
the advent of any similar enterprise in the United States. At 
that time (1837) the population of Baltimore was about 90,000 ; it 
is now in the neighborhood of 300,000. The circulation of The 
Sun has kept pace with this large increase, besides extending into 
every part of Maryland, and to those portions of adjoining or neigh- 
boring States, which have been brought into close connection with 
Baltimore by means of railroads and postal facilities. 

It was soon discovered that the original quarters in Light street 
were entirely too contracted for the growing business of the paper. 
Mr. Abell, accordingly, purchased the property at the southeast 
corner of Baltimore and Gay streets, long familiarly known as the 
"Old Sun Building," made such alterations as were necessary to 
adapt it to its new use, and in 1839 removed the whole establish- 
ment to that location. Soon, however, the same want of increased 
accommodation to meet the requirements of an increasing business, 
was again felt, and it was deemed desirable, that before making 



A R U X A II S . ABELL. 159 

another change, a site should be purchased, and a building erected 
which should be expressly designed for the purposes of the paper, 
and at the same time be an ornament to the city which had so 
"generously fostered and rewarded the enterprise of the proprietors 
of The Sux. To Mr. Abell was confided the task of selecting such 
a site. After mature consideration, the lot at the corner of Balti- 
more and South streets, in the very business heart of the city, was 
determined upon, and Mr. Abell effected the purchase of tins valu- 
able property — then occupied by fire old brick buildings, one of 
which, at least, dated back to a very early date in the city's his- 
tory — for a fraction less than $50,000. A more difficult and deli- 
cate question was the selection of a plan for the proposed building, 
which the proprietors of The Sux, had already resolved, although 
it involved a cost far beyond what the mere necessities of a print- 
ing office might require, should vie with, if it should not surpass, 
any of the fine edifices with which the city was then adorned. It 
happened that just about this time Mr. James Bogardus, of New 
York city, a man of undoubted genius as well as mechanical skill, 
was seeking for an opportunity to test in practice his invention for 
the construction of iron buildings. His proposals had been but 
coldly received in New York, and he was almost in despair of find- 
ing a man intelligent enough to comprehend his plans, and liberal 
enough to aid him in their realization, when fortunately he sub- 
mitted his views to the proprietors of The Sun. They gave to the 
plans of Mr. Bogardus the most serious and careful consideration, 
and were soon convinced of their entire feasibility. They believed 
that the substitution of iron for brick or stone as a building mate- 
rial, would be found not only advantageous on the score of economy 
and durability, but that it was free from any objection in point of 
safety, and might be made to subserve any purposes of architectural 
ornamentation and embellishment. Mr. Abell accordingly deter- 
mined that the new building should be of iron, and erected ac- 
cording to Mr. Bogardus' plan. It was the first structure of the 
kind in America, if not in the world. It completely vindicated 
the genius and skill of Mr. Bogardus, who built it, and illustrated 
the sagacity and liberality of those for whom it was built. After 
it was completed, many persons came from other cities to examine 
it, and soon orders flowed in upon Mr. Bogardus in greater number 
than he could fill. To The Sun Building itself we find the folio-w- 
ing reference in a lecture delivered by "William P. Preston, Esq., 
at the Mechanics' Institute, in Baltimore city, December 12th, 
1865. He said : " "Wliile calling your attention to the prominent 



160 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

and beautiful buildings of Baltimore it would be a great over- 
sight to omit one of the most imposing structures of the city — 
The Sun Iron Building. It stands in its architectural beauty and 
utility a lasting memorial of quiet integrity, liberal enterprise and 
persevering industry. While the citizen may gaze upon it with 
pride and admiration, as an ornament to the city, the capitalist or 
the humblest man in the community may look upon it as an in- 
centive to fruitful emulation. It will endure as a lasting monu- 
ment to its founders, whose descendants may well point to it, as 
illustrative of the precept and example under which their ancestors 
rose through the medium of well-directed exertion to affluence and 
distinction. The building, which is entirely constructed of iron, 
finely cast and elaborately ornamented, is seventy-live feet long, 
fifty-six feet deep, and about sixty feet high. In digging its 
foundation it- was found necessary to go down to the depth of 
twenty-five feet, and many thousand loads of gravel were removed, 
which was applied to the repair of the Hillen road in Baltimore 
county. The building rests upon thirty-one columns of Maryland 
granite, sunk below the level of the street, twenty feet high, and 
averaging two feet square. Each column has beneath it, resting 
on the hard gravel bed, a massive block of granite four feet square 
by one foot thick. If anything can defy the ravages of time, it 
is probably this foundation. It is gratifying to know that the 
iron work of this magnificent building— its ornamented columns — 
its full-length figures in has relief, of Washington, Jefferson and 
Franklin, and its various well-executed medallions, were cast in our 
own city, at the foundry of Benjamin S. Benson, a valued member 
of this institute." 

It may be added that Mr. Bogardus naturally preferred that the 
casting should be done in the city of New York, where he resided, 
and where at less expense and with more convenience to himself, he 
could superintend this part of the work, but Mr. Abell who has 
always an eye and a thought to the interest of Baltimore and of 
Baltimore mechanics, made it one of the conditions of the contract 
that the castings should be made in this city. 

As an interesting historical coincidence it may be further men- 
tioned, that the oihYc of the first newspaper published in Baltimore, 
stood on part of the ground now occupied by The Sun Iron Build- 
ing. The Maryland Journal and Baltimore Advertize^ was printed 
and published by William Goddard, in one of the old buildings, 
which were removed to make way for the present imposing structure. 
It was first issued on the 20th of August, 1773, and when in the 



A RUN AH S. A BELL. 161 

progress of the revolution, Mr. Groddard was called into military 
service, the publication of the paper was continued by his daughter, 
Miss Alary K. Goddard, who in the true spirit of the heroic women 
of that time, supported with feminine ardor the patriot cause. It 
would be curious to compare, if it were possible, the rude and 
clumsy press upon which Miss Goddard's revolutionary manifestoes 
were printed, with " Hoe's last fast," now in operation in the 
vaulted press-room of The Sim Iron Building, throwing off 40,000 
impressions per hour. 

When The Sun was first started, and for sometime afterwards, 
Mr. Abell had the personal assistance of Mr. Simmons who, at that 
time, resided in Baltimore. Subsequently Mr. Simmons returned 
to Philadelphia, leaving The Sun in sole charge of Mr. Abell, the 
two other partners devoting their attention to the Ledger. This 
arrangement continued until the death of Mr. Simmons, which 
occurred December 9th, 1855, and which dissolved the original 
copartnership of Swain, Abell & Simmons. The two surviving 
partners immediately formed a new association, under the style of 
Swain & Abell, and continued as before the publication of their two 
papers, and the business of the printing offices connected with them. 
Although equally interested in each paper, it naturally happened 
that as Air. Swain lived in Philadelphia, and Mr. Abell in Balti- 
more, the management of the Ledger and its concerns, fell to the 
charge of the former, and that of The Sun continued in the hands of 
the latter ; an arrangement which was found productive of entire 
harmony, and which removed all occasion for interference or colli- 
sion. Gradually, however, Air. Swain's health began to decline, 
until he was unable to give to the Ledger his active personal 
supervision. The war too broke out, and Mr. Abell's duties in 
Baltimore became exceedingly difficult and onerous. His own 
position and that of The Sun were not free from danger, when 
public journals were suppressed and their editors incarcerated at 
the mere will of a military commander, and to acid to his other 
perplexities, his partner in Philadelphia took the extreme Northern 
view in the conflict between the sections. Under these circum- 
stances, Mr. Abell notified Mr. Swain of his willingness to dispose 
of his interest in the Ledger, and finally, after considerable negoti- 
ations and many delays, on the 3d of December, 1864, the Ledger 
was sold to Mr. George W. Childs, the publisher, and the Messrs. 
Drexel & Co., bankers, of Philadelphia. After the sale of the Ledger, 
The Sun was conducted by Mr. Abell alone, as agreed upon between 
his partner and himself, until February 16th, 1868, when Mr. Swain 



162 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

departed this life in the sixtieth year of his age. Since the death of 
Mr. Swain, Mr. Abell has sold his interest in the Ledger Building 
and other real estate in the city of Philadelphia, which he held in 
common with his late partner, to Mrs. Swain and her two sons, and 
they in turn have sold to Mr. Abell all their interest in the Sun 
Iron Building and other real and personal estate in the City 
of Baltimore — thus completely severing the interests which were 
formerly joint. 

Having traced the history of The Sun from its origin to the 
present time, it may not be improper to call attention to several 
enterprises with which Mr. Abell has been incidentally connected 
and to which he has contributed valuable support. By the intro- 
duction of the rotary printing machines, the invention of Mr. 
Richard M. Hoe, of New York, the art of printing has been nearly 
revolutionized, and the world immensely benefited. After Mr. 
Hoe had conceived the idea of placing type on a horizontal cylinder, 
revolving on its axis, while the sheets of paper were pressed against 
it by* smaller cylinders, and thus received the impression, he con- 
structed two machines upon this improved plan, and offered them to 
the leading journals of JSTew York. The invention was at once 
pronounced impracticable, and none of the publishers of newspapers 
were willing to try the rotary presses. It was insisted that in the 
rapid revolution of the cylinder the type would fall out, and, becom- 
ing entangled in the machinery tear the presses to pieces. Mr. Hoe 
then oflered the machines to Messrs. Swain, Abell & Simmons, who 
at that time were looking for new presses. They first examined 
and then purchased the machines which the JSTew York publishers 
had rejected. They ran with precision and accuracy, and without 
the slightest accident from the time they were put up, until October, 
1870, during which period not less than 500,000,000 of impressions 
of the Daily and Weekly Sun were struck off by them. They were 
of the four-cylinder class, averaging about 12,000 impressions per 
hour. At the date last mentioned, in order to meet the demands of 
the increased and still increasing circulation of The Sun, Mr. Abell 
substituted for them two splendid machines, Hoe's latest improved 
invention, of sixteen-cylinder capacity, and capable, at ordinary 
speed, of throwing oft' 40,000 impressions per hour. Since the time 
that tin 1 proprietors of The Sun and Ledger, put in use the first of 
these rotary machines, Hoe's presses have come into general use 
throughout the civilized world. The Paris paper La Patrie, had the 
first in use in Europe; Lloyd's Weekly Newspaper in London, the 
second ; there are now in England and France several of these 



A RUN AH S. ABELL. 103 

machines, varying in size and capacity, from two cylinders up to the 
ten-cylinder monsters, which are used to print the London Times. 

So in the case of the electric telegraph — the wonderful invention 
of Professor Samuel F. Morse — and perhaps the greatest of all the 
wonderful achievements of modern science. In 1838 or 1839 Pro- 
fessor Morse, having completed his invention, was an applicant to 
Congress for assistance to enable him to test its value by practical 
experiment; assistance, which, it will be remembered, that body 
long refused, treating the invention as a chimera and its author as a 
mere visionary and dreamer. In the course of his efforts to enlist 
the support of the public press, Professor Morse visited Baltimore, 
and made the acquaintance of Mr. Abell, who, after a careful con- 
sideration of the subject, became a thorough convert to the Pro- 
fessor's views, and threw all the influence which The Sun could 
exert with reference to an untried theory in favor of his invention. 
At length an appropriation of §30,000 was obtained from Congress 
for the construction of an experimental telegraph line from Balti- 
more to Washington. The line was put up, and the first document 
of any length transmitted over the wire was the President's mes- 
sage, telegraphed to the Baltimore Sun with so much accuracy as to 
create universal astonishment. As a matter of scientific history the 
Sun's telegraphic copy of the message was reprinted by the Aca- 
demy of Sciences, at Paris, side by side with an authenticated tran- 
script of the original. When a company was afterwards formed for 
the extension of telegraphic communication from Washington to 
Xew York, Messrs. Swain, Abell & Simmons were associated in the 
enterprise with the Hon. Amos Kendall and B. B. French, of 
Washington, Professor Morse and Richard M. Hoe, of lew York, 
and others, who were the pioneers in this great work. Thus it will 
be seen that the Baltimore Sun and its founders and proprietors 
were largely and usefully instrumental in the first establishment 
and introduction of three great inventions or improvements of mod- 
ern times, viz. : the construction of iron buildings, the use of rotary 
printing machines, and the magnetic telegraph. 

Prior to the invention of the telegraph, and its daily and hourly 
use as the great vehicle for the transmission of news from all por- 
tions of the world, The Sun had acquired considerable celebrity for 
its enterprise in the collection and publication of news. During 
the war with Mexico, by means of the organization of a "Pony 
Express," with relaj*s of fleet horses, across those portions of Louisi- 
ana, Alabama, &c, where mail routes were circuitous and unreliable, 
The Sun was enabled to furnish the country with the latest and 



164 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

fullest information from our army in Mexico, and not unfrcquently 
to give to the Government at Washington news of important mili- 
tary operations clays in advance of its own dispatches. The same 
means were frequently employed to obtain important commercial 
news from New York, political intelligence from Washington or 
Annapolis, and election results from outlying and doubtful districts, 
in advance of the slower agencies of stage-coaches and packets. In 
the same spirit of sagacious enterprise Mr. A bell organized, in con- 
nection with Mr. Craig, afterwards agent of the Associated Press of 
ISTew York, a carrier pigeon express for the transmission of news 
between the cities of New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and 
Washington. The pigeons for this service, about four or five hun- 
dred in number, were kept in a house on Hampstead Hill, near the 
Maryland Hospital for the Insane, and were carefully trained. For- 
eign steamer news was frequently obtained in this way, and on 
more than one occasion a synopsis of the President's message was 
brought by the pigeons to Baltimore immediately after the delivery 
to Congress, and published in extras to the great surprise of the 
public. This was the first pigeon express organized in this country, 
and was regularly continued until superseded by the magnetic tele- 
graph. 

While the progress of The Sun has been thus steady and its suc- 
cess uniform, it must not be inferred that that progress has been 
unattended with difficulties, or that that success has not been 
achieved over obstacles. In the firm and conscientious discharge 
of their duties as public journalists, the proprietors of The Sun have 
frequently incurred, in former days, the hostility of the violent and 
lawless elements of society which it was their business to rebuke. 
They have been threatened with mob violence, but the paper never 
swerved from its course in consequence of such threats. During the 
dark hour of the civil war, when what it considered the usurpations 
of arbitrary power, in like manner, incurred the censures of this 
journal, an order for the closing of The Sun establishment and the 
arrest of the proprietor was issued by the War Department in 
Washington, and was about to be transmitted to the commander of 
this military department, when Mr. Abell received information of 
the fact in time to have an effective and earnest protest interposed 
against lliis high-handed proceeding, and the execution of the order 
was suspended. The motive which instigated the proceeding was 
betrayed the day after, when two noted politicians called upon Mr. 
Abell at his office, and desired to know if The Sun could be pur- 
chased, and, if so, at what figure. They anticipated that with the 



ARUNAH S. ABELL. 165 

fate of other prints, which had been suppressed and their editors 
incarcerated, staring him in the face, Mr. Abell would be only too 
willing, if not thankful, to retire from his dangerous position and 
to be rid of his precarious property at any sacrifice. They were 
accordingly proportionably surprised and disappointed when they 
found that their design was thoroughly understood, and were told 
that The Sun was not for sale at any price which it was in their 
power to offer. After the war was ended, The Sun took the lead in 
counselling moderation and the exercise of a spirit of conciliation 
and forbearance on both sides, with the view of healing as rapidly 
as possible the wounds which the war had made, and of burying out 
of sight the animosities it had engendered. In this course it has 
steadily persevered, and there is reason to believe that its efforts 
have been attended with great good. In this, as in all the marked 
features of its editorial conduct, as well as in every detail of its pru- 
dent and successful business management, The Sun has faithfully 
reflected the cautious, moderate, and conservative temper and char- 
acter of its proprietor. The Sun is emphatically what Mr. Abell 
has made it ; and so strong has been the impress of his character 
and will, that it may now be said to have acquired an individual 
character of its own ; it has traditions from which it never departs, 
grooves which it rarely leaves, a certain tone by which it is almost 
invariably distinguished. Here it may be remarked, and it is an 
illustration of what has just been said, that many of the persons 
employed about The Sun office have been there for years. Not to 
speak of others who have grown gray in Mr. Abell 's service in sub- 
ordinate positions, and whom his sense of justice and natural kind- 
liness have led him to retain, when their places might readily be 
filled by younger and more active men, Mr. John Ricketts, the skill- 
ful and experienced pressman, who, as chief of the press-room, has 
control of the costly and complicated machinery now used for print- 
ing The Sun, filled the same position in the little establishment in 
Light street, where The Sun first started' nearly five and thirty 
years ago. Mr. John Habliston, the trusted and esteemed cashier 
of the present large concern, began more than thirty years ago as 
office-boy in the establishment, and Mr. Frederick Young, the chief 
of the composing-room, has filled that responsible post for more than 
twenty years. These facts at once give an insight into Mr. Abell's 
character, and furnish a key to one of the secrets of The Sun's success. 
While, however, Mr. Abell has known how to stand fast and 
hold on in some respects, resisting all temptations to fluctuation 
and change, in other particulars, as we have seen, he has been ready 
12 



166 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

enough to adopt new and useful improvements. In addition to 
those which have been already referred to, it may be stated that 
Mr. Abell was the first to introduce into Baltimore the "carrier 
system" for the distribution of newspapers, which has since been 
found so convenient both to publishers and subscribers as well as 
remunerative to the carriers themselves — who own their routes and 
make their own collections — that it has been adopted by all the 
papers of the city. 

Another interesting and truly scientific improvement in con- 
nection with the art of printing which Mr. Abell was prompt to 
recognize and to adopt, is Mr. Craspe's ingenious process of stereo- 
typing each day's paper, by means of a papier mache matrix or 
mould, made for each edition, which is taken from the face of the 
types as set up, and in which the plates are afterwards cast from 
which the paper is actually printed, — the whole process occupying 
scarce fifteen minutes. By this means The Sun is printed every day 
from new plates cast for the purpose but a few minutes before the 
paper is put to press. The same process is used by the London Times 
and other leading journals in different parts of the world. 

As the representative of his firm, and in his individual capacity, 
Mr. Abell has at all times subscribed to feasible projects for de- 
veloping the resources and promoting the prosperity of his adopted 
State and city. Adhering strictly to the principle that no man ought 
to accept an office, the duties of which he has not time properly to 
attend to, and knowing that his position at the head of a journal 
like The Sun, leaves him no time for other engagements, he has uni- 
formly refused all offers of public position, trust, or honor. The 
presidency of chartered institutions has been frequently tendered to 
him, and even pressed upon him, but as invariably declined; and 
although he has been director of the Magnetic Telegraph Company, 
the Canton Company, and of various coal companies and other cor- 
porations, he has always been elected without desiring it, frequently 
without his knowledge, and sometimes against his consent. Outside 
of the management of a public journal, which was the dream of his 
boyhood, as it has been the gratified ambition of his life, and to 
which he has devoted all his energies and da}*s, no man ever more 
firmly held or more consistently practiced the doctrine that "the 
post of honor is the/private station." 

With such a career as we have portrayed; with such qualities of 
prudence, judgment and foresight as have distinguished him, and 
with the habits of order, system, and punctuality which have marked 
his life, it is not remarkable that Mr. AbelFs means have increased 



ARUNAH S. ABELL. 167 

until he is now ranked among the solid men of Baltimore. Apart 
from the profits of the two newspapers, The Sun and Ledger, his 
investments, whether in the coal-fields of Pennsylvania and Mary- 
land, in stocks or in real estate in the cit y of Baltimore or elsewhere, 
have been safe, judicious and profitable. These tangible results of 
his career are another exemplification of what an upright, intelli- 
gent, industrious man, who devotes his mind and energies to a single 
object, may reasonably hope to accomplish. As an illustration of 
the constancy and tenacity with which Mr. Abell has pursued the 
great object of his life, it may be stated that, with the exception of 
a short tour in Europe a year or so ago, and a subsequent brief trip 
to Cuba and the Southern States, he has been for more than thirty- 
three consecutive years daily in the discharge of his duties and in 
attendance at the office of The Sun. 







/T^^? 



^^. 



7 



C^> 



WILLIAM JULIAN ALBERT. 



William Julian Albert, the third son of Jacob and Rebecca 
Albert, was born in Baltimore, August 4th, 1816. He is of Ger- 
man descent, his great-grandfather, Lawrence Albert, having 
emigrated from Wiirzburg, Bavaria, to America, in the year 1752, 
and settled in Monaghan township, York county, Pennsylvania. 
Here, by thrift and industry he acquired a respectable fortune, 
which was augmented by the diligence and abilities of his son 
Andrew. The original estate still remains in the possession of the 
family. Jacob Albert, the father of the subject of this sketch, 
finding an agricultural life unsuited to his tastes, removed to Bal- 
timore in the year 1805, and with a small capital, furnished by 
his father, embarked in the hardware business, in which, in the 
course of time, he accumulated a large fortune. 

Mr. Albert was destined by his father for the profession of law, 
and pursued a collegiate course at Mount St. Mary's College, near 
Emmettsburg, Maryland, at which institution he finished his edu- 
cation in 1833, but the state of his health prevented his pursu- 
ing the course of study necessary to fit him for the Bar. In 1835 
he traveled for the benefit of his health through the Western 
States, and as far south as New Orleans, regaining his health and 
strength by the tour. 

Returning to his native city, he determined to engage in mer- 
cantile business, and in 1838 became associated with his father 
and brother, Augustus James, in the hardware business, which 
they carried on with success until the year 1855, when they re- 
tired. 

On the 15th of May, 1838, Mr. Albert married Emily J., daugh- 
ter of Talbot Jones, a well known and respected merchant of 
Baltimore. 

In 1856 he assisted in reorganizing the Baltimore and Cuba 
Smelting and Mining Company, and as director from that time 
to 1862, devoted much of his time and energies to the interests 
of the company, who were engaged in the smelting of copper ore. 



170 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

His prudence more than once restrained his associates from em- 
Larking in hazardous experiments in new processes for extracting 
the metal, which in all probability, would have proved ruinous ; 
and during the whole period of his directorship, the company was 
eminently prosperous. 

In the violent political agitation which followed the election of 
Mr. Lincoln to the Presidency in 1860, Mr. Albert espoused the 
Union cause, with zeal and energy, and brought all his influence to 
the support of the administration. At the first meeting of citizens 
of the Union party held in Maryland, which assembled at Catons- 
ville, Baltimore county, to denounce the proceedings of South 
Carolina, and to pledge Maryland to the support of the Govern- 
ment, Mr. Albert presided. 

At the outbreak of the war, and during its continuance, Mr. 
Albert remained firm in his political principles ; and his social 
position made him a central figure in the various movements made 
with the object of preventing Maryland from joining the seceding 
States. In the Summer of 1861, he was appointed a member of a 
delegation, sent to wait upon the President, and solicit a portion 
of the patronage of the Government in behalf of the people of 
Baltimore, who were suffering in trade as a consequence of the 
strong antagonism of the dominant party in the city and State, 
to the administration ; and this mission was entirely successful. 

At this time Mr. Albert's house had become the headquarters 
of the friends of the administration, and the officers of the Army 
and Navy frequently enjoyed his hospitality. In 1863 the " Union 
Club" was founded for the purpose of supporting and centralizing 
the Republican party in the State, and Mr. Albert, one of the 
founders, became subsequently its president. 

In the autumn of the same year he co-operated in the organiza- 
tion of the First National Bank of Baltimore, of which he has 
ever since been a director. 

In the winter of 1863, a meeting of the friends of the Government 
was held at Mr. Albert's house, and it was resolved to call a conven- 
tion to amend the Constitution of the State. With the co-operation 
of the Hon. Henry Winter Davis, and Judge Hugh Lennox Bond, a 
majority was returned favorable to the abolition of slavery. 

During this winter Mr. Albert was elected president of the Mary- 
land State Fair, intended to aid the Sanitary and Christian Com- 
missions in their benevolent labors. The Fair was opened during 
the Easter holidays by President Lincoln, who was the guest of Mr. 
Albert. This is believed to be the only occasion on which Mr. 



WILLIAM JULIAN ALBERT. 171 

Lincoln during Ms Presidency partook of private hospitality, or 
entered a private residence as a guest. 

In 1861 Mr. Albert was nominated by the Republican Conven- 
tion as elector at large for the State, in the approaching Presiden- 
tial election ; and being elected, was chosen president of the Elect- 
oral College of Maryland. 

The Constitution of 1864, having declared the abolition of slavery 
in Maryland, Mr. Albert turned his attention to the condition of 
the free blacks. He took a leading part in the foundation of the 
association for their moral and educational improvement, and has 
been its president since 1865. This association has already estab- 
lished at least a hundred schools in the rural districts alone, offering 
educational facilities to at least four thousand colored children, at 
an annual cost of fifty thousand dollars. This liberal bounty is 
derived almost entirely from private charity. In this connection 
should also be mentioned the " Normal School," situated in Balti- 
more, a seminary intended to supply teachers for the colored popu- 
lation ; an institution which has ordinarily about two hundred 
pupils in attendance, and is estimated to have cost twenty-five 
thousand dollars. 

The dissensions which arose in the Republican party during the 
Presidency of Mr. Johnson, greatly weakened their numbers in 
Maryland. A call was therefore made for those of the party who 
supported the policy of Congress, in opposition to that of the Presi- 
dent, to meet at the Front street Theatre, to urge upon Congress 
the passage of the law known as the Civil Rights Bill. At this 
meeting Mr. Albert was chosen chairman. 

In 1866 the Republican party in the fifth Congressional District, 
nominated Mr. Albert as their candidate for the seat in the House ; 
and the nomination was repeated in 1868, in which year, also, he 
received their nomination as elector for General Grant, in the Presi- 
dential campaign. 

During the period of the war, Mr. Albert was a member of the 
vestry of Grace Church ; and his management of the affairs of the 
church, at a time when he was left alone by the resignation of the 
other vestrymen, will long be remembered by the congregation. 
For twenty-five years he has been the treasurer of the Convention 
of the Episcopal Church, in which office, despite differences of 
political feeling, he has ever retained the confidence of both clergy 
and laity. 

Notwithstanding the many and arduous duties to which he 
was thus called, his warm sympathies with the soldiers of the 



172 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

Union armies in the field, led him to miss no occasion of minister- 
ing to their comforts, or alleviating their sufferings. To this end 
he assisted in establishing the " Soldiers' Home," for sick and 
disabled soldiers, and also the Asylum for their orphan children. 
He visited the battle-fields of Antietam and Gettysburg, and minis- 
tered to the wounded on the field ; and assisted Bishop A. C. Coxe, 
in his pious ministrations to the wounded and dying. 

There is one incident in Mr. Albert's life which should not be 
omitted. In the latter part of the month of December, 1860, 
nothing seemed to portend the destruction of the Union more than 
the embarrassed condition of its finances. The treasury was empty, 
and the public credit apparently gone. Upon apprehensions being 
expressed at the Depository in Baltimore as to the ability of the 
United States to meet the interest on the public debt due on the 
first of the following month, Mr. Albert volunteered, in case the 
anticipated exigency should arise, to advance what would be neces- 
sary to defray the demands upon the Government in this city. 
Although it was not found necessary to accept his offer, it was 
none the less patriotic. 

In person Mr. Albert is a man of striking and distinguished 
appearance, and of polished and agreeable manners. 



JOHN C. BACKUS. 



The Presbyterian Church has been identified with the annals of 
Baltimore almost from its foundation, and very many of our most 
eminent merchants, whose foresight and enterprise built up the city, 
have been members of this denomination. Although at an earlier 
period records exist of Presbyterian gatherings, there were no 
settled minister and place of worship until 1763. The history of 
the first Presbyterian Church of this city has been one of singular 
power and prosperity, and all the other churches of the sect have 
grown out of it. It is also remarkable that in one hundred and 
eight years since the foundation of the first church, it has had but 
four pastors, viz. : Rev. Patrick Allison, D. D., from 1763 till 1802 ; 
Rev. James Inglis, D. D., from 1802 till 1819; Rev. AVilliam 
Kevins, D. D., from 1820 till 1835 ; while Rev. John C. Backus, 
D. D., the present pastor was settled in 1836, and has consequently 
occupied the pulpit for thirty-five years. 

John C. Backus was born in New York and graduated at Prince- 
ton College. He entered the ministry, and when quite a j'oung 
man passed through Baltimore on his way to New Orleans, and in 
December, 1835, a few months after the death of Dr. JSTevins, 
preached in the first Presbyterian Church. On the 11th of April 
following he was elected pastor, and accepting the call was installed 
September 15th, 1836. Since then he has been completely identified 
with the church, and it being one of the oldest and most influential 
institutions in the city, some notice of its history may properly be 
given. Dr. Allison, toward the close of his ministry, prepared a 
brief history of the congregation, in which he says: — "In 1761 the 
advantageous situation of the town of Baltimore, induced a few 
Presbyterian families to remove here from Pennsylvania, and these, 
with two or three others of the same persuasion, who had emigrated 
directly from Europe, formed themselves in a religious society, and 
had occasional supplies, assembling in private houses, though liable 
to prosecution on this ground, as the province groaned under a 
religious establishment." Among these families were several men 



174 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

who became eminent as merchants, John Smith and William 
Buchanan ; followed shortly by William Smith, Robert Purviance, 
"William Spear and others, all of whom exercised a very important 
commercial influence on the city, and whose descendants to-day, in 
many instances, reap the reward of their business enterprise. 

In 1763, Mr. Patrick Allison was settled as the first pastor of the 
First Presbyterian Church, and in December of that year the congre- 
gation leased two lots on Fayette street, then called East street, and 
erected a small log church thereon, in the rear of the present Christ 
Church on Gay street. In March, 1765, finding this poor rude 
building inadequate for its purpose, another lot was purchased west 
of the old site, and a plain brick church was erected, forty-five 
feet long by thirty-five feet wide, containing thirty-six pews. 

In 1771, the building which had been completed in 1766, was 
enlarged, and in 1772 an addition was made to the lot. In 1789 
the congregation having been much increased in consequence of the 
growth of the city determined on having a new church. It was 
occupied in 1791, and continued in use almost seventy years, its site 
being that of the present United States Court House, on the corner 
of Fayette and North streets. The church was elevated some 
twelve feet above the level of the street, and its large portico and 
towers contributed to render it one of the most conspicuous build- 
ings in the city. 

When Dr. Allison was first settled, Baltimore contained only 
about thirty houses, and when he died in 1802, the city had become 
the third in the Union in magnitude, and the church established at 
first by only five or six families, one of the most flourishing in the 
country. Many of the most distinguished citizens of Baltimore 
were members of the congregation during this period, and promi- 
nently connected with the history of the city, as will be seen by the 
following names : John Stevenson, John Smith, William Buchanan, 
William Lyon, William Smith, James Sterret, William Spear, 
Jonathan Plowman, Dr. Alexander Stenhouse, John Boyd, Samuel 
Purviance, John Little, Samuel Brown, James Calhoun, Robert 
Purviance, William Neill, Hugh Young, John Sterret, David Stew- 
art, Nathaniel Smith, Joseph Donaldson, Robert Gilmor, William 
Patterson, Christopher Johnston, Stephen Wilson, John Swan, Col. 
Samuel Smith, and Dr. Brown. 

Dr. Allison was a very distinguished clergyman, and during the 
forty years of his pastorate acquired a reputation second to no min- 
ister in the country, lie was a man of great executive ability, 
sound learning, and an ardent friend of civil and religious liberty. 



JOHN C. BACKUS. 175 

He -was one of the founders of Baltimore College and the Baltimore 
Library, and deeply interested in establishing schools. He was suc- 
ceeded by Dr. Inglis, who had been elected as assistant pastor 
shortly before Dr. Allison's death, in 1802. 

Dr. Inglis was also a very eminent man, a fine scholar, an 
eloquent preacher, and remarkable for his colloquial powers and 
fund of anecdote. Under his ministry the society greatly prospered, 
and several new congregations branched off from the parent church. 
On the opening of North street, which was previously an alley, the 
old parsonage was removed and a new one built in the rear of the 
church. In 1811, an organ was introduced, which at first, among 
the stricter members of the congregation, gave some dissatisfaction, 
and one or two families left the church, although the feeling soon 
passed away. 

Dr. Inglis died suddenly on Sunday morning, August loth, 1819. 

The church continued vacant about one year, when Dr. William 
Nevins was chosen pastor. He was born in Norwich, Connecticut, 
graduated at Yale College, and pursued his theological studies at 
Princeton, Xew Jersey. He was settled in Baltimore, October, 
1820, and his labors as pastor extended over a period of fifteen 
years, until his death, in 1835. 

When Dr. Backus entered on his pastorate, the church member- 
ship was adorned by the distinguished names of Genl. Samuel 
Smith, Hon. Robert Smith, Robert Gilmor, James Buchanan, Alex- 
ander Fridge, Alexander McDonald, Judges Xisbet and Purviance, 
Messrs. George Brown, James Swan, James Cox, James Armstrong, 
James Campbell and Robert Purviance. All these were then living 
and holding the very highest stations in the community, and all are 
now dead. Since Dr. Backus commenced his labors the various 
Presbyterian congregations in different parts of the city have in- 
creased from three to fifteen, while the parent church has continued 
to flourish vigorously. The Franklin Street Church, on the corner of 
Cathedral street, was erected in 1846, and in 1851-2 the Westminster 
Church, on the corner of Greene and Fayette streets, was erected, 
occupying a part of the old burying ground of the first church. 
After the erection of the Franklin Street Church, it was resolved to 
remodel the parent church, which was accordingly done. The pul- 
pit was removed and placed at the opposite end of the building, and 
the pews reversed. They had always been placed facing the doors, 
so that any belated individual was obliged to encounter the gaze of 
the whole congregation as he entered the church, which was very 
embarrassing to one of sensitive nerves. The time honored " green 



176 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

arm-chair," directly in front of the pulpit, where the sexton sat in 
state with hymn book and rattan, also disappeared. The old brick 
floor, and the four wood stoves and long black pipes gave place to 
modern improvements, and the quaint aspect of the ancient edifice 
was greatly changed. At length the time came when the venerable 
building itself was obliged to give place to another structure. For 
many years the locality had been changing, offices and stores taking 
the place of dwellings and most of the congregation had moved 
far westward. In October, 1853, it was determined to erect another 
church and dispose of the old one, and ground was accordingly 
broken on the new lot, corner of Madison and Park streets, in July, 
1854. The present beautiful structure of brown stone and of 
pointed gothic architecture was then erected and completed, with 
the exception of the tower, which remains unfinished. The final 
service in the old church was held on the last Sabbath of Septem- 
ber, 1860, when Dr. Backus preached an historical discourse of very 
interesting character. The old site was purchased by the United 
States, the church was demolished, and in its stead the United 
States District Court House, of solid granite, was erected. 





& 



.. 



CHARLES J. BAKER. 



Charles Joseph Baker, President of the Canton Company and 
head of the house of Baker Brothers & Company, was born in this 
city on the 28th of May, 1821. His parents, William and Jane 
Baker, then resided at " Friendsbury," their country seat, situated 
in Avhat is now the growing and rapidly improving northwestern sec- 
tion of the city, within the corporate limits, although fifty years 
ago, it was considered sufficiently remote from the built-up portions 
of the town, to be denominated country. The paternal grandfather 
of Mr. Baker, who was the head of the dry goods importing house 
of Willam Baker & Sons, once well known in this city, came to 
Baltimore to make his own way in the world at the early age of 
twelve years, having been left an orphan by the massacre of his 
parents and all the other members of the family, by the Indians, 
about the year 1750. The scene of the massacre was near the foot 
of the Blue Ridge Mountains, not far from the present town of 
Reading, in Pennsylvania. The grandfather of Charles J. Baker, 
on the mother's side, was Richard Jones, who emigrated to this 
country from Caernarvonshire, in Wales, in 1781, preceding his 
family, in order to provide a home for them, before sending for 
wife and children to join him. He settled in Baltimore, in the part 
of the city which has retained the name of Fell's Point, and began 
business as a manufacturer and dealer in paints and oils, a branch 
of commerce which three generations of his descendants have since 
continued. In 1793, Mr. Jones purchased and improved the beau- 
tiful site to which he gave the name of " Friendsbury," where the 
parents of Mr. C. J. Baker resided until their death, a few years 
since, and where the subject of this sketch was born. Like large 
numbers of his countrymen, Mr. Jones in early life, before his emi- 
gration to America, became a member of the Wesleyan Methodist 
Society, under the preaching and influence of its celebrated founder, 
whose personal acquaintance he enjoyed. 

Charles J. Baker received his early education at home, and at 
boarding school, at the Franklin Academy in Reisterstown, Balti 



178 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

more county, then under the charge of Mr. X. C. Brooks. After- 
wards, he was sent for a short time to St. Mary's College, in this 
city, and, in 1835, entered the grammar school of Dickinson College, 
Carlisle, Pa. In 1837, he was admitted Freshman in the College 
proper, and graduated with the Class of 1841, under the presidency 
of the Rev. J. P. Durbin, D. D. During his stay at Carlisle, in 
1833, Mr. Baker united himself in membership with the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, in that place. Upon the completion of his college 
course, he entered the counting-room of his father, who was then 
engaged in the manufacture of window-glass at the old Baltimore 
glass works, at the foot of Federal Hill. In 1842, he started in 
business with his brother, H. J. Baker, on their own account, in the 
paint, oil, and glass trade, at No. 2 N. Liberty street. Shortly after 
the firm became proprietors of the Baltimore "Window Glass and 
Bottle and Vial Glass Works, previously carried on by Shaum & 
Reitz. In 1843, the brothers removed to No. 42 South Charles 
street, and enlarged their business, until, in 1848, they were enabled 
to purchase the two warehouses, Nos. 32 and 34 South Charles 
street, and changed the style of the firm to that of Baker & Brother. 
In July, 1850, their two warehouses, with all their contents, includ- 
ing $75,000 worth of glass, paints, &c, were destroyed by fire. 
Nothing daunted by this disaster, the firm immediately commenced 
the work of rebuilding, and, in the coarse of the following year, had 
finished the present five story warehouses, Nos. 32 and 34, on the 
same site. During 1850, the two brothers, Charles J. and Henry J. 
Baker, organized the firm of H. J. Baker & Brother in New York 
city, for the purpose of conducting the same business there, and also 
importing French glass and chemicals. In 1851, the firm in Balti- 
more was changed to Baker Brothers & Company, upon the admis- 
sion of a new partner, Mr. J. Rogers, Jr., and so continued until 
1865, when Charles J. Baker purchased the entire interest. of H. J. 
Baker and Mr. Rogers, and admitted his two sons, William Baker, 
Jr., and Charles E. Baker, into copartnership, retaining the old style 
of Baker Brothers & Company. 

As one of the results of a successful business career, as well as of 
the enterprising and liberal spirit which has contributed so largely 
to that success, Mr. Baker has become prominently and usefully 
identified with various mercantile and manufacturing interests in 
this city. In 1859, he was elected a director in the Franklin Bank, 
and in 1867, was chosen its president. In 1860, he was elected a 
director in the Canton Company, and in 1870, was elected president, 
lie is also interested in the Maryland AVhite Lead Company, the 



CHARLES J. BAKER. 179 

Maryland Manufacturing and Fertilizing Company, and other kin- 
dred enterprises of associated capital and skill. 

Through the energetic efforts of Mr. Baker, as president of the 
Canton Company, the Union Railroad, running from the north- 
western limits of the city to tidewater, is being rapidly pushed for- 
ward, and will be of immense service to the business of Baltimore. 

JSTor have Mr. Baker's life and energies been so far absorbed in 
business pursuits and undertakings, as to make him neglectful of 
other and higher duties. His life as a citizen has not been unevent- 
ful. In 1859-60, he took an active part in the Municipal Reform 
movement of that year, and was a candidate for the second branch 
of the City Council on the same ticket with George William Brown, 
for Mayor, and was elected by a large majority. In the organiza- 
tion of the branch, although the youngest member, Mr. Baker was 
elected president ; which position he continued to fill during the 
stormy and memorable days of April, 1861, and the period which 
followed, — acting as Mayor of the city, ex officio, from September, 
1861, to January, 186:2, while Mayor Brown was a prisoner in Forts 
Lafayette and Warren. 

The interest in religious matters which led Mr. Baker to identify 
himself early in life with the Methodist Episcopal Church has never 
failed or ceased. In 1855, he was associated as trustee of Balti- 
more City Station with the late R. G. Armstrong, David Thomas, 
John G. Chappell, Br. Roberts, and others, and was connected and 
prominently identified with various religious movements and enter- 
prises, such as the extension and rebuilding of the Eutaw Street M. 
E. Church, the erection of the Madison Avenue M. E. Church, and 
in the cause of missions, particularly the German Mission, under 
Dr. Jacoby, in Bremen, Frankfort, and elsewhere in Germany. As 
one of the trustees of Dickinson College, he manifested his interest 
and kept alive his connection with the Alma Mater of his youth. 
The dissensions, however, which disturbed the peace of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church after 1860, led to Mr. Baker's withdrawal 
from the position which he held in that body. He assisted in organ- 
izing the Chatsworth Independent Methodist Church, and in build- 
ing the present church edifice at the corner of Franklin and Pine 
streets, and, subsequently, in 1867, he aided in building the Bethany 
Independent Methodist Chapel at Franklin square. 

The leading traits of Mr. Baker's character may be readily in- 
ferred from the foregoing incidents in his career. Energy and 
probity in business ; a high sense of duty in all the relations of life, 
public and private ; a spirit and temper firm in the recognition 



180 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

and advocacy of principle, yet withal kindly and conciliatory, and 
always governed by the rules of Christian charity, and a liberal 
heart and hand in the support of all undertakings, secular or re- 
ligious, Avhich commend themselves to his sympathy and judgment, 
have made Mr. Baker widely respected, trusted and esteemed in this 
community. 

Mr. Baker married, in 1842, Miss Elizabeth Bosserman, of Car- 
lisle, Pa., daughter of Ephraim Bosserman, a merchant of that 
place. 






JOSHUA BARNEY. 



This distinguished naval commander was born in Baltimore, 
July 6th, 1759. Evincing an early predilection for the sea, he made 
several voyages at a very youthful age, and on one of them was, by 
the sudden death of the captain, placed in command of the vessel 
when only sixteen years of age. After many adventures abroad he 
returned to the Chesapeake in 1775, learning on arrival of hostilities 
with the mother country. He was the first officer to unfurl the 
American flag in Maryland on board the " Hornet'' of ten guns, of 
which he was master's mate; and in June, 1776, was appointed 
lieutenant in the navy. On the 6th of June he sailed from Phila- 
delphia in the " Sachem," commanded by Capt. Robinson, and soon 
captured a letter of marque brig after a fight of two hours. Bring- 
ing their prize into Philadelphia, and being transferred to the 
Andrea Doria of fourteen guns, they again sailed and captured the 
" Racehorse" of twelve guns. Barney was shortly afterward taken 
prisoner on one of his own prizes by the " Perseus" of twenty guns, 
cruising off the Capes of the Chesapeake, carried to Charleston, and 
released on parole. He was captured again in the " Virginia" 
frigate by the British squadron in the Chesapeake, and sub- 
sequently made a voyage to France. He was married in 1780 to 
a daughter of Gunning Bedford, of Philadelphia. He again sailed 
from that port in the IT. S. Ship " Saratoga" of sixteen guns, which 
made several prizes, among others an English ship of thirty-two 
guns, which was boarded by Barney at the head of fifty men. He 
was ordered into the Delaware with his prize, but was again 
captured by a squadron of the enemy and carried prisoner to 
England. He adroitly escaped from prison, and after various 
adventures, once more landed in Philadelphia in 1782. 

In a few days after his return home he was appointed to the com- 
mand of the "Hyder Ali," a small vessel, carrying sixteen guns, 
and one hundred and ten men, being fitted out by the State of 
Pennsylvania to aid in destroying the numerous Tory craft, which, 
under cover of the British men of war, made great havoc with the 
13 



182 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

commerce of Philadelphia. She sailed on the 8th of April, 1782, iu 
company with a fleet of merchantmen, with orders to convoy them 
to the Capes of the Delaware, and then return into the hay for its 
protection. On approaching Cape May road, the convoy was met 
by two ships and a brig, and put back up the bay again. The brig 
saluted Barney with a broadside, of which he took no notice, and 
then ran after the fleet, when the " Hyder Ali," waiting for one of 
the ships to come within pistol shot, poured into her a tremendous 
fire, and then, as she fell along side, caught her jibboom in the 
u Hyder Ali's" rigging ; thus giving Barney such a raking position 
that iu twenty-five minutes the enemy struck his colors. Putting 
his first lieutenant and thirty-five men on board her, and eluding 
the other ship, Barney found that he had captured his Britannic 
Majesty's ship " General Monk," of twenty guns, and one hundred 
and thirty-six men. For this gallant action, which diffused great 
joy through the whole country, Captain Barney received the thanks 
of the Pennsylvania Legislature, which voted him also a costly 
sword. 

The name of the captured " General Monk" being changed to 
" General Washington," Captain Barney was placed in command of 
her, in May, 1782, proceeded to Havana, and on his return to the 
Delaware, made a successful attack on a number of Tory barges, 
destroying them, and recapturing the vessels of which they had 
taken possession. In October, 1782, he was selected to carry out to 
Dr. Franklin the instructions of his Government before the British 
commissioners should arrive at Paris, and returned to Philadelphia 
on the 12th of March, 1783, bearing the news of peace, and the 
passport for his ship of the King of Great Britain. During the 
next few years he embarked in various commercial enterprises, and 
in 1793 his vessel was captured by three privateers. His spirit and 
courage did not forsake him on this occasion, and five days after- 
ward, he, with the aid of two warrant officers, rose upon the prize 
crew and recaptured his vessel, bringing his English assailants 
home with him. He again sailed for the West Indies, and on his 
return, the second day out from Tort au Prince, he was captured by 
the Penelope frigate, carried to Jamaica, and there tried for piracy 
in recapturing his own vessel. The jury acquitted him, but his 
cargo was condemned, and a number of years elapsed before he 
succeeded in recovering his property. 

On his return home he was appointed commander of one of the 
six ships authorized by Congress to comprise the navy of the United 
States, but declined to serve on account of a question of rank. He 



JOSHUA BARNEY. 183 

shortly afterward proceeded to France, sailing in company with Mr. 
Mnnroe, the minister to that country, and was by him selected to 
bear the American flag presented to the national convention. He 
soon entered into the service of France, and held his command until 
1802, when he resigned, and returned to the United States. He 
continued in pursuit of his private affairs until the declaration of 
war with Great Britain in 1812, when he at once offered his 
services, and in less than a month, after the commencement of 
hostilities, sailed on a short cruise in the " Rossie," of ten guns, 
doing much damage, and capturing a letter of marque. 

Being appointed to the command of a flotilla, fitted out at 
Baltimore, for the protection of the Chesapeake, he left the 
Patnxent river on the 1st of June, 1814, with the " Scorpion" as his 
flag- ship, accompanied by a couple of gun boats and several barges. 
He pursued two British schooners, but as he was coming up with 
them a large two decker came in sight, and bearing down on the 
flotilla forced it to seek shelter again in the Patnxent, From the 
6th to the 11th of June, the enemy, being joined by other vessels, 
several attacks were made upon Barney, which were gallantly 
repulsed in each instance. Learning at this time of the meditated 
attack on Baltimore and Washington, and communicating his in- 
telligence to the government at Washington, he received orders to 
run his flotilla as far as he could up the river, destroy it if liable to 
capture by the enemy, and then to join his forces with General 
Winder in defence of the Capitol. On the 21st of August, the 
British troops having moved up from Benedict, on the Patuxent, 
accompanied by a number of barges, under command of the 
ruffianly Cockburn, reached lower Marlborough, when Barney's 
flotilla sailed farther up the stream to Pig Point, being there left 
under charge of Lieutenant Frazier ; — Barney having landed with 
four hundred men and marched to the aid of General Winder, at 
Wood Yard, on the road from Upper Marlborough to Washington, 
and twelve miles from the Capitol. The flotilla was blown up the 
next day, August 22d, when Cockburn's barges approached and 
began firing upon it. On the 21th of August, Barney, with Win- 
der's little army, marched to Bladensburg, where they found near 
the village the remainder of the American forces under General 
Stansbury. The gallant part which Barney took in the battle that 
ensued, and its unfortunate result, have been too often narrated to 
need repetition in the limited space at our command. Commodore 
Barney was not again engaged, and peace being declared in Feb- 
ruary, 1815, relieved him of his command. He was selected by the 



184 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

President as bearer of despatches to the American plenipotentiaries 
in Europe, and made a voyage in that capacity ; and in Xovember, 
1817, was appointed naval officer of the Port of Baltimore. He was 
about removing to Kentucky, where he had claims on a large tract 
of land, when he was suddenly seized with illness at Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania, and died there on December 1st, 1818, aged fifty-nine 
years. He belonged to a school of naval officers of which few 
specimens now remain, owing to the great changes in the service. 
Trained in a career of perilous hardihood, he was rough and 
impetuous, but of kind feelings, strict integrity and dauntless 
courage. 





2^^ 




JAMES LAURENCE BARTOL. 



James Laurence Bartol, Chief Judge of the Court of Appeals of 
Maryland, was born June 4th, 1813, at Havre de Grace, in Harford 
county, Maryland. His father, George Bartol, was a respected and 
successful merchant in that place ; his mother he had the misfortune 
to lose when he was not quite three years old. His early education 
was received at Havre de Grace, and was chiefly directed to his 
preparation for the business of a merchant. In 1828, at the age of 
fifteen, he came to Baltimore, inclined to accept a position that had 
been offered him in a mercantile house, but, upon inquiry and re- 
flection, was led to think better of his plans, and decided to resume 
and continue his studies. Returning to his home, he was placed by 
his father as a private pupil in the family of the Rev. Samuel 
Martin, D. I)., a highly accomplished scholar, who then resided at 
Chanceford, in York county, Pennsylvania. Here young Bartol re- 
mained until 1830, and so thoroughly did he profit by the instructions 
of his learned preceptor, that he was enabled at the age of seventeen 
to enter the junior class of Jefferson College, Penns}'lvania, where 
he graduated two years later, with college honors. In subsequent 
years, and amid all the engrossing cares and duties of professional life 
and of a high judicial station, Judge Bartol has never lost his early 
love of classical literature and belles-lettres, but has wisely known 
how to find time and leisure for both. Apart from the possession of 
naturally refined and scholarly tastes, which have made at all times 
the paths of literature both welcome and easy to him, this fortunate 
result is, no doubt, partly due, in his case, as in that of most men 
who are similarly able to retain and indulge in later life their fond- 
ness for classical studies, to the thoroughness and excellence of his 
early training, which he received when under the roof of the learned 
Dr. Martin. That so man}' men in this country, even among those 
who are accounted liberally educated, lose, within a very few years 
after leaving college, the ability to construe tolerably a page of any 
Greek or Latin author, is quite as often due to the superficial char- 
acter of the education imparted, as to the occupations of a busy life, 



186 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES, 

which have driven from the mind all recollection of lessons which 
could never have been more than half learned, else they would not 
have been so soon and easily forgotten. 

After quitting college, Mr. Bartol commenced the study of the 
law, in the office of Otho Scott, Esq., at Bel Air, in Harford county. 
He was as fortunate in the choice of a legal as he had previously 
been in the selection of a classical instructor. Mr. Scott was de- 
servedly considered in his day to be one of the ablest lawyers in 
Maryland, and his were the brilliant and palmy days when the fame 
of Harper, Pinkney, Wirt and Luther Martin had not yet faded, and 
when Taney, Johnson, Nelson and McMahon were at the height of 
their great reputation. Among these leaders of the bar, Otho Scott 
held a foremost place, and enjoyed a high repute both for the extent 
and soundness of his legal learning, and for the ability and acute- 
ness which he displayed in the conduct of nisi prius cases. 

"While at college, and afterwards, young Bartol's health became 
seriously impaired, so much so that he was compelled to intermit 
his close application to the study of the law, and undertake a voyage 
to Cuba, where, and in the balmy climate of Florida, he passed the 
fall and winter of 1835-36. He consequently did not apply for 
admission to the bar until 1836. In the year following his admis- 
sion, he settled in Caroline county and commenced the practice of 
the profession, which he continued in that and the adjoining coun- 
ties of the Eastern Shore, for more than seven years. During this 
period he had frequent opportunities, had he been so disposed, to 
enter into, political life ; but his tastes did not incline in that direc- 
tion, and he kept aloof from the vortex of active politics. A more 
congenial labor was that which he undertook in connection with 
the establishment and organization of the Denton Academy, in the 
success of which institution, as in the cause of education generally, 
he manifested the warmest interest. 

In the spring of 1845, Judge Bartol removed to Baltimore city, 
still continuing the practice of his profession ; although in 1855, on 
account of his health, which was still infirm, he fixed his residence 
a short distance from the city, in Baltimore county. Although at 
all times a consistent Democrat of the old-fashioned States rights 
school, as already remarked, he had never been a politician; and it 
was therefore with feelings of greater surprise than gratification, 
that he received the announcement that without any solicitation, or 
previous knowledge even on his part, he had been appointed by 
Governor Ligon to fill the vacancy on the Bench of the Court of 
Appeals, occasioned by the resignation of the Hon. John Thomson 



JAMES LAURENCE BARTOL. 187 

Mason. This was in 1857, and in the fall of the same year, the 
choice which Governor Ligon had made was ratified by the people 
in the election of Judge Bartol, as a member of the Appellate 
Court, for the judicial district composed of the counties of Alle- 
ghany, Washington, Frederick, Carroll, Harford and Baltimore. 
His term of service expiring in 1867, and he having, in the mean- 
time, removed to Baltimore city, where he now resides, he was 
specially elected by the people of Baltimore a Judge of the Court of 
Appeals, under the revised constitution of that year, and was desig- 
nated by the Governor, by and with the advice of the Senate, Chief 
Judge of the Court over which he now presides. 

The judicial character of Judge BartoPs mind appears to have 
been recognized by the profession even before he had been called to 
the Bench. On the election of the late Judge Constable, under the 
Constitution of 1851, it became necessary that a special judge 
should be chosen to sit in the trial of the many important causes in 
Harford county, in which Judge Constable was disqualified. By 
the unanimous request of the members of the bar of that county, 
Mr. Bartol was appointed to fill that office, which he did to the 
entire satisfaction of the bar and the public ; holding several terms 
of the Court, and deciding many important causes. He has been 
frequently called upon to act as arbitrator in controversies which 
the parties desired to settle without the delays and formalities inci- 
dent to a trial at law. For this delicate and responsible duty, the 
clearness and fairness of Judge Bartol's mind, his strict impar- 
tiality, his calm, judicial temper, and his readiness to hear patiently 
both sides, and to withhold his own judgment until the case was 
fully before him, particularly qualified him. He has now sat upon 
the Bench of the highest Court of the State for thirteen years. 
His term of service has extended through the most trying period in 
the history in the country and the State, during all which time no 
imputation has been cast upon his personal or judicial character from 
any quarter ; and he has commanded always the respect and confi- 
dence of men of all parties, and of the entire people of the State. 
Conservative both by nature and by habit, he is singularly free 
from those judicial crotchets and vagaries from which sometimes 
the ablest judges do not escape, and into which the most learned 
and the cleverest are, perhaps, the most prone to fall. He brings to 
the consideration of every case which comes before him a mind 
remarkably free from undue prejudice or bias. His judicial manner 
is also singularly fortunate. It is a model of judicial courtesy and 
blandness. It is true, that judges in an Appellate Court escape many 



188 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

of the annoyances and vexations which try the temper of nisi prius 
judges. Still there is no judicial station which is without its share 
of weariness both of flesh and spirit. In the Court of Appeals of 
Maryland, counsel are usually limited in their speeches to one hour 
and a half. It is very possible, however, to be both wordy and dull 
within the limits allowed, but under no infliction of the kind is 
Judge Bartol ever known to betray the slightest discomposure or 
impatience. This faculty itself of listening patiently is very desirable 
in a judge, and when it is accompanied, as in Judge Bartol's case, by 
a manner unexceptionally kind and genial, it inspires confidence on 
the part of counsel and suitors, and wins universal regard. To 
young lawyers, especially, his manner is always particularly reassur- 
ing and pleasant, tending to relieve their inexperience and embar- 
rassment. Judge Bartol's opinions, delivered since he has been upon 
the Bench of the Court of Appeals, are to be found in every volume 
of the published Maryland Reports, from the tenth to the thirty- 
first, (the last published,) inclusive. They are inferior neither in 
matter nor manner to any which those volumes contain, and support 
the high reputation which the Court has always enjoyed for ability, 
impartiality and learning. The term for which Judge Bartol is 
elected is fixed by the Constitution at fifteen years, and the age at 
which, by the same instrument, a judge ceases to be eligible for re- 
election, is seventy years. Judge Bartol's term will not expire until 
1882, when he will be within one year of the age at which the Con- 
stitution would make him ineligible. 

The personal popularity of a judge is not always the best criterion 
of his fitness for the position ; but in Judge Bartol's case, it may be 
fairly accepted as the just reward of important public duties faith- 
fully performed. As a man he is not less respected and esteemed 
than as a judge. Indeed, purity of private life and of personal 
character are so essential to the judicial office, that it is difficult 
to understand how the two can be separated, or how men can 
retain that respect for the magistrate which they have lost for the 
man. In the case of Judge Bartol there is no occasion to draw 
the invidious distinction ; but the same qualities which distinguish 
his official career adorn and dignify his private life. 






&wyL- 



JOHN SUMMERFIELD BERRY. 



The long and terrible struggle for supremacy between Parliament 
and the Crown, in England, disastrous as it was to the mother 
country, was fruitful in benefits to America, in enriching her 
population by immigrants of such character, qualities and social 
position as would scarcely have thought of voluntary expatriation 
under any less stringent pressure. As King or Commonwealth 
triumphed, prominent Cavaliers or Puritans found themselves too 
deeply compromised for safety, or grew desperate of their cause, 
and sought refuge from danger, or peace after long strife, among 
their friends in the jSTew World. 

Among these were General Berry's paternal ancestors, who emi- 
grated to this country during the reign of Charles L, and settled 
in a tract of country then known as a The Forest," in Prince 
George County, Maryland. About a hundred years later, his ma- 
ternal great-grandfather also quitted England, and took up his 
abode in " The Forest," 

Colonel John Berry, the father of the subject of this sketch, was 
well known to the last generation as a patriotic and worthy citizen; 
and he formed one of that honored band, now dwindled to a handful, 
who defended Baltimore in the last war with England. 

In the early part of the year 1812, in view of the impending war, 
the United States Government issued a circular, calling upon the 
citizens to devise means for the production at home of various 
important articles for which we were then dependent upon Eng- 
land, and among the rest, of a fine brick, equal to the Stowbridge 
brick, which was a staple article of importation. At this day, 
many old houses may be seen throughout the State, built of the 
large and dingy English bricks, brought over at heavy cost ; while, 
had they but known it, almost at their doors, lay the finest brick 
clay in the world. 

In response to this call, Mr. John Berry, in 1812, established a 
manufactory of fire brick, on the corner of Howard and Lee streets, 
and succeeded in producing an article which has maintained to this 



190 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

day a high reputation for excellence, and is still extensively used by 
the Government, and in iron, copper and gas works. 

In 1814, when the British fleet had entered the Patapsco under 
cover of night, and Fort McIIenry had sustained a fierce bombard- 
ment for twenty-four hours, its brave defenders began to grow 
discouraged, as they found that their guns were of too light calibre 
to reach the enemy's vessels, which, lying safely out of range, 
rained shot and shell upon the heads of the garrison. It was then 
that Captain Berry, commanding the Washington Artillery, re- 
membered that the wreck of a French frigate L'Eole, had been 
for years lying in the river ; and taking a squad of men he pro- 
ceeded to the wreck, and with great labor succeeded in getting off 
two large guns, which they brought up and mounted in the fort. 
No sooner were they in position than, without waiting for orders, 
he fired a shot from one which passed clear over the most distant 
vessel, while the shot from the other gun, which immediately 
followed, tore through her rigging. So surprised were the enemy 
by this unexpected reinforcement of heavy artillery, that they soon 
weio-hed anchor and retired down the river. General Armistead, 
the commanding officer, sent for Captain Berry, and publicly com- 
plimented him, saying that he had deserved well of his country. 

After the close of the war, General Scott, for his bravery and 
good service, issued a commission to Captain Berry as a colonel in 
the regular army, for the Eastern District of the United States ; but 
considering that his country had no further need of his services, he 
declined the appointment. 

John Summerfield Berry, the subject of this sketch, was born 
June 18th, 1822, and was educated partly in Baltimore, and partly 
at Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pennsylvania. On leaving college, his 
tastes inclining him to active business pursuits, he entered the dry- 
goods store of Beale PI. Richardson, with whom he remained for 
more than a year. 

In 1845, he became associated with his brother-in-law, Mr. John 
Hurst, in the wholesale dry goods business, and the firm carried on 
an extensive trade for eleven years, after which he retired from the 
business. 

In 1857, he was elected as a Delegate to the Maryland Legisla- 
ture, from Baltimore County, where he resided, and on the assem- 
bling, of that body, was chosen Speaker of the House. The position 
of Speaker at this Session was a peculiarly arduous one. Party 
feeling ran high, and occasions continually arose where the presence 
in the chair of a man of judgment, firmness and tact, was of the 



JOHN SUMMERFIED BERRY. 191 

highest importance. Mr. Berry, moreover, was an entire novice in 
public life ; he had never before taken a seat in a deliberative body, 
and was absolutely ignorant of parliamentary rules. But he applied 
himself diligently to the study of the duties, annexed to his diffi- 
cult and responsible position, and with such effect that during his 
whole term of service, no appeal was ever taken from his decision. 

In the very first days of his speakership, an incident occurred, 
which we shall relate somewhat at length, as it is not only highly 
characteristic of those stormy times, but is also almost without a 
parallel in parliamentary history. 

The House was in Committee of the Whole, the Speaker having 
left the chair, and a highly excited and acrimonious debate was 
in progress upon certain portions of the Governor's Message, which 
reflected severely upon the party then in power. The House was a 
full one, and the lobbies crowded with spectators, as the leading 
men on both sides had taken part in the debate. A member had 
the floor, and in the course of his remarks indulged in very severe 
denunciations of the Governor, when another member excitedly 
interrupted him, and persisted in the interruption in spite of the 
orders of the Chairman. A scene of wild confusion followed, 
which all the efforts of the Chairman were powerless to suppress. 
It was known that not only the two disputants, who were now 
wrought to a high pitch of excitement, were armed, but so also 
were many of their friends, who were scarcely less excited, and at 
any moment very deplorable consequences might have ensued. The 
Chairman himself, carried away by the excitement of the moment, 
declared that he would compel the interrupting member to take his 
seat ; and leaving the chair he advanced upon him with the evident 
purpose of using force to that end ; an attempt which would have 
given the signal for an outbreak of violence, and perhaps a terrible 
catastrophe. But the instant the Chairman vacated the chair, 
Speaker Berry sprang into it, and in a commanding voice called the 
House to order. Quiet was partially restored ; the two gentlemen 
who had heen the cause of the tumult took their seats at the com- 
mand of the Speaker, when a member arose, declaring that the Com- 
mittee had not been dissolved, and demanding by what authority the 
Speaker had resumed the Chair. " By the authority of this House, 
and to preserve the honor and dignity of the State of Maryland, 
and to bring this disorderly body to order," was the reply. The 
objector refusing to recognize the authority and to take his seat, 
the Speaker at once placed him under arrest, and ordered him into 
the custody of the Sergeant-at-arms. Finally, his friends persuaded 



192 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

him to make an apology to the Speaker. On his being brought to 
the Bar of the House, and the apology having been made, the House 
passed an order that he should be publicly reprimanded by the 
Speaker, upon which he remarked : " I deserve it." The Speaker 
instantly said : " The gentleman has pronounced his own repri- 
mand," and ordered his discharge. Thus ending a scene, which, but 
for the presence of mind and firmness displayed by the presiding 
officer, might have had the most unfortunate consequences. 

We have spoken of this as an incident almost without parallel in 
parliamentary history ; but there is one instance on record which 
curiously resembles it. In the year 1675, when Sir Edward Sey- 
mour was Speaker of the House of Commons, in a division in 
Committee of the Whole a fierce dispute arose. Swords were drawn 
and bloodshed seemed imminent, when, as the record states, " the 
Speaker very opportunely and prudently rising from his seat, near 
the bar, in a resolute and slow pace made his three respects through 
the crowd and took the chair. The mace having been forcibly laid 
upon the table, all the disorder ceased, and the gentlemen present 
took their places. The Speaker, having sat, spoke to this purpose, 
that ' to bring the House into order again, he had taken the chair, 
though not according to order.' Some gentlemen excepted against 
his coming into the chair ; but the doing it was generally approved 
as the only expedient to suppress the disorder." 

The Speaker of the House of Representatives, then considered 
one of the ablest presiding officers in the country, wrote to Speaker 
Berry to compliment him on the presence of mind and energy he 
had displayed. 

In 1861, Mr. Berry was elected a member of the Legislature then 
assembled in extra session, as also to the next regular session 
beginning in the following year, on which occasion he was again 
chosen Speaker of the House, over a number of distinguished com- 
petitors. The House, indeed, was notable this session for the num- 
ber of men eminent for their talents or public services, which it 
reckoned among its members, comprising such names as Beverdy 
Johnson, John A. J. Creswell, Benjamin G. Harris, Judge Ma- 
gruder, Thomas S. Alexander, Thomas Donaldson, and others. 
Political feeling still ran high in the State, and, of course, was 
concentrated in the Legislature, making the position of Speaker, 
as before, one of great difficulty. 

In 1862 he was appointed by Governor Bradford, Adjutant 
General of the State, to the duties of which post he devoted him- 
self assiduously, to the neglect of his private business. 



JOHN St'MJIEEFIELD BEEET. 193 

At the earnest request of Governor Swarm, who succeeded Gover- 
nor Bradford, General Berry retained the office, and devoted much 
time and attention to carrying out all the requirements of the 
law creating the Maryland National Guard. Some months after 
Governor Bowie's entrance into office, General Berry resigned his 
position, and the Governor in accepting his resignation, compli- 
mented him highly on the efficiency and fidelity which he had 
displayed during his long term of service. 

In 1864 General Berry was elected a member of the Convention 
called to frame a new Constitution for the State : in which, though 
himself a slaveholder, he advocated, on practical grounds, the inser- 
tion of the article abolishing slavery. General Berry has been three 
times elected as Grand Master of the Masonic Order in the State of 
Maryland. 

Since his resignation of the office of Adjutant General, General 
Berry, though often solicited to re-enter public life, has steadily 
refused to do so, but has devoted his time to his private affairs, and 
to the advancement of various benevolent and religious objects ; 
and has taken a prominent part in the furtherance of many noble 
charities, giving liberally of his own means, and inducing others to 
follow his example. In the unostentatious though useful life he is 
now leading, he is perhaps accomplishing as much good for his 
fellow citizens, as when serving them in public capacities. 



ALEXANDER BROWN & SONS. 



The establishment in the city of Baltimore, while it was jet in 
its infancy, of a commercial house, which, from small beginnings, 
gradually grew and prospered, and, in the course of time, sent out 
into the great capitals of this country and England, vigorous off- 
shoots, which, in their turn, grew and prospered, until they have 
come to be known and recognized everv where as anion o- the leading 
firms of the world, distinguished as much for honor and integrity 
as for wealth and enterprise, is an event which deserves to be com- 
memorated, not only for its important influence on the trade of 
Baltimore, but for its extensive connection with both English and 
American commerce. 

Such was the work accomplished by the late Alexander Brown, 
the founder of the house of Alexander Brown & Sons, who was born 
in the north of Ireland, in 17»31, of that hardy Xorth Irish stock 
which is so numerously and honorably represented in the United 
States by men who have achieved distinction in business, in the 
learned professions, and in political life. Mr. Brown married at 
Ballymena, Ireland, where all his children were born, and where he 
was engaged in business. In the year 1800, leaving his younger 
children, George, John A. and James to be educated in England, he 
came with his wife and his eldest son, William, to Baltimore, having 
been induced to take this step by his brother, Stewart Brown, who 
had previously established himself in business in Baltimore, and by 
his friend and brother-in-law, Dr. George Brown, who had married 
a sister of his wife, and who, without being related to him by 
blood, bore the same surname, and had settled in Baltimore in 
the year 1783. 

Mr. Brown brought with him a small capital, and immediately 
engaged in the business of importing and selling Irish linens, at that 
time, before the great development of the growth and manufacture 
of cotton, an important branch of commerce, but with this was 
gradually combined a shipping and other business. 

In the year 1810, the eldest son, William, went to Liverpool, and 



196 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

there established with his brother James, the firm of William & 
James Brown & Company, which subsequently became Brown, 
Shipley & Co., a branch of which has since been established in Lon- 
don. It may be here stated that William Brown died in Liverpool 
in 1864, possessed of great wealth, after having for many years rep- 
resented the county of Lancashire in the British Parliament, and 
having been created a Baronet in 1862. 

This honor was tendered in a manner which was the more grati- 
fying as it was wholly unexpected. Lord Palmerston writing to 
him, on the 13th of November, 1862, by authority of the Queen, 
stated that the Dignity was offered to him in consideration of his 
eminent commercial position and his generous conduct toward the 
people of Liverpool with respect to the munificent gift which he 
had made to them. 

This gift consisted in the endowment of a Free Public Library 
and the erection of a noble building for its accommodation. 

In the year 1811, the firm of Alexander Brown & Sons was 
formed in the city of Baltimore, and still continues to exist, being 
now composed of George S. Brown and William H. Graham, son 
and son-in-law of George Brown. 

In 1818, John A. Brown established a branch of the house in 
Philadelphia, under the name of John A. Brown & Co., and, in 
1825, James Brown settled in New York, and established the 
firm of Brown Brothers & Co. George Brown continued to reside 
in Baltimore with his father, to whom he was always a devoted 
son, as well as most efficient partner. John A. Brown retired in 
1839, and the business is now carried on in Philadelphia, as well 
as in New York, under the firm of Brown Brothers & Co. 

While Mr. Alexander Brown lived, Baltimore continued to be the 
headquarters of all the houses, and several times a year, and on 
every important occasion, it was the custom of all the brothers in 
this country to meet together to take counsel with their father and 
each other. The early education of Mr. Brown had been defective, 
but he was a man of great vigor both of mind and body, quick in 
perceiving and deciding, and rapid in executing, of strong will, of 
sound judgment, inflexible honesty, and untiring industry. In cases 
of doubt and difficulty, his potential voice generally decided the 
question, and rarely, if ever, has a family, consisting of father and 
four sons, worked together for so long a time and with such admira- 
ble harmony and efficiency, or better illustrated the familiar maxim 
that in anion, and especially in family union, there is strength. The 
business, after the death of Alexander Brown, gradually became 



ALEXANDER BROWN & SONS. 197 

exclusively that of exchange and banking, and with the different 
branches in Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, Liverpool, and 
London, with their large capital and still larger credit, the success 
which has attended it is in proportion to the great advantages 
enjoyed. 

But devoted as Mr. Brown was to business, he was not wholly 
absorbed by it. He and his son George had the sagacity to perceive 
the vast advantages which were destined to result from the con- 
struction of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad ; and, from the very 
beginning, were among its most efficient and zealous friends and 
promoters, not only aiding it liberally with their means, but de- 
voting to its business and to the various experiments made for its 
benefit, much personal care and attention. The first meeting of 
those who projected the enterprise was held in the parlor of Mr. 
George Brown. 

Mr. Alexander Brown died in the year 1834, of pneumonia, which 
he contracted at a meeting of merchants, over which he presided, 
held on a cold day in winter, at the Exchange, on the occasion of a 
panic which then prevailed, growing out of the failure of the Bank 
of Maryland. With reference to that panic, Mr. Brown is known 
to have declared, with his characteristic decision and energy, that 
no merchant in Baltimore who could show that he was solvent, 
should be permitted to fail. 

George Brown, the second son of Alexander, was born at Bally- 
mena, in. 1787, and came to America when he was fifteen years of 
age. As a business man he w r as distinguished by caution and pru- 
dence rather than enterprise, by sterling integrity, by quickness of 
perception and indefatigable application. When, in 1827, the Me- 
chanics Bank was reduced almost to insolvency by bad manage- 
ment, he consented to become its president, and in a short time 
raised it to a state of great prosperity ; and it is a fact worthy of 
notice that a long time afterwards his son, George S., successfully 
presided over the same institution, having been called to the man- 
agement in consequence of a serious disaster which it had sustained. 
Afterwards, George Brown became the principal founder of the 
Merchants Bank, of which he was for some time the president. 

He was characterized by deep domestic affections, by warm re- 
ligious feeling, and sincere benevolence. The House of Refuge 
for juvenile offenders was a special object of his care, and the monu- 
ment to his memory which has since his death been there erected 
by the liberality of the late Benjamin Deford, worthily attests his 
generosity and valuable services to that Institution. He was the 
14 



198 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

first president of the excellent charity known as the Baltimore 
Association for the Improvement of the Condition of the Poor. 

Although his modesty and retiring disposition always made him 
shrink from public view, he was not deficient in public spirit, and 
at the age of forty-nine, when he was a merchant of the highest 
standing, very largely engaged in business, he faithfully served, first 
as a private soldier and afterwards as first lieutenant, in a volunteer 
cavalry company which was raised after the great riot of 1835, by 
a number of our best citizens, with the laudable object of preserving 
the peace of the city. He was one of the original trustees of the 
Peabody Institute, and took a warm interest in its affairs as long as 
he lived. 

On his decease, in 1859, he was possessed, it is believed, of the 
largest fortune which had ever been left by an individual in Mary- 
land ; but, true to a principle which had actuated him during life, 
that his charities should be distributed as unostentatiously as possi- 
ble, he made no provision for them by will, except by making his 
widow the 'almoner of his bounty ; and we may be permitted here 
to say, what is known to many, that well and faithfully has she 
executed the responsible and difficult trust. The beautiful Presby- 
terian Church, on Park avenue, known as the Brown Memorial 
Church, which she has recently erected, attests not only her devo- 
tion to his memory, but his fervent attachment to the faith in which 
he had been educated, in which he lived, and in humble reliance on 
which he died. 



GEORGE WILLIAM BROWN. 



George William Brown traces his ancestry, on the paternal side, 
from a family long settled in Ireland. His grandfather, Dr. George 
Brown, the founder of the family in America, was educated at the 
University of Glasgow and graduated in medicine at that of Edin- 
burgh. In 1783, he came to this country with his family, and 
established himself as a practising physician in Baltimore, where, at 
the time a severe epidemic was raging. The success of his treat- 
ment soon gave him a high professional reputation, and his other 
estimable qualities secured him a distinguished place in society. His 
name is mentioned in Griffith's Annals as having, in conjunction 
with six other physicians, established a Baltimore Medical Society. 
The deficiency of anatomical material, and the intense popular 
odium which attached to dissections, prevented this association from 
developing into a Medical School. 

His eldest son, George John Brown, born in 1787, embarked in 
business pursuits, and became a partner in the firm of Brown and 
Hollins. He married in 1810, Esther Allison, the daughter of the 
Bev. Dr. Patrick Allison, first pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church, a gentleman distinguished for his zeal and abilities in the 
discharge of his calling, and also for his vigorous polemical and 
political writings. In particular, he engaged in an ardent, though 
courteous controversy with Bishop Carroll, on the occasion of the 
assumption by the latter of the title " John, Bishop of Baltimore. " 
Though antagonists in theology, these reverend gentlemen were 
cordially united on the subject of education ; and we read in the 
Annals of the city, that a classical academy for the youth of Balti- 
more was established in 1786, under the patronage of the Rev. 
Drs. Carroll, West and Allison. They also united in an effort to 
build up and endow St. John's College, Annapolis ; and in 1795, 
we find their names, as w r ell as Dr. Brown's, at the head of the 
list of founders of the Library Company of Baltimore, the first 
circulating library in the city. 

George William Brown was born in Baltimore, on October 13th, 



200 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

1812, being the eldest son of George John and Esther Brown. He 
received his early education in this city, and when nearly sixteen 
entered the sophomore class of Dartmouth College, New Hampshire. 
The death of his father, who left his family in straitened circum- 
stances owing to misfortunes in business, led to his return home 
before he had completed his first year at college, and but for the 
liberality of his uncle by marriage, Mr. John A. Brown of Philadel- 
phia, he would not have been able to complete his collegiate course, 
which he did at Rutgers College, New Jersey, graduating at the 
head of his class, in 1831. 

Returning home, he began the study of the law, in the office of 
Mr. (afterwards Judge) John Purviance, and at the end of two 
years was admitted to the bar. 

In 1839, he entered into partnership with Mr. Frederick W. 
Brune, his former schoolmate and most intimate friend, under the 
firm of Brown & Brune, and soon afterwards married the young- 
est sister of his partner. This firm, subsequently enlarged by the 
admission of Mr. Stewart Brown and Mr. Brown's eldest son Mr. 
Arthur Geo. Brown, is still in existence under the same name. 

The first instance in which Mr. Brown took any prominent part in 
public aifairs, was on the occasion of the Bank of Maryland Riot 
of 1835, a sketch of which is given in another part of this volume. 
The ineffectual attempts made by the civic authorities to suppress 
the riot, only had the effect of emboldening the mob, and a hesitat- 
ing recourse to fire-arms, resulting in the death of several of the 
rioters, enraged instead of intimidating them. Great apprehensions 
were felt in the city, various houses were sacked and countless 
rumors were afloat of terrible vengeance to be wreaked by the mob. 
At this crisis, three persons, of whom Mr. Brown was one, (the others 
being Mr. "Wm. G. Harrison and Mr. Geo. H. Brice,) by active per- 
sonal application, assembled a number of law-abiding citizens at the 
Exchange. Upon meeting, it was evident that the first thing to be 
done was to obtain a judicious and courageous leader; and it was 
resolved to send at once for General Samuel Smith, then at his 
country seat, two miles from the city. The revolutionary veteran, 
of eighty-three years, came promptly at the summons of duty and 
danger, and his presence wrought an instantaneous change in the 
state of affairs, lie allowed no time to be wasted in framing resolu- 
tions or making speeches; but in a few energetic words insisted that 
an armed force should be at once organized and the riot put down 
with a strong hand. His plan was immediately adopted ; he took 
his seat in a carriage from which the United States flag was dis- 



GEORGE WILLIAM BROWX. 201 

played, and proceeded at once to Howard's Park, near the monu- 
ment, the meeting following him, marching in column. Here they 
were joined by multitudes of citizens ; the whole mass was organized 
into companies who chose their own leaders, and speedily were 
furnished with arms. For many nights these armed volunteers 
patrolled the city ; but the mob vanished from existence as soon as 
a competent force, with a courageous leader, was prepared to try 
conclusions with it. 

In the winter of 1842, a number of persons assembled in An- 
napolis in what they called a " Slaveholders' Convention," and 
adopted a series of resolutions urging upon the Legislature of the 
State certain radical changes in its policj^ with regard to the neoro 
population. These proposed measures were of a harsh and oppres- 
sive character; discouraging manumissions, and laying such burdens 
upon the free blacks as would have compelled them to leave the 
State. As these proceedings elicited no outspoken opposition, and 
there seemed a probability that the Legislature would act upon the 
suggestions of a body which in no sense represented the people of 
the State, Mr. Brown, through the public press, entered an earnest 
protest against such a course, on grounds of both expediency and 
justice. He showed that the true policy of the State had ever been 
to encourage manumissions : and that the rigorous measures urged 
against the free blacks were as impolitic as they were oppressive. 

The first of the series of articles concluded as follows : "I shall 
hereafter endeavor to show that the policy of the State has been, 
and that its true policy still is, to encourage manumissions ; that 
it has not ceased to look forward to the da}'- when, by the volun- 
tary acts of its own citizens, it would be emphatically and without 
exception, a free State, and that the harsh measures now proposed 
against the people of color who are already free, are as inconsistent 
with the real welfare of this commonwealth, as they are at variance 
with the feelings of humanity." 

These papers excited much attention, and elicited from various 
quarters expressions of approbation. Public meetings were held 
and a committee of influential citizens was appointed to wait on 
the Legislature, which, perceiving the sentiment of the community, 
dropped the obnoxious propositions. 

In the earlier years of Mr. Brown's legal career, there was no 
public law library, and young lawyers found themselves compelled 
to provide themselves with books at heavy expense, or be subject to 
great inconvenience in their practice. Perceiving the serious detri- 
ment to the profession thus occasioned, Mr. Brown and Mr. fm. A. 



202 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

Talbott commenced a movement, which resulted in the foundation 
of the present excellent Baltimore Bar Library, an institution which 
is now an indispensable necessity to both the Bench and Bar ; and 
of which Mr. Brown is, and has long been, President. 

In March, 1853, Mr. Brown was invited to give a lecture before 
the Maryland Institute, and selected as his theme " Lawlessness, the 
Evil of the Bay." This was the first occasion on which he came 
conspicuously forward as the advocate of certain much needed 
reforms in the municipal government, and was perhaps the first step 
toward the Reform movement which some years later assumed a 
definite shape, and finally obtained a complete triumph in 1860. 

In the peaceful and orderly administration to which we are at 
present accustomed, we almost forget the greatness of the change 
wrought in the last twelve or fifteen 3 T ears, and can scarcely realize 
the state of affairs at the time when Baltimore bore the opprobrious 
name of " mob-town," and when outrages which now would shock 
the whole community, were of nearly daily occurrence, and regarded 
almost as matters of course. In the address referred to, the magni- 
tude and danger of the growing evil were forcibly presented — 
indeed too forcibly, in the opinion of some. The only paper which 
published the address at length, adverted to it in a very favorable 
editorial, in which, after doing justice to the earnestness and motives 
of the speaker, and admitting the formidable character of the evil 
he denounced, still thought it prudent to disavow entire concurrence 
in his views. And yet the remedial measures he proposed contained 
nothing more revolutionary than the recommendations that the 
constables and watchmen of the old system should be replaced by 
a uniformed metropolitan police ; that the turbulent volunteer fire 
companies should give way to a paid fire department ; that juvenile 
offenders should be sent to the House of Refuge ; that ruffians and 
thieves, when caught, should not be released on " straw bail," but 
should be tried and receive sentences bearing some proportion to 
the magnitude of their offences ; and that when finally sentenced, 
the annulling of the sentence by a pardon should be the exception 
rather than the rule. 

We have lived to see most of these reforms adopted, and to 
look upon them as the merest essentials of good order ; and can now 
scarcely understand how their recommendation could be looked 
upon as an almost revolutionary proceeding, to which prudent 
citizens could only concede a hesitating and qualified approval. 

In 1858 a conviction that some movement to secure the peace and 
restore the reputation of the city was necessary, had become general, 



GEORGE WILLIAM BR OWN. 203 

and several prominent citizens, among whom Mr. Brown was one of 
the most active, united to form a " Reform Association," the object 
of.which was by regular meetings and appeals through the press, to 
organize the friends of law and order into a body sufficiently influ- 
ential and powerful to secure quiet and fairness at the polls, which 
at that time, were the scenes of the most disgraceful fraud, violence 
and disorder. In addition to the ordinary acts of riot and intimi- 
dation, unfortunate wretches were frequently seized and " cooped " 
in vile dens, stupified with whiskey, and then carried round in 
omnibuses and " voted " in ward after ward, the police offering no 
opposition, and judges of election receiving the votes. Fire-arms 
were openly displayed and sometimes used, resulting in at least one 
murder. A singular, but effective means of annoyance and intimi- 
dation, was brought into play by the use of small awls, which 
ruffians, in a dense crowd, thrust into the persons of their adver- 
saries in a manner which easil}' escaped detection. 

At the October election of 1858, an effort was made in the Tenth 
"Ward, whore Mr. Brown resided, to elect a conspicuous politician of 
the then predominant party, and a strong opposition was made by 
the Reformers. The awls and other modes of annoyance soon drove 
the challenger of the Reform party from the polls, and kept back 
their voters. In this emergency Mr. Brown took the place of the 
challenger and held it for hours, in spite of insults, threats, and even 
personal violence, and it was mainly through his efforts that the 
election resulted, very unexpectedly, in the success of the Reform 
candidate. This, however, was but a temporary check, and the 
violence and outrage which then prevailed, culminated in the scenes 
of the ensuing November elections, which were afterwards the sub- 
ject of an investigation by Congress. 

This election, indeed, was the proximate cause of the great 
reformation which subsequently took place. The Reformers, with 
resolution unshaken by difficulties, prepared a law, taking the 
appointment and control of the police from the municipal authori- 
ties, and providing safeguards for the purity and freedom of elections. 
This law met with violent opposition, but was passed by the Legis- 
lature and sustained by the Court of Appeals. Its salutary action 
at once removed the evils from which the city had so long suffered. 

At the next following election Mr. Brown was brought forward 
by the Reform party as their candidate for the office of Mayor. 
The choice was sustained by the almost unanimous approval of the 
press ; and in an election, fair and orderly beyond precedent, he 
received a majority of about two to one. He entered upon office 



204 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

November 12th, 1860, at a peculiarly critical period, when the whole 
country was agitated by the election of Mr. Lincoln. During the 
excitement which accompanied the outbreak of the war, he exerted 
himself to the utmost to preserve the peace and order of the city. 

When it was known that Federal troops would be sent through 
the city, the Board of Police requested that their arrival might be 
notified in advance by telegraph, so that a sufficient police escort 
might be provided, as it was feared the excited temper of the 
citizens might lead to some outbreak : but this precaution was 
neglected or omitted by the Federal authorities in the case of the 
Massachusetts troops, who reached the city on the 19th of April, 
1861. About half an hour only before their arrival at the Philadel- 
phia Station, instructions were received to have a police force in 
readiness at the Washington Station, as the troops were not to 
march through the city, but to pass through in the cars. The first 
cars indeed passed through in safety, but some of the cars which 
followed were checked b}^ obstructions on the track, and the soldiers 
undertook to march to the latter station. The streets were lined by 
an angry, though unarmed crowd, who commenced to assail the 
troops with stones, which the latter returned with volleys of mus- 
ketry. The Mayor had left the Washington Station, supposing that 
all the troops had passed in safety, when information was brought 
to him of the collision, and he at once hastened to the spot, ordering 
the Marshal to follow with a body of police. He met the troops 
rapidly marching, followed by the crowd, and placing himself at 
their head, marched with them for some distance, but his presence 
did not avail either to protect them from attack, or the citizens 
from their indiscriminate fire. Soon, however, the Marshal, George 
P. Kane, at the head of about fifty men, came rapidly up, passed 
to the rear of the troops, and forming a line across the street, 
with pistols presented, checked the advance of the crowd, and the 
troops without further molestation reached the station, where a 
train was awaiting them. By this means much bloodshed was 
happily prevented. 

The excitement which this collision produced was very great. 
Several persons had been killed on each side, and a number more 
wounded. The citizens feared that the attempt to bring more 
troops through the city, as was known to be the intention of 
the Federal authorities, would lead to consequences still more 
deplorable. The city authorities telegraphed to Washington, but 
received no reply. As a temporary precaution, the Mayor and 
Police Commissioners, with the approbation of Governor Hicks, 



GEORGE WILLIAM BROWN. 205 

who was then in Baltimore, caused certain bridges on the Northern 
Central and Philadelphia railroads to be disabled, and this was 
done just in time to prevent a body of unarmed Pennsylvania troops 
from entering the city. On the following Sunday, the 21st, the 
Mayor received a telegram from President Lincoln, requesting an 
interview, and he proceeded at once to Washington, accompanied 
by several prominent citizens. The President recognized the good 
faith in which the authorities had acted, and gave an assurance that 
no more troops should be sent through Baltimore, while other lines 
of transportation were open, and at his request, Gen. Scott, the 
commander in chief, ordered some Pennsylvania troops who had 
approached the city, to be sent round it. 

We need not detail at length the events which followed. The 
excitement soon subsided to a great extent, and large bodies of 
troops passed constantly through the city without molestation. 
Military possession was taken of the city, and military rule estab- 
lished. The Marshal of Police was arrested and imprisoned, and the 
police disbanded. The Commissioners of Police were also arrested 
and placed in confinement. 

The Mayor, however, continued to discharge his duties, except 
those pertaining to the police, unmolested, until the night of the 
12th of September, when he was arrested at his house and taken as 
a prisoner to Fort McHenry, whence he was successively removed to 
Fortress Monroe, Fort Lafayette, and Fort Warren. The officer 
who made the arrest said that he had no warrant, but acted by the 
authority of the United States. The leading members of the Legis- 
lature of the State were arrested at the same time. While in con- 
finement various offers were made to Mr. Brown on the part of the 
Government, to release him ; but all clogged with conditions which 
he could not accept with honor. Finally, when his term of office 
had expired, and another Mayor had been elected, Mr. Brown, was 
with the other political prisoners from Maryland, then remaining, 
released unconditionally on November 27th, 1862, after an imprison- 
ment of more than fourteen months, when be returned to Baltimore 
and resumed the practice of his profession. 

In 1867, a new constitution was deemed necessary for the State, to 
replace that which had been adopted in 1865, and Mr. Brown was 
elected a member of the Constitutional Convention. This is the 
last public position he has occupied, he having declined in the same 
year a renomination to the Mayoralty. 

In the foregoing sketch, Mr. Brown's connection with public 
matters has been chiefly considered, but it constitutes only a small 



206 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

episode in his life, which, since his manhood has been mainly devoted 
to the studies and labors of his arduous profession, and the reports 
of the Court of Appeals of Maryland, as well as of the Supreme 
Court of the United States, attest his ability as a lawyer. The case 
of Brown vs. McGran, in the latter Court, which he successfully 
argued in 1840, at the age of twenty-seven, reversing the judgment 
of the Circuit Court of South Carolina, has become a leading case 
in reference to the power and duties of commission merchants. . 

"While his time has been so largely occupied by the engagements 
of his profession, he has yet found leisure to take an active part in 
the management of various benevolent and literary institutions, 
including the Peabody Institute, of which he has been a Trustee 
from its commencement. 




^JLctc^/fo 



/ifoisiSK^ 



F. W. BRUNE & SONS. 



Two of the leading merchants, in the City of Baltimore, in their 
day, were Frederick ¥m. Brune and John C. Brune, father and 
son, former members of the present commercial house of F. "W. Brune 
& Sons, which, in regular succession, has descended from the firm of 
Von Kapff & Auspach, founded in Baltimore in 1795. The senior 
partner of that firm, Bernard J. Yon KapfT, was a native of Bremen, 
and in 1799, was in Europe on a visit when his junior partner, Mr. 
Anspach, died. Mr. Brune, senior, who was horn in Bremen in 
1776, and had there received his mercantile education in the count- 
ing house of Mr. Yon Kapff 's brother, had in the year 1799 arrived 
in Xew York, with the intention of joining his brother in business 
in that city, but Mr. Anspach having died, and Mr. Yon Kapff 
having no authorized attorney in this country, such was the con- 
fidence placed in Mr. Brune, by the friends of the firm of Yon 
Kapff & Anspach, that he was invited to come from New York to 
take charge of its business in Baltimore, under the guarantee of 
Messrs. Smith & Buchanan, Valck & Co. and Focke & Co., three of 
the first houses in the city, that the transactions of Mr. Brune 
would be confirmed by Mr. Yon Kapff. On the return of Mr. Yon 
Kapff, he entered into partnership with Mr. Brune, under the firm 
of Yon KapfT & Brune, which continued until about the year 1828, 
when Mr. Yon Kapff died. AYhile it existed, it was successfully 
and most honorably engaged in a varied commerce with almost all 
parts of the world. 

The firm, soon after its establishment, became ship owners, but 
w r as at first chiefly occupied in the importation of German linens (of 
which Baltimore was then a great entrepot) and in the exportation 
of tobacco and colonial produce ; and this business was carried on 
until after our war with England, in spite of the difficulties to 
American commerce, growing out of the British orders in council, 
and the Berlin and Milan decrees of Napoleon, from which this firm 
and many other Baltimore merchants were great sufferers. 

AVhen the South American States became independent, Yon 



208 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

Kapff & Brune embarked actively in the trade, which grew up 
with those States, especially on the Pacific coast, and which pro- 
duced the fast sailing vessels, known all over the world as 
Baltimore clippers. 

One of their vessels made a passage of sixty-nine days from 
Valparaiso, beating a celebrated clipping schooner of Mr. Isaac 
McKim by a day from the same port. 

Another vessel, the brig Harriet, having made a very successful 
voyage with flour round the Horn, her master ventured, without 
instructions, to stop, on his return, at Rio, and invest the proceeds 
of the flour in coffee, and this small cargo of Rio coffee, which now 
constitutes a chief article in the foreign commerce of Baltimore, was 
then so little known and so unsalable that it was sent to Havre and 
there sold at a loss about equal to the profit on the flour. 

Mr. Brune was not only an accomplished merchant, but he was a 
public spirited citizen, and was connected with most of the useful 
institutions and enterprises, which were projected during his event- 
ful career. He became a director of the United States Bank in 
1819, and held this place until the Bank ceased to be a national 
institution. He also helped to found those excellent institutions, the 
Savings Bank, and the Equitable Fire Insurance Company, and the 
German Society of Maryland, and he was largely interested in the 
turnpike road companies, which were such important aids in advanc- 
ing the early prosperity of the city. 

Mr. Brune died in the year 1860, at the age of eighty-four, 
universally respected, having seen the city of his adoption grow 
from a place of 30,000 inhabitants to a city of more than 200,000. 
His firm passed happily through the commercial difficulties of the 
years 1799, 1819, 1825, and 1837, and he has been heard to say, that 
of these periods, that of 1799 was by far the most disastrous to the 
commerce of the city. 

Mr. Brune was a peculiarly modest man, but he so blended a 
simple dignity and urbanity of manner, with a strong sense of 
justice, and uprightness of character, that he secured for a long life 
the unvarying esteem of his fellow citizens of all classes. 

His second surviving son, John Christian Brune, was born in 
1814, and educated at the celebrated Round Hill school, at North- 
ampton, Massachusetts, which was then under the charge of Mr. 
Cogswell, afterwards of the Astor Library, and Mr. Bancroft, now 
American Minister at Berlin. At this school he laid the foundation 
of his knowledge of the principal modern languages, which was of 
much importance to him in after life. He also acquired a love of 



F. W. DRUNE & SONS. 209 

reading, and a power of expressing his opinions, clearly and some- 
times eloquently. 

lie declined to go to college, and entered his father's counting 
room at an early age, where his energy and intelligence soon became 
so conspicuous that a neighbor of his father offered him, at the age 
of eighteen, the post of supercargo of a ship bound round Cape 
Horn. He sailed in the vessel, but she was crippled in a storm, and 
the voyage was broken up The same merchant, however, immedi- 
ately afterward sent him as supercargo to Rio, where, at that early 
age, he formed friendships which lasted for many years. At the 
age of twenty-one he became a partner with his father, and soon 
extended the business of the firm by active operations with old 
correspondents in South America and the West Indies, and by 
forming personally new connections with those regions. In a few 
years his house became a leading one in the trade with these 
countries, and his large acquaintance with the sugar business in- 
duced him, in the year 1852, with the aid of other merchants and 
capitalists, to found the Maryland Sugar Refinery, which, with 
the other refineries in the city, has very considerably enlarged 
its commerce. Mr. Brune was elected the first President of this 
refinery ; and his firm, which is still carried on by his brother and 
surviving partner, William H. Brune, have always been its agents. 

Mr. Brune's talent, high sense of honor and public spirit, as a 
merchant, and his popular manners, generosity and warmth of 
heart, as a man, gave him a large influence among his fellow 
citizens, and he had much to do in reviving and establishing on a 
firm basis the Board of Trade, which now so honorably represents 
the commercial interests of the city. He was elected its first 
President in 1849, under the new organization, and was constantly 
re-elected until the } T ear 1862. 

He was also in 1857 elected President of the Baltimore Association 
for the Improvement of the Condition of the Poor, in which he took 
the deepest interest, and he gave to its operations a life which is still 
felt. He was twice re-elected to this honorable office during his 
absence from the country ; but, in 1863, declined a re-election. 
Mr. Brune also took a lively interest in public affairs, and he was 
for many years a very influential member of the old Whig party ; 
he subsequently allied himself with the Democratic party, and 
became an ardent supporter of the doctrine of State Rights, and 
his sentiments on this subject, together with his good sense, com- 
mercial knowledge, winning manners and generous hospitality, 



210 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

secured for liim an intimacy with many of the most distinguished 
politicians of his own State and the South. 

It was therefore natural that such a man should be called upon, 
with others of our best citizens to represent the city of Baltimore in 
the House of Delegates of the Legislature, which was called to meet 
in Frederick, in May, 1861, and Mr. Brune, who had previously 
declined all offers of public station of a political kind, thought it his 
duty to sacrifice his private interests to serve his city and State at 
that anxious and perilous period. 

He was appointed Chairman of the Committee of Ways and 
Means, and the proceedings of that Assembly show that Mr. Brune 
co-operated heartily with the majority of that body in the course 
pursued in reference to the momentous questions then before the 
State and the nation. 

Mr. Brune was the only member from Baltimore, who, by 
accident, escaped the arrest under the coup d'etat of the 12th of 
September, 1861, by which a large number of the members of the 
General Assembly were incarcerated for upwards of a year. 

After the arrest of his fellow members, Mr. Brune remained con- 
cealed in the neighborhood of the city for some time, until he found 
that they were to be kept in prison without charge or trial ; 
upon this he went to Canada, and although he was notified, that 
the order for his arrest had been withdrawn, he resolved not to 
return to his native city, so long as his associates continued in 
prison and the city was under military control. 

He therefore lived self-banished from his home, which he loved 
so well, passing the summer in Canada, and the winter in the \Vest 
Indies, until the 7th of December, 1864, when, upon a voyage in the 
steamer from Southampton to Havana, his valuable life was sud- 
denly terminated by disease of the heart resulting in brain fever. 

Mr. Brune's example as a merchant did much to elevate the pro- 
fession to which it was his pride to belong, and his energy and earn- 
estness have left an impress for good which will extend much bej-ond 
the large circle of his attached friends, and into another generation. 




$to%Ar&i.f?**Jl 



£k 



^^U^ 



JAMES M. BUCHANAN. 



In Druid Hill Park, within the enclosure of the family burial- 
ground reserved in the sale of the estate to the city, repose, the 
American ancestors of the subject of this sketch, themselves of 
Scotch descent, of Lenny. The visitor who turns aside from the 
main road, and looks over the rude fence which separates the con- 
secrated soil of the dead of a hundred and twenty years, from the 
grand and beautiful grounds, now devoted to the pleasures of the 
living, will, by close scrutiny, be enabled to trace upon a broken 
tomb, moss-covered, weather-beaten, hoary with age, the name of 
Doctor George Buchanan,* buried here in 1750, and who, as the 
record on the decaying marble reads, " was one of the founders of 
Baltimore." This was the grandfather of James M. Buchanan. 
Next the tomb of Doctor George Buchanan, may be seen another 
tomb, in ruins, that of Andrew Buchanan, his son, bearing the 
following inscription : " In memory of Andrew Buchanan, who 
departed this life on the 12th of March, 1785, in the 53d year of 
his age. He was, during the contest that secured the independence 
of America, Lieutenant of this county, and served with great re- 

* In a book entitled Mnemonika, or the Tablet of Memory, prepared by William 
Darby, and published by Edward J. Coale, at Baltimore, 1829, under the head of 
"Eminent Persons," we find the following : "Buchanan, George, M. D., one of 
the founders and first Commissioners engaged in 1729, to settle and purchase 
the land of the city of Baltimore, died 1745— [an error, he died 1750.] And in 
the same book, under the head of "Baltimore," is the following: "Baltimore 
city, of the United States, in Maryland, on a small bay of Patapsco river, 
founded 1729, is extremely well situated for commercial connections with the 
valley of Ohio ; it commands the trade of Maryland, more than one-half of that 
of Pennsylvania, and a part of New York. Having the advantage of climate, 
the harbor of Baltimore is not so liable to obstruction from ice as that of Phila- 
delphia. The site of the city was a farm belonging to the father of Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton, now living, and purchased by Doctor George Buchanan 
and others. William Buchanan, his son, died about three years since, (1828.)" 

See also Griffith's Annals of Baltimore, p. 15. 

Doctor George Buchanan was a prominent member of the General Assembly 
of the Colony of Maryland, and Deputy Commissary General of Baltimore county 
for many years. 



212 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

pute for many years as Chief Judge of the Court. He was au 
affectionate husband, a tender parent, an honest man ; in short, 
endowed with every virtue that could complete an exalted charac- 
ter." It may here be remarked that James M. Buchanan, his 
nephew, more than half a century after, presided as Judge in the 
same county. 

William Buchanan, the youngest son of Doctor George Bu- 
chanan, and father of James M. Buchanan, is buried near Govans- 
town, at his former country seat, now owned by David M. Perine, 
half-brother of James M. Buchanan. William Buchanan* was one 
of the Committee of Correspondence, elected from among the free- 
holders of Baltimore County and Town, to correspond, prior to and 
in the days of the Revolution, with neighboring colonies, as the 
exigencies of affairs might require. Under the State Constitution 
of 1776 he was appointed Register of Wills for Baltimore county, 
and served in that capacity, with great satisfaction to the public, 
for forty-five years. 

James M. Buchanan, his eldest surviving son, was born at the 
country place, near Govanstown, where his father is buried. Much 
of his early youth was spent in this neighborhood, lie was chiefly 
educated at the Baltimore College and St. Mary's, in Baltimore. 
Having determined on the profession of law, he began his studies 
in the office of Hugh Davey Evans, and closed them under the 
preceptorship of Judge Walter Dorsey. After his admission to the 
bar, he offered himself in Baltimore county, as a candidate for the 
State Legislature, and was elected a member of that body when 
he had but barely reached legal age. He took his seat, a mere 
youth, amid learned and venerable men, with inexperience, but not 
without promise and ability, as his subsequent re-election to the 
succeeding term gave sufficient proof. After serving with credit 
to himself and usefulness to the State, two terms, in the Legisla- 
ture, he betook himself earnestly to his profession, and was soon 
favored with a lucrative practice. By assiduity and attention to 
business he increased his practice, and at one time had the largest 
at the county bar. 

In 1824, he was the Secretary of a meeting, which was the first 
in Maryland to hoist the name of Andrew Jackson for the Presi- 
dency. 

* It is proper to mention that William Buchanan, son of Doctor George, and 
father of J. M. Buchanan, was a native of Maryland. There was another William 
Buchanan also on the Committee of Correspondence, active and conspicuous in 
affairs dining the Revolution, who was born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, and 
emigrated to Baltimore with John, the father of General Samuel Smith. 



JAMES M. BUCHANAN. 213 

In 1835, he was commissioned aid-de-camp to the Brigadier 
General of the City Guards, by Brigade Order, Number 3, which 
reads as follows (from the copy of the same before us) : 

Headquarters, City Guards, 

Baltimore, December 16, 1835. 

Brigade Order, No. 3. 

Ordered that James M. Buchanan and Cornelius McLean be and 
they are hereby appointed Aids-de-Camp to the Brigadier General 
of the City Guards, and they will be obeyed accordingly. 

By order of 

GENERAL SAMUEL SMITH. 
Vm. Pinkney, 

Brigade Major and Inspector City Guards. 

In General Harrison's campaign for the Presidency, he was nomi- 
nated elector on the part of the State, but declined for political 
reasons, entertaining, however, a high personal esteem, respect and 
attachment for the veteran hero and patriot. 

In 1841, Mr. Buchanan was nominated for Congress by an almost 
unanimous vote, at a convention held at Ellicott's Mills, which 
convention was composed of delegates from the city of Baltimore, 
and from Anne Arundel county. This nomination was considered 
as tantamount to an election, but was declined, because of his pro- 
fessional and private engagements. 

Under the administration of President Polk he was appointed 
postmaster of the city of Baltimore, and conducted the affairs of 
that office ably and to the satisfaction of the Government and 
public. He remained in this office for upwards of four years, 
practising his profession at the same time. 

Mr. Buchanan was a member of the State Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1851. This convention was composed of many of the ablest 
representative men of Maryland, numbering among its members the 
names of Louis McLane, Gen. Benjamin C. Howard, Judge Ezekiel 
F. Chambers, Albert Constable, Gov. Francis Thomas, William Cost 
Johnson, Judge T. B. Dorsey, Gov. William Grason, B. E. Presst- 
man, A. R. Sollers, and others of high character and note. 

Mr. Buchanan (an accident having befallen General Chapman, 
president of the convention, and which threatened to detain him 
from its sessions) was elected president pro tern., bearing the grave 
responsibilities of the position with a becoming dignity and de- 
corum. He served in this convention six months, from the begin- 
ning to the completion of its labors, and except during its tem- 
porary adjournments, was never absent a single day. 
15 



214 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

In the early part of 1852, Mr. Buchanan was appointed a com- 
missioner (Otho Scott, Esq., of Harford county, being the other) 
by the governor of Maryland, under instructions of the General 
Assembly, to proceed to Pennsylvania and "to collect all the facts 
and circumstances connected with the killing of a fugitive slave, 
in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, by Archibald G. Ridgely, of 
Baltimore city, and to confer with the governor of Pennsylvania 
relative to the same." Great excitement existed in Pennsjdvania 
at the time of the killing of this fugitive slave, who met his death 
at the hands of an officer of the law, from Maryland, acting, as it 
was claimed, in the discharge of his duty, and in nowise feloniously 
culpable. But a feeling was abroad that an injustice and crime had 
been committed, and that the governor of Pennsylvania ought, con- 
sequently, to demand the rendition by the authorities of Maryland, 
of the officer, who had escaped over the lines. There was great 
danger, therefore, of a breach of the amicable relations existing 
between the two States, which was happily prevented by a skillful 
adjustment of the difficulty by the commissioners and the gover- 
nor and authorities of Pennsylvania. Following upon this, some 
short time after, the governor and Legislature of Pennsylvania 
extended to the governor, heads of departments and Legislature 
of Maryland, an invitation to visit Harrisburg, the capital of the 
State, which invitation was accepted. The resolutions expressing 
the acknowledgments of the Legislature of Maryland, alter the 
visit, is worthy of notice as an illustration of Maryland's appre- 
ciation of Pennsylvania's hospitality and of the existence and con- 
tinuance of that good will between the States, which, but a little 
while before had been threateningly endangered. These resolutions, 
passed April 23d, 1853, are as follows: — 

Resolved by the General Assembly, That the Senate and House of 
Delegates entertain a grateful sense of the courtesy and hospitality 
extended to them by the Legislature of Pennsylvania on their 
recent visit to Harrisburg, and they recognize in the cordial invita- 
tion, assiduous kindness, and devoted attention of the authorities, 
the fullest disposition on the part of the people of the Common- 
wealth of Pennsylvania, to cultivate those relations of mutual 
respect and amity, on which neighboring States so largely depend 
for their prosperity. 

Be it further resolved, That the governor is hereby requested to 
communicate this resolution to the governor of Pennsylvania, with 
a request that it should be laid before the Legislature of that State, 
and to express further to the executive the full appreciation by the 



JAMES M. BUCHANAN. 215 

people of Maryland, of his patriotism and dignified courtesy, and 
their high respect for his personal and official conduct. 

In 1855, Mr. Buchanan was appointed judge of the Circuit 
Court of the Sixth Circuit of Maryland, embracing Harford, Cecil 
and Baltimore counties, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death 
of the Hon. Albert Constable. On entering upon his official career, 
his first sad duty, in response to the proceedings of the bar in 
Cecil, was to give utterance to the deep grief by which his and 
all hearts were bowed down, in the great loss sustained by the 
death of the gifted jurist whom he succeeded. The touching 
tribute of the living to the departed judge, is at once a truthful 
portraiture of the character and worth of both; and what so fitly 
was spoken of the one, may well be said of the other, when his 
lips, too, shall be sealed and his eyes closed in the long last sleep. 
Judge Buchanan, on the solemn occasion referred to, spoke as fol- 
lows : — " The court heartily sympathizes with the sentiments and 
action of the bar in reference to our beloved departed brother. 
In the prime of manhood — in the paths of duty — in the vigor of 
intellect and in the fullness of fame, he went down into the valley 
and shadow of death. ' And now he sleepeth in the dust, and we 
may seek for him in the morning, but he shall not be.' 

" l God is all wisdom, all justice, all mere}'. Yes, gentlemen, all 
mercy ! Confiding in these, as Christians, let us feel assured that 
our brother has but left a world of strife and suffering here, for a 
blissful immortality beyond. 

" It would be needless, in this presence, to dilate on the varied 
accomplishments of the lamented dead. He was your neighbor, 
your associate, your friend, your brother. You knew him well. 
You were proud of him. You were justly so. We may not look 
upon his like again. What a charm in his eloquence ! What a 
fire in his eye ! What a dignity in his manner ! What a melody 
in his voice ! What a warmth in his heart 1 He was one of na- 
ture's orators. 

k - What a keen sense of justice! What a steady hand wherewith 
to hold the balances thereof. What a total disregard of all merely 
worldly distinctions among those who came to seek their rights at 
the shrine where he ministered. 

" How considerate of suitors ! How kind and gentle towards wit- 
nesses ! How respectful to the juries, to the officers of the court, 
and to the members of the bar ! He was the very embodiment of 
a judge. How companionable in social life; how tender of the 
feelings of those with whom he was brought in contact ; how gener- 



216 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

ous, how conciliatory, how refined. He was, in very truth, a gen- 
tleman. 

" Thus we knew him as he lived. How did he die? For months 
he lingered in the arms of death. Patiently he bore his sufferings ; 
and when, at last, the irrevocable mandate came, surrounded by 
those who of all the earth he loved the dearest, at peace with man 
and assured of heaven, his immortal spirit winged its final flight 
for the bosom of its Father and its God. 

'Night dews fall not more lightly on the ground, 
Nor weary, worn out winds expire so soft.' 

" Let the resolutions be recorded with the proceedings of the 
court, and the court stand adjourned until to-morrow morning, 
at ten o'clock." 

In April, 1856, Mr. Buchanan was elected a member of the Demo- 
cratic National Convention which assembled at Cincinnati, and 
which convention nominated James Buchanan, of Pennsylvania, 
for the Presidency of the United States. 

In 1858, Mr. Buchanan was appointed United States Minister to 
the kingdom of Denmark. During his residence, with his family, 
in the brilliant city of Copenhagen, he lived in a style becom- 
ing his representative capacity, making the American embassy an 
agreeable centre of attraction. He remained in Europe about eight 
years. 

Mr. Buchanan is married : has had nine children, six of whom 
are living. His family connection, both in and out of Maryland, 
is large and influential, and in many prominent instances distin- 
guished on the score of personal merit. Admiral Franklin Bu- 
chanan, " the hero of Hampton Roads," and grandson of General 
Andrew Buchanan, whom we have referred to in this sketch as 
buried at Druid Hill, is the second cousin of James M. Buchanan, 
as is also Major General Robert C. Buchanan of the United States 
Army. He is, by marriage, brother-in-law of the Hon. John 
Rowan, Jr., of Kentucky, who was Minister to Naples, in Mr. 
Polk's administration, and the son of the venerable John Rowan, 
Chief Justice and United States Senator, of Kentucky, in other days. 

Mr. Buchanan in person is tall, about six feet one inch in height, 
and spare; commanding in appearance, polished and dignified in 
manners. Ai^Q, which has whitened his locks, has not bowed his 
form; while the genius and spirit of youth and of manhood are 
undimmed and unbroken by time's heavy hand. Buoyant and 
erect in body and mind, he yet stands at his post amid the con- 
tests and duties of life. 








S?ZS 



FRANCIS BURNS. 



Francis Burns is descended from that hardy^ Scotch-Irish stock, 
which, from the earliest settlement of the country, has furnished 
one of the most valuable and important elements of American 
population, to which so many of the most distinguished men of 
America are proud to trace their origin, and which in eveiy walk 
of life, has produced useful and valuable citizens. Mr. Burns was 
born in county Antrim, Ireland, April 11th, 1792. His parents 
emigrated to this country in 1798, wheu he was but six years of 
age, landing at Philadelphia, in which city his father engaged in 
the trade of brick making. Francis Burns began life in the brick 
yard at twelve years of age ; but in 1818, being then just turned of 
twenty-six, he removed to Baltimore. Here he established himself 
in the same line of business, having formed an association with 
Mr. George Whitman, which continued for three years. Upon the 
termination of his partnership with Mr. Whitman, Mr. Burns con- 
cluded to continue business by himself, which he did for a period of 
forty years, until his final retirement in 1860. During this long 
period, he carried the art of brick making to great perfection, 
excelling in the manufacture especially of pressed brick, the finer 
qualities of which, used in Baltimore for the fronts of houses of a 
superior class, excel in durability, hardness, smoothness and beauty 
of finish, and in color, those produced in any other city. The 
bright appearance for which the streets and houses of Baltimore are 
noted, is largely attributable to the superior quality of this budd- 
ing material. Yet when Mr. Burns, after great pains, succeeded in 
turning out in 1823, a better article of pressed brick than had been 
previously in use, he found so much difficulty in introducing into 
general use, that for awhile he was compelled to offer it at the 
price of common brick, viz. : $5.50 per thousand. It has since sold 
as high as $55.00 per thousand, an increase of one thousand per 
cent. ! The pressed brick of Baltimore have since acquired a high 
reputation abroad, and are largely exported to other cities. For 
many years Mr. Burns controlled the Xew York market in this 



218 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

particular, selling more brick of the finer qualities in that city than 
any other manufacturer. His brick yards were the most extensive 
in or a/ound Baltimore, producing from six to seven millions of 
bricks annually. In his own business, Mr. Burns soon established a 
character for industry, honesty and fair dealing, that won him the 
confidence and esteem of the entire business community. For more 
than twenty years he has been a director in the Western Bank, 
lie was also a director in the old Baltimore Savings Bank, until the 
establishment of the Eutaw Savings Bank, when he resigned in 
order to fill the same position in the latter institution, which he yet 
holds. He is also a director in the Associated Firemen's Insurance 
Company, and since the administration of Mr. William S. Harrison 
as president of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company, has 
been one of the most useful and efficient directors of that great 
work. 

Mr. Burns is one of the oldest Masons in the State, having been 
" raised" in the year 1816, and having filled for several years the 
position of Deputy Grand Master of the Order. During his long life 
and residence in this city, he has seen the wonderful changes which 
have taken place in the value of property, consequent upon the 
city's development and growth in population. When he first came 
here, he could have bought, for a song, buildings within a stone's 
throw of his dwelling, which are now valuable warehouses. Mr. 
Burns has manifested his interest in public affairs, and borne his 
part in the discharge of the duties of a citizen, by serving for 
several 3'ears in the City Council, in which .body he represented the 
old Eleventh Ward. In politics he was always a Whig, but never a 
politician. He is a member of the Presbyterian Church, of which 
the Rev. Dr. Leyburn is pastor. Mr. Burns was married January 
12th, 1819, to Miss Elizabeth Hyland, of Philadelphia. He has 
the good fortune to have living five sons, all of whom are success- 
fully established in business, besides several daughters well and 
happily married. His eldest son, William F. Burns, is engaged in 
the brick manufacture, head of the firm of Burns, Russell & Co. 
A second son is Samuel Burns, of the firm of Bums & Sloan, 
lumber merchants. Two other sons, Francis Burns, Jr., and Find- 
ley II. Burns, are members of the large and prosperous commission 
house of Wilson, Burns & Co., the senior of which firm, Col. 
■William Wilson, Jr., married Mr. Burns's eldest daughter. The 
youngest son, George W. Burns, is engaged in the boot and shoe 
trade. To have lived to see all the members of his large family thus 
comfortably and honorably established in the world, is Mr. Burns's 



FRANCIS BURNS. 219 

greatest happiness. At his advanced age, seventy-eight, he is neces- 
sarily largely withdrawn from the more active pursuits and duties 
of life, but his faculties remain clear and bright as ever, and his 
character remains a striking illustration of what energy and per- 
severance, with probity /will accomplish in life, as well as a fine type 
ol the manly and generous qualities of the warm-hearted race from 
which he is sprung. 





/(£' V-*>&v 



JOHN COATES. 



The parents of Mr. Coates were both of Scotch descent, but were 
themselves born in Belfast, Ireland. They came to this country 
about the year 1792, and in 1795 Mr. Francis Coates, his father, 
was married in the city of Baltimore to Charlotte Linton. 

Mr. and Mrs. Coates were among the early disciples of John 
Wesley, and were strongly attached to the principles of the Metho- 
dist Church, founded by that great and good man. They were 
blessed with a number of children, and on ^he 11th of January, 
1800, John Coates was born. He was brought up by his parents in 
conformity with the doctrines and practices of Methodism. He 
received a good common education, intended to fit him for the 
active duties of a commercial or mechanical life. At an early age 
he commenced life as a clerk in a respectable dry goods house, and 
remained there until, in the vicissitudes of business, his employers 
failed and gave up business. By them, the clerk who had secured 
their confidence, was strongly recommended to another house in 
the same line. After a "brief career this house also went down in 
the periodical convulsions that sweep over the commercial circles, 
and our young adventurer was again thrown upon the world. Dis- 
couraged with the uncertainties of mercantile life, the young man 
determined to abandon that field, and try his fortune as a mechanic. 
Accordingly he went to his father and told him that he had made 
up his mind to be a mechanic and not a merchant. The father 
suffered him to choose his own future occupation, and, forthwith, 
John sought and found a builder, who immediately on understand- 
ing his determination, agreed to take him into his employ. Setting 
to work with a hearty good will, the young man soon mastered 
his trade, and whilst acting as an apprentice he undertook work on 
his own account, and actually put up a number of buildings with 
hands employed by himself, and superintended by him at nights, 
and at hours when other parties were resting. Having served out 
his time with his employers, in 1822, Mr. Coates commenced busi- 
ness as a builder on his own account, and for two years pushed 



222 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

ahead with marked vigor and judgment. In 1824 the late Judge 
John Glenn, of the United States Court, who had been a friend of 
Mr. Coates from his boyhood, persuaded him to give up building 
and go into the lumber trade, offering to furnish all necessary 
capital for the successful prosecution of the business. The generous 
offer was accepted, and hence arose the well known firm of Coates 
& Glenn. The business was always conducted by Mr. Coates, 
though for thirty odd years the name of the firm was continued. 
During all the long period of his business career, one remarkable 
fact is deserving of record. He never gave a note, or had a dis- 
count from bank, though his transactions were at all times large 
and varied. Such was the confidence inspired by his admirable tact 
and business capacity, that if he wanted money at any time, there 
were friends at hand to proffer any needed amount. For about 
twenty years uninterrupted success had followed his labors, in which 
time he had accumulated a handsome fortune, and greatly enlarged 
and extended the lumber trade of the city. 

In 1842 a disastrous fire occurred, at a time when there was on 
hand a large stock of material, and in a few hours the destroying 
element swept out of existence the results of the labors and earn- 
ings of many years. 

The loss of the firm was very great. Many thought it was 
entirely ruined. But on the morning after the fire, Mr. Coates was 
found by some of his friends in the midst of the charred and 
blackened fragments of his late crowded yard, busily at work 
clearing off the debris, and preparing to renew his business. The 
value of a good character, was never more strikingly shown than 
at this period in the life of Mr. Coates. Eelying upon this, many 
friends came forward voluntarily to tender their assistance, and as 
much as one hundred thousand dollars was offered him by various 
parties to enable him to go on. But, whilst thanking these friends 
for their kindly offers, they were all declined, and he set himself 
earnestly to work to gather up the fragments left him, and with 
renewed zeal to commence his work again. The effort was emi- 
nently successful, and in a few brief years, the heavy loss was all 
made up, and wealth and ease were again possessed. In all this 
extended time, Mr. Coates neither made nor gave a note, or had 
discount. We may here remark, that on the night when Mr. 
Coates reached his twenty-first year, he applied for admission into 
Warren Lodge, ]S"o. 51, of Free and Accepted Masons, was promptly 
elected, and for thirty-five years occupied the position of Treasurer 
of the Lodge ; having during that time passed through all the subor- 



JOHX COATES. 223 

dinate degrees, and was elected to the position of Grand Master, 
which he held by the unanimous vote of his brethren for the 
unusual term of six years. He also served for ten years as director 
in the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company ; for six years as 
president of the Board of Managers of Baltimore City Jail, and for 
the same number of years, a director in the Maryland State Peni- 
tentiary. He has been for sixteen years a director in the Western 
National Bank, and for an equal time a director in the F.utaw 
Savings Bank — both of which places he still occupies. In 1864 he 
obtained from the State Legislature a charter for the incorporation 
of the Union Fire Insurance Company. Upon the organization of 
this company, he was unanimously elected president, which place he 
has continuously filled, up to the present time, and, with his usual 
zeal and business tact, has made the institution a successful and 
prosperous concern. As was said at the commencement of this 
sketch, he was brought up a Methodist, and for many years was a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church; but upon the organiza- 
tion of what he regarded as the more liberal government of the 
Methodist Protestant Church, he withdrew from the old body, and 
united with that. With this body he is still connected, and its 
business interests he has had it in his power often to assist and 
advance. In all the relations of social and private life, Mr. Coates 
has ever sustained the character of a kind and genial man, and 
his house has been the home of the ministers and friends of the 
church at all times. In the possession of a vigorous constitution, 
confirmed and developed by an active temperate life, he presents the 
appearance of sound health, with the prospect of living many years 
to enjoy his well earned wealth and honors. 



ARCHBISHOP CARROLL. 



The annals of the Roman Catholic Church have been frequently 
graced by men of most exalted merit, but rarely by one of more 
fervent piety and gentleness of spirit than Rev. John Carroll, the 
lirst bishop and archbishop of his church in the See of Baltimore, 
and the earliest in the United States. Born in Upper Marlborough, 
Maryland, in 1735, his early piety determined him on devoting his 
life to religion, and with this view he was sent abroad and was edu- 
cated at the College of St. Omers, in France, and afterward at Liege, 
in Belgium ; the American Colonies at that period having no ecclesi- 
astical institution for the training of priests. Mr. Carroll was the 
cousin of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, and not his brother, as he is 
frequently represented. In Liege he was ordained priest. He sur- 
rendered to his brother all his own share in his patrimonial estate, 
and joined the order of the Jesuits. On the suppression of the 
order in France he was chosen to act as their Secretary, in corres- 
pondence with the French government regarding the temporal 
possessions of the order ; his thorough knowledge of French and 
Latin, and the elegance of his written style in both languages, par- 
ticularly qualifying him for the position of Secretary. 

He took refuge in England, and was chosen by Lord Houston, a 
Roman Catholic nobleman, as the tutor of his son, and appointed to 
make the tour of Europe with him. While engaged in this situa- 
tion he wrote for the instruction of his pupil a concise and excellent 
history of England, recalling the example of Fenelon who composed 
the adventures of Telemachus for his royal charge, the Duke of 
Burgundy. He was a professor at Bruges in 1773, but afterward 
returned to England and resided for some years in the family of the 
Earl of Arundel. At that period the laws of the realm imposing 
disabilities on the Catholics were in full force, as they had been 
ever since the overthrow of Kino; James the Second. The Catholics 
had no representation in Parliament, and their nobility were denied 
their seats in the House of Peers, while the exercise of their religion 
could only be conducted in private. Most of the Roman Catholic 



226 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

nobility therefore bad their own special chaplains and confessors ; 
and Mr. Carroll exercised such functions at Arundel Castle, one of 
the ancestral seats of the family of Howard. 

On the breaking out of the war with the mother country, Mr. 
Carroll, however, resisted all importunities to remain in England, 
and with the spirit of a true patriot returned to America. He fixed 
his residence in Baltimore, which he never afterward left, except 
upon special occasions. In February, 1776, he was appointed by the 
Continental Congress, in connection with his cousin, Charles Carroll 
of Carrollton, Judge Samuel Chase, and Dr. Benjamin Franklin, to 
proceed upon a mission to Canada. Of this journey Charles Carroll 
has left a full account. The object of the expedition was to create a 
sympathy in Canada with the American cause, and to induce that 
province, if possible, to make common issue with the Colonies 
against Great Britain. Dr. John Carroll was selected on account of 
his very high standing as a Catholic clergyman, in hope that he 
could have great influence with those of the same faith in the 
Canadas, as they possessed a vast numerical superiority over the 
Protestants. The hope, however, was disappointed. The defeat of 
Montgomery before Quebec, and the very strong opposition of the 
Catholic clergy to the measures of union with the Colonies, rendered 
all efforts on the part of the Commissioners unavailing. Leaving 
Charles Carroll and Judge Chase, Dr. Franklin and Dr. Carroll 
returned together. The strongest personal friendship grew up be- 
tween these two eminent men, which continued unimpaired through 
life. 

After the establishment of peace with Great Britain the American 
Catholics became very anxious that a hierarchy should be instituted 
in their own country, so as to render them separate from that of 
England, on which they had always depended. Dr. Franklin was 
at that time residing at Passy, near Paris, as x\meriean ambassador, 
and, having the highest opinion of Dr. Carroll's learning, piety and 
ability, was enabled by his personal friendship to have much influ- 
ence regarding his appointment to a higher position in the Church. 
Accordingly, in 1786, Dr. Carroll was created Vicar General for the 
United States, and three years later Bishop of Baltimore, being the 
first American prelate consecrated in the .Roman Catholic Church, 
thus giving primacy to the See of Baltimore. There being no 
bishops at that period in the United States, Dr. Carroll was obliged 
to go to England to be consecrated. He then returned to Baltimore 
and entered zealously upon the duties of his charge. For a number 
of years he continued the sole Roman Catholic bishop in the country, 



ARCHBISHOP CARROLL. 227 

his diocese extending over all the States and territories. In 1810, 
five years before his death, which occurred ou the 3d of December, 
1815, he was advanced to the dignity of Archbishop. His labors 
were necessarily great in consequence of the vast extent of his 
province, but he fulfilled them with exemplary fidelity until he was 
called from the scene of his labors at the age of eighty years. 2sTo 
one was more beloved and respected by all classes and sects than 
Archbishop Carroll. Whiie devoted to his own church, he invari- 
ably inculcated the spirit of charity, and cultivated the kindest rela- 
tions between Catholics and Protestants. 

Of the spread of his religion in this country, some idea may be 
formed from the fact that in 1808, nineteen years after his consecra- 
tion, there were in all the United States only two bishops, sixty- 
eight priests, eighty churches, and two ecclesiastical institutions. 
There was then but one Catholic to every sixty-eight Protestants. 
In 1870, according to the Catholic Almanac, there are seven arch- 
bishops and fifty-two bishops. For forty years after " Baltimore- 
Town" was laid oat, no Catholic church was erected ; but in 1770, a 
part of St. Peter's chapel was reared on Saratoga street, west of 
Charles street, on the site of " Carroll Hall," now occupied by the 
order of Christian Brothers; bat no priest was regularly settled 
there until 1780. Another small chapel was built on the Point in 
1796, which has given place to St. Patrick's on Broadway. The 
German Catholics in 1799 erected a chapel on Saratoga street, of 
which St. Alphonsus, corner of Saratoga and Park streets, now 
occupies the site. St. Mary's Chapel, connected with the Seminary 
on Pennsylvania avenue, was completed in 1807, and in 1806 Bishop 
Carroll laid the corner-stone of the Cathedral now rearing its ma- 
jestic proportions on Mulberry and Cathedral streets. Such was 
the humble status of Roman Catholic buildings in this city at the 
death of Archbishop Carroll, in place of the numerous splendid 
churches and other institutions which now adorn Baltimore. 





cxT ty s\ t &£*Y' *> 



BENJAMIN F. CATOR. 



The ancestors of Mr, Cat or, on both father's and mother's side, 
emigrated from England to the United States in the year 1675, and 
settled in Calvert count}-, Maryland, whence their descendants re- 
moved to Dorchester county in 1719 and 1723. 

Mr. B. F. Cator was born on February 10th, 1824, in the city of 
Baltimore, then the residence of his father, who, however, soon after 
removed to the old homestead in Dorchester, where young Cator 
passed his boyhood. As a school boy he was quick to learn and 
unusually bright and intelligent for his years. His amiable nature 
and happy disposition endeared him to his teachers as well as his 
schoolmates. As a youth he was diligent in business, eager to ac- 
quire knowledge that might qualify him for his future calling, and 
prompt to sacrifice his own gratifications at the call of duty. 

In 1838 he removed to Baltimore, and obtained a position with 
Mr. J. ~N. Lewis, wholesale stationer, with whom he learned his first 
lessons of business. In 1846 he left this house, and accepted the 
position of salesman in the house of Cushings & Brothers, wholesale 
booksellers, where he remained until 1852. 

During these years he found opportunity to form an unusually 
extensive acquaintance not only with the business community of the 
city, but with the numerous merchants who were in the habit of 
visiting Baltimore for purposes of trade. "With these, indeed, his 
acquaintance was perhaps more general than that of any other mer- 
chant in the city. 

In 1852 he became a partner in the house of Armstrong & Cator, 
the junior member of which firm was his younger brother. This 
house was originally founded by Mr. Thomas Armstrong, when only 
sixteen years of age, in the year 1806. After a prosperous career of 
thirty-six years, this gentleman found himself reduced to poverty by 
a series of disasters ; he, however, manfully struggled to rebuild his 
fortunes, and with such success that in a short time he was able to 
pay off every dollar of his indebtedness. In 1847 he formed a part- 
nership with Mr. E. W. Cator, and the business continuing to 
16 



230 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

enlarge, about five years later Mr. B. F. Cator was induced to enter 
the house, the name of which was changed to Armstrong, Cator & 
Company. Mr. Armstrong subsequently, at various times, disposed 
of his entire interest in the business to Messrs. J. F. Bealmear, W. 
J. H. "Watters, and W. H. Pagon, (all, like the Cators, Mary landers 
by birth,) and died in 1868, in his seventy-ninth year, leaving a 
handsome fortune, and bequeathing thirty-five thousand dollars for 
charitable purposes. Notwithstanding his retirement and subsequent 
decease, the name of Mr. Armstrong is still retained in that of the 
house Avhich he founded, — the present firm believing in the old Eng- 
lish custom, that when a house has been thoroughly established it 
should continue under the same style. 

After the admission of Mr. B. F. Cator, the prosperity and reputa- 
tion of the house continued to increase, and in 1861 it had perhaps 
no rival in its special branch of trade. At the commencement of the 
war, in 1861, their house, which did a large Southern business, felt 
the effects to a considerable degree. In the fall of that year Mr. 
Cator went through the lines into the Southern States on business, 
and remained there until the following spring, when he returned, 
happily without the annoyance and molestation to which many 
business men who had made a similar journey were subjected. 
Though Mr. Cator was known to be a strong and conscientious 
sympathizer with the Southern cause, he had done nothing hostile 
to the Government from which his State had not separated, con- 
fining his active manifestations of sympathy to the charitable task 
of contributing to relieve the sufferings of Southern prisoners, and 
ministering to the wants of the sick and wounded, in which case he 
looked to the necessities and not to the politics of the sufferers, 
though of course those who were cut off from their homes and 
friends presented by far the most urgent claims for relief. During 
the whole period of the war these gentlemen were most untiring in 
these deeds of charity, in which they spent the larger part of their 
income. 

At the close of the war they exhibited great liberality in extending 
facilities to their former Southern customers, who were then greatly 
reduced in circumstances, and frequently almost penniless, while the 
real estate they held had scarcely any value in the market. But 
the firm knew their men; and where they knew there was integrity 
and energy they did not hesitate to repose confidence. In this way 
they were able to render inestimable service to numbers of worthy 
men. By the general liberality of their dealings they have built up 
a flourishing trade with all the Southern States, which now reaches 



BENJAMIN F. CATOE. 231 

an amount annually of $1,250,000, which is about one-fourth more 
than that of any Northern house in the same line of business. The 
experience of this house is, that the Southern dealers, finding equal 
advantages in variety of stock, prices and liberal terms with any 
that the Northern merchants can offer, prefer to deal in a Southern 
city. Of course to be able to offer these advantages requires great 
judgment in selecting, purchasing, and indeed in all the details of 
the business. 

A peculiar feature of their business, which this house has been 
the first to introduce in Baltimore, is the direct importation of 
pattern bonnets and hats from France. At the beginning of each 
season they import one or two hundred samples of the leading styles 
for the season, made up and trimmed by the first artists in that 
department in Paris, and costing from twenty-five to seventy-five 
dollars apiece. These as soon as received are displayed for general 
inspection, and then sold to the trade as patterns at less than half 
the cost of importation, thereby enabling milliners to obtain in their 
own market, and at greatly reduced prices, what they would other- 
wise have to order abroad at very heavy expense. These patterns 
are only used as designs, the cost being sixty per cent, greater than 
the American manufactured article. At the same time that the 
domestic dealers are thus assisted, the house finds its return in 
keeping to Baltimore a valuable trade which would otherwise be 
drawn off by the Northern importers. 

While enjoying as business men to a high degree the confidence 
of the community, the brothers are no less esteemed in private life. 
They dispense large sums in unostentatious works of beneficence, 
and are ever ready to lend a helping hand to deserving young men 
about entering on a business career. 

In the summer of 1869 Mr. Cator's health suffered severely from 
too close application to business, and he is now seeking its restora- 
tion in the mild and genial climate of Florida. 



SAMUEL CHASE. 



Samuel Chase was born in the county of Somerset, Maryland, in 
1741. His father Rev. Thomas Chase, was an Englishman, and left 
his native country in 1738, for the Island of Jamaica, where he 
practiced medicine, remaining, however, in the island only a few 
months. !Not very long after his arrival in the colonies, he married 
in January, 1740, Matilda Walker, the daughter of a respectable 
farmer of Somerset county, Maryland. This lady died in giving 
birth to her son Samuel ; and in 1743 the Rev. Thomas Chase 
having been appointed Rector of St. Paul's parish in Baltimore, he 
removed to that city with his infant son. The youth was carefully 
educated under the supervision of his father, and at the age of 
eighteen was sent to Annapolis, where he studied law, and in 1761 
was admitted to the practice of the law in the provincial courts. 

The following year Mr. Chase was married to Miss Anne Bald- 
win of Annapolis, who bore him six children. He now entered 
with great zeal and industry on the practice of his profession, and 
soon acquired a wide reputation, not only as a lawyer, but also as a 
statesman, taking the strongest ground in favor of the American 
Colonies against the arrogant pretensions and tyranny of Great 
Britain. In 1764 he began his public career in the General Assem- 
bly of Maryland, continuing an active and influential member of 
that body for nearly twenty years. He was a vigorous and untiring 
opponent of the " stamp act," losing no opportunity of denouncing 
its purpose, and of exposing to the people at large the full measure 
of its baleful effects. He was one of the framers of that important 
instrument, the " Declaration of Rights of Maryland," and the 
author of numerous popular appeals and expositions of the political 
affairs' of that excited period; essays and pamphlets which have 
now been lost sight of, but which had much weight in their day. 

In 1774 he was chosen a delegate to the first Congress and re- 
elected in 1776. In the same year he was sent on a mission to 
Canada, with Charles Carroll of Carrollton, and his cousin John 
Carroll. Their object was to induce the Canadians to unite their 



234 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

efforts with the Colonies, in throwing off the yoke of Great Britain, 
but the mission proved abortive. On his return he most diligently 
canvassed Maryland, and brought public opinion to bear in favor of 
the resolution of Independence, the State having been reluctant to 
accede to it. He returned to Philadelphia in season to vote for the 
much desired measure. He was one of the signers of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, and his influence was undoubtedly very great 
in gaining the consent of Maryland to join her sister States in that 
memorable compact. In 1782, the Governor of Maryland appointed 
him agent and trustee with full powers to proceed to England, for 
the purpose of recovering the stock of the Bank of England owned 
by the State of Maryland. He remained in England for a year, and 
there married his second wife, Miss Hannah K. Giles, of London. 
She bore him two daughters, and some of their descendants are now 
living in Baltimore. At the period when Mr. Chase resided in Eng- 
land, Pitt, Burke, Fox, Sheridan, and many other celebrated men 
where in the height of their fame and power, and he mingled with 
this illustrious circle on terms of cordial intimacy, his own distin- 
guished reputation and genial manners, readily giving him access to 
the best society of the British Metropolis. 

After his return to America he removed his residence to Balti- 
more in 1786, and in 1791 he was appointed Judge of the General 
Court of Maryland, and in 1793, Judge of the Criminal Court for 
Baltimore county, when he resigned his judgeship in the General 
Court. He was a man of great personal courage, and in 1794, 
during a riot he caused the arrest of two men. They refused to give 
bail, and as they were popular citizens, the sheriff' was apprehensive 
of a rescue at the hands of the mob if he attempted to take them to 
prison. "Call out the posse comitatus," said the judge, on being 
informed of the sheriff's fears. "No one will serve on it, sir," 
answered that officer. " Then, sir," returned Judge Chase, " sum- 
mon me, I will be the posse comitatus. I will take them to jail 
myself." 

In 1796, President Washington appointed him one of the Judges 
of the Supreme Court of the United States. On the bench he 
proved his signal ability, as he had before, as an advocate, and many 
of his opinions were held in high estimation. In 1804, however, 
charges of malfeasance in office was brought against him, and he 
was impeached in the House of Representatives. The trial attracted 
very great attention. Aaron Burr the Vice-President of the United 
States, who was himself afterward tried for high treason, presided 
on the occasion ; and Judge Chase was defended by Robert Goodloe 



SAMUEL CHASE. 235 

Harper, and Luther Martin, then at the height of their fame. 
Judge Chase was impeached at the instance of John Randolph of 
Roanoke, and it was charged against him in reference to Callender's 
trial five years before, that his conduct was marked "by manifest 
injustice, partiality and intemperance." He was by nature some- 
what overbearing and peremptory, but he was acquitted by the 
Senate of all the charges and specifications, and on the 5th of 
March, 1805, discharged, when he resumed his seat upon the bench, 
which he held for the remainder of his life. He died June 19th, 
1811, aged seventy years, leaving a worthy reputation as statesman, 
patriot and jurist. 




^J^gJ[ ,J^&>^i^ 



r-— 



HUGH A. COOPER. 



Before the use of iron had so largely superseded that of wood in 
the construction of sea-goiug vessels, especially of the class which 
are built for speed, and before the application of steam, with the 
same object, had wrought a revolution in the art of ship buildino-, 
as well as in that of navigation, the ship builders of Baltimore 
enjoyed a world-wide reputation for the superiority of their models 
of fast sailing vessels. This reputation which dates back even to 
the days when Baltimore was a village, was at its height in the 
earlier part of the present century, when Hugh' A. Cooper, the sub- 
ject of the present sketch, was apprenticed to Messrs. Harrison & 
Auld, to learn the trade of a ship carpenter. The Baltimore clipper 
was then what the Clyde built steamer is now. For voyages to the 
"West Indies and the Spanish Main — for ocean races from Canton, 
with cargoes of tea — wherever, in fact, rapidity of transportation was 
considered more important than mere carrying capacity, the clip- 
per model was confessedly the best and universally preferred. Such 
was the reputation in fact acquired by the ship yards of .Baltimore 
in those days for vessels of this build, that when originally con- 
structed, and intended only for purposes of legitimate commerce, 
the Baltimore clippers sometimes found their way subsequently into 
less creditable employments, in those paths of hazardous or unlaw- 
ful adventure for which their fast sailing qualities particularly 
recommend them. There is hardly an old sea tale, the incidents 
of which are laid in the first part of this century, in the days of 
French privateers and Spanish buccaneers, which does not open 
with some description of "a long, low, rakish-looking schooner, 
whose tapering spars and perfect lines," are supposed at once to 
suggest the skillful hand of the Baltimore builder, and the dubious 
character of the vessel's employment. 

Hugh A. Cooper, born in Talbot county, Maryland, January 22d, 
1811, was brought up in the school of these famous old masters of 
the craft, whose reputation he worthily maintained, although 
belonging himself to a somewhat later day and different era in the 



238 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

history of ship building. After serving his apprenticeship of four 
years with Harrison & Auld, in 1833, he commenced business for 
himself, but the following year he formed a partnership with Mr. J. 
J. Abrahams, which lasted until 1848. He afterward was a member 
of the ship building firm of Cooper & Butler, and still more recently 
of that of Cooper & Slicer. During the time that he was actively 
engaged in business, Mr. Cooper built some of the finest vessels 
which have ever been launched from American yards. He built 
the Sinus, and the barks Roberto, and Johannes; also the ship 
Andalusia, for the house of William "Wilson & Sons, and several fine 
vessels for the firm of James I. Fisher & Sons. He also built several 
steamers, among them the fine boats George Peabody and Belvidere, 
of the Norfolk or Bay line, and the late ice boat Chesapeake, a 
steam vessel of great power, built for the express purpose of 
keeping open the channel of the Patapsco river and the harbor 
of Baltimore during winters of unusual severity, and requiring 
therefore the use of the strongest material as well as great care 
in her construction. None who examined this vessel doubted that 
she would be found thoroughly efficient for the purpose intended ; 
and that her capabilities were not put to the test of practical 
experiment, was owing to the fact that, since she was built, the 
harbor of Baltimore has happily remained unobstructed by ice, 
until the winter of the present year, when she was destroyed 
by fire. 

Mr. Cooper, in the course of his active and useful life, was called 
upon to discharge various public trusts and employments, in all of 
which he acquitted himself with credit. He was one of the com- 
missioners for deepening the channel of the Patapsco ; several times 
represented his ward in the City Council, and at one time repre- 
sented the city in the lower house of the State Legislature. He 
was also a director, chosen on the part of the city, in the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad Company, and at the time of his death, which 
occurred on the 11th of November, 1870, was a director in the 
Second National Bank, and in several insurance companies. In 
1867, in consequence of ill health, caused by early exposure and too 
close attention to business, he retired from its more active employ- 
ments, having previously disposed of his interest in the dock to Mr. 
Abrahams. He continued, however, to retain an interest in various 
enterprises, both public and private, and was a part owner of the 
ships Macauley and Annapolis. 

His successful career, aided to that of so many other men whose 
lives are recorded in this volume, is another example to the young 



HUGH A. COOPER. 239 

of what honesty, untiring industry and business tact can accom- 
plish, although unaided by early advantages of friends or fortune. 
The civic employments he filled attest the respect and confidence in 
which his character was deservedly held by his fellow citizens. It 
can be truly said, moreover, that these tokens of the public esteem 
and good will came to him unsought, for Mr. Cooper was at no 
time of his life a politician in the ordinary acceptation of the word, 
and his modesty was as characteristic as his merit. 



HENRY WINTER DAVIS. 



The capital of Maryland has given birth to many very distin- 
guished men, and one of them, Henry Winter Davis, was born in 
Annapolis, on the 16th of August, 1817. His father, Rev. Henry 
Lyon Davis, was a clergyman of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 
the rector of St. Ann's parish, and at one period, president of St. 
John's College. His mother, Jane Brown "Winter, was a woman of 
much elegance of mind and person. Early in young Davis's life, his 
father was displaced from the presidency of St. John's on account of 
his Federal politics, when he removed to Wilmington, Delaware ; 
eventually returning to Maryland, and settling in Anne Arundel 
county, in 1827. Henry Winter Davis's early education began at 
home, under the strict supervision of his aunt, Elizabeth Brown 
Winter, and a part of his childhood was passed with her in Alex- 
andria, Virginia. Later training with his father, in Wilmington 
and in Anne Arundel county, fitted him for school, from whence he 
entered Kenyon college, Ohio, in the autumn of 1833. 

The primeval forests of Ohio, forty years ago, had been scarcely 
invaded, and the greater part of the State was still a wilderness 
when Davis entered upon his collegiate course. The system at 
Kenyon at that time was that of a manual labor institution, and the 
students were obliged to perform all offices for themselves. Davis 
was not exempt from the general hardship of the place, and in 
addition to the severe round of duty, his means at this period were 
exceedingly limited. His father died during his collegiate course ; 
the farm in Anne Arundel county yielded the most scanty return, 
and his aunt kept him at college only by the strictest economy on 
her own part. Stern and unpromising as his situation was at this 
time, no doubt the hard struggle proved of signal benefit in 
training him for the far greater trials which later in life he was 
called upon to confront. He graduated on the 6th of September, 
1837, at the age of twenty, having by diligence in study passed 
over his Sophomore year, being successful at its commencement in 
his examination for the Junior term. 



242 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

On leaving college, lie was obliged, owing to his poverty, to 
accept a situation as tutor, he steadfastly refusing either to sell the 
slaves which had been left to him under his father's will, or to 
receive a cent of their wages. He was enabled to enter the Univer- 
sity of Virginia in October, 1839, where he pursued a thorough 
legal course, and also familiarized himself with the great masters of 
history and philosophy, and acquired a knowledge of French and 
German, in addition to the Greek and Latin languages, which 
he had learned at Kenyou. At the University of Virginia he 
thoroughly laid the foundation of the elegant scholarship which 
distinguished him not less than his legal research and brilliant 
oratory. 

After a thorough course of study at this celebrated institution of 
learning, Mr. Davis returned to Alexandria and entered upon the 
practice of the law. His ability was soon acknowledged, and his 
industry early obtained an extensive business. He was a frequent 
contributor to the newspapers, and many of his articles on political 
subjects attracted great attention. In 1845 he married Miss Con- 
stance Gardiner. This lady lived but a few years after marriage, 
and not long after her death, Mr. Davis left Alexandria. He 
settled in Baltimore in 1850. His reputation as a talented and 
rising lawyer had preceded him, and he at once took rank in this 
city with the leading members of the bar. In politics, he was 
allied with the Whig party, and took an active part in the Scott 
campaign of 1852. On the defeat and final extinction of the 
Whigs, Mr. Davis adopted the principles of the American party. 
He was elected to the National House of Representatives from the 
fourth district of Maryland, to the thirty-fourth, thirty-fifth and 
thirty-sixth Congresses. In the Hall of Representatives, he was 
very soon recognized as one of its ablest debaters. With thorough 
mastery of the subject under discussion, he always commanded the 
attention of the House by his strictly logical reasoning, his array of 
facts, his knowledge of constitutional law, the chaste but fervid 
eloquence of his diction, the strength and melody of his voice, and 
his handsome and commanding presence. Even his strongest 
political opponents were ready to acknowledge his ability, and 
listen to him with pleasure. He supported Mr. Fillmore for the 
Presidency in 1856, and Mr. Bell in I860. 

With the election of Mr. Lincoln, the political differences which 
had already so deeply agitated the entire country, took more 
decided shape, although the friends of peace, North and South, still 
fervently hoped for a pacific solution of all troubles. It is not 



HENRY WINTER DAVIS. 243 

within the province of this biography to discuss the merits of the 
question. Mr. Davis strenuously adopted the side of the Union 
against secession. On the fourth day of the second session of the 
thirty-sixth Congress, the famous committee of thirty-three was 
raised, Mr. Davis as the member for Maryland. He argued in 
favor of the right of coercion by the general government, of States 
preparing to secede from the Union. The fall of Fort Sumter 
finally destroyed all hopes of averting civil war, as the entire nation 
rose in arms. The coming awful struggle subdued all other inter- 
ests in America, while in Europe " kings sat still, and nations 
turned to watch the issue." 

On the 15th of April, 1861, President Lincoln issued his procla- 
mation, calling a special session of Congress. This making an 
election necessary in Maryland, Mr. Davis on the same day offered 
himself as a candidate for Congress on the basis of " the uncon- 
ditional maintenance of the Union." He labored with great 
activity until the day of election, June 13th, but was defeated by 
Mr. Henry May,. the conservative Union candidate. Mr. Davis, 
however, did not cease his exertions, but supported Mr. Lincoln's 
administration with untiring zeal. The question of emancipation 
did not at first enter into the strife, and not for some time after 
the battle of Antietam was it agitated in Maryland. At length, 
early in 1863, it was mooted, its advocates at first being very few in 
number. Mr. Davis gave to the measure his most earnest support, 
and in the campaign of 1863 worked with prodigious industry on 
the platform of "immediate emancipation by constitutional means." 
After extraordinary exertions on bis part, not only visiting all 
sections of the State to address popular meetings, but directing the 
principal correspondence, and writing leading articles for the news- 
papers, he beheld the cause of immediate emancipation completely 
successful. He was returned to the thirty-eighth Congress by the 
Unconditional Union party. In this, his last public function, he 
stood an acknowledged leader of the House of Representatives, and 
was looked upon as one certain of much higher political distinction 
than he had already won. At the close of the thirty-eighth Con- 
gress he retired from public life. His excessive labors, and the 
excitement and anxiety of the past few years, had worn upon his 
strength, and he had determined to visit Europe in the spring of 
1866, to remain some length of time. He was suddenly seized with 
illness toward the latter part of December, 1865, but was not con- 
sidered in serious danger until the day preceding his death. He 
died on Saturday, December 30th, aged forty-eight years. Unusual 



244 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

honors were paid to his memory. His funeral was largely attended 
by members of both Houses of Congress, and by cabinet ministers. 
The Legislatures of several States passed resolutions of regret for his 
loss, and in the National House of Representatives, an oration on 
his life and character was delivered by Hon. John A. J. Creswell, 
of Maryland, on the 22d of February, 1866. 

Mr. Davis was twice married ; his second wife, Mrs. Nancy Davis, 
daughter of John B. Morris, of this city, resides in Baltimore with 
her two daughters. 

Beside the published speeches of Mr. Davis, he wrote several 
pamphlets on political subjects, or, on matters relating to the Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church, of which he was an earnest member. He 
also, in 1852, published a large work in one volume, the result of 
researches of historical nature, entitled " the War of Ormuzd and 
Ahriman in the nineteenth century." 

The time has not yet arrived, and probably is still distant, when 
an impartial estimate will be formed of Henry Winter Davis. He 
nourished at the most momentous period of our national history, 
when the passions of men were most violently excited. But 
probably all parties will agree in according to him high resolve and 
unflinching courage, untiring industry and perseverance, much 
learning and cultivation, excellence of private character, and 
striking and brilliant gifts -as an American orator and statesman. 



BENJAMIN DEFORD. 



The late Benjamin Deford, son of Benjamin and Ann TIntton 
Deford, was born in Anne Arundel county, Maryland, in 1799, and 
at the time of his death which occurred in this city, April 17th, 
1870, had filled the allotted measure of ripe three-score and ten, the 
whole of which long term, from the age of fourteen, had been spent 
in Baltimore. In February, 1810, having had the misfortune to be 
deprived by death of both his parents, he was taken to live with 
his maternal uncle, Richard G. Hutton, who resided in the same 
neighborhood. With him he remained for three years, sometimes 
assisting in the lighter labors of the farm, suitable to his years, 
occasionally attending the village school. The deficiencies of his 
early education Mr. Deford was accustomed to deplore, as who does 
not, that has had a similar experience ? These deficiencies could 
not hide, however, the native vigor of his shrewd common sense 
intellect, particularly, when in late days, at meetings of the Balti- 
more and Ohio Railroad Directors, and on other occasions when busi- 
ness men were met together to discuss business projects, Mr. Deford, 
in homeliest phrase, but with unmistakable clearness of mental 
vision, foresight and sagacity, would unfold the plans which he con- 
sidered were best adapted to further the enterprise they had in hand. 

In May, 1813, he came from his uncle's house in Anne Arundel, 
to Baltimore, and was placed in the store of James C. Doddrcll, to 
learn the business of currying and manufacturing leather. In 
January, 1823, he set up in business for himself, in a small way, on 
the present site of the large and handsome warehouse, at the corner 
of Calvert and Lombard streets, where the hide and leather trade 
in which he engaged, and which he successfully prosecuted for half a 
century, is still being extensively carried on by his sons. 

Mr. Deford accumulated a large fortune by the simple but, in 
these speculative days, too often neglected and underrated means of 
thrift, perseverance and honesty. As his wealth increased, the same 
shrewd, practical judgment in business matters, which distinguished 
him through life, guided him in enterprises of wider scope and 
greater moment to the community. He took an active part in pro- 
17 



246 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

moting works of public improvement, particularly steamship and 
railroad lines. He was for many years a prominent Director in the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company, in the progress and de- 
velopment of which great work, of vital importance to the trade and 
prosperity of Baltimore, he felt the deepest interest, and where his 
services were of great value. He was also one of the founders and 
the largest owner of the Boston Steamship Company, and one of the 
fine steamers which compose the line bears his name. Mr. Deford 
also gave proofs of his enterprise in the erection of two large cotton 
mills at Ellicott city, Maryland, the first of which was destroyed by 
lire in 1866. Being rebuilt the following year, it was again de- 
stroyed this time by flood, in July, 1868, involving a loss of more 
than $350,000. The day of this occurrence will be long and sadly 
remembered in the beautiful valley of the Patapsco, along whose 
pleasant banks the flood scattered wide-spread ruin and desolation, 
as well as in the city of Baltimore, which also suffered heavily 
through the sudden rise in the waters of Jones's Falls, inundating 
the lower portion of the city. The loss of life, as well as of property, 
occasioned by this flood was very great, and in the vicinity of Elli- 
cott city, and at other points lower down, on the Fatapsco, traces of 
the disaster may still be seen, which it will take years to obliterate. 
Mr. Deford was a Director in the Mount Vernon Manufacturing 
Company, and one of the founders and Directors of the First 
National Bank of Baltimore, and he was also a Director in the 
Mechanics Bank, the Savings Bank, the Equitable Insurance Com- 
pany, and in various other corporations. 

Among those institutions of benevolence and charity, which were 
fostered by his liberality, Mr. Deford took an especial interest in the 
House of Refuge, established for the reclamation and reformation of 
juvenile offenders and those unfortunate waifs of society, who, in 
the absence of parental restraints and home influences, grow up, 
neglected, in the vagabondage of the streets, until they graduate 
thorough proficients in the school of crime. Mr. Deford felt that 
no more useful work could be undertaken than the rescue . and 
reformation of this unfortunate class, and consequently the House of 
Refuge, a public institution especially designed for this purpose, re- 
ceived his active encouragement and support. Mr. Deford's general 
charities were as diffusive as they were unostentatious, amounting 
during the last ten years of his life to thousands of dollars an- 
nually. 

He died April 17th, 1870, leaving a large estate, the accumulation 
of years of patient industry, of prudent foresight, and of judicious 
enterprise. 




/ 



yfc*yi^£?<*** 



*>f . 



GEORGE NATHANIEL EATON. 



George Nathaniel Eaton was born in the city of New York, 
December 23d, 1811. His father was a native of Massachusetts, 
and his mother of Connecticut. Both parents were descended from 
the earliest Puritan colonists, and belonged to families well known 
and respected in their neighborhood. 

Mr. Eaton received as good an education as was to be procured at 
that day outside the walls of a college. A part of his youth was 
passed at the homestead of his mother, near Bridgeport, Connecticut, 
where he attended the district school in the country, or a higher one 
in that town. Subsequently he pursued more advanced studies in 
an academy in New York. Before he reached the age of fifteen he 
commenced a clerkship to mercantile business, and was thus engaged 
in commercial houses in New York until after he reached his 
majority, by which experience he obtained, under the guidance of 
intelligent and systematic merchants, a thorough acquaintance with 
all the details of business. 

In the year 1834, while on a visit to Baltimore, he was invited by 
the late David Stewart to study law in his office with a view 
to adopt that profession. The invitation was accepted, and Mr. 
Eaton removed to this city, in which he has ever since resided. He 
devoted himself with great assiduity to his new study, and his 
progress and prospects were encouraging. But after a little more 
than a year thus employed, he received an advantageous offer to 
join his brothers, who were already engaged in business in Balti- 
more ; and deeming this opportunity as opening a readier and more 
assured career to prosperity than the practice of the law, he relin- 
quished, with reluctance, the latter, and returned to his former voca- 
tion. In the business thus undertaken, he has continued to the 
present time, making a commercial life of over forty years. 

Mr. Eaton combined with thorough business habits a love of 
reading and study, which he gratified to an extent not common 
with active business men, and among the subjects that enlisted his 
interest was that of education. This characteristic prompted his 



248 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

former fellow student, the late "William George Baker, then the 
President of the Board of Commissioners of Public Schools, to sug- 
gest to him the propriety of his taking a part in the cause of public ' 
education, and at Mr. Baker's instance he was elected by the City 
Council in 1854 one of the Commissioners. This office he filled 
until 1865, during nine years of which term he held the position of 
President of the Board, being annually elected with unanimity by 
the Commissioners. He was at last compelled to decline a re- 
election and retire from the Board on account of ill health. 

During these eleven years he was unremitting in his endeavors to 
promote the great cause of education, and to render the manage- 
ment of its interests energetic and effective. His exertions were 
gratefully recognized by the public, and his relations with his fellow- 
commissioners, with teachers and pupils, were always pleasant and 
friendly. President of the Board all through the time of the civil 
war, his duties in that position, as well as those of all the com- 
missioners, were important and delicate, in co-operating with the 
public authorities to prevent disorder in the schools and to keep 
them to their proper work, which was perhaps as useful a service 
as he could have rendered to the community during that critical 
period. 

In 1865 Mr. Eaton was unexpectedly awarded the degree of 
Master of Arts, honoris causa, conferred upon him by Harvard 
College, "in recognition," as it was stated by the President, Rev. 
Dr. Hill, in transmitting the diploma, "of his long and faithful 
services in the cause of public education, and in acknowledgment of 
his worth as a citizen and as a man," — a valued compliment, coming 
form this time-honored institution. 

On the visit to this country in 1867 of Mr. George Peabody, his 
early friend, Mr. Eaton was appointed by him a trustee of the Pea- 
body Educational Fund for the Southern States to represent the 
State of Maryland in that trust. In the duties of this position he 
has taken the warmest interest, and he is a member of the Executive 
Committee of the Board. At the commencement of its operations 
he made a journey among the States which are participants in the 
benefits of the trust, to confer with their leading men as to the most 
judicious mode of its administration, and on his return made a Re- 
port to the Board, giving the result of his observations. 

Mr. Eaton was for many years a Director, and for a time a Vice- 
President, of the Baltimore Board of Trade, and for several years 
Director in the Union Bank. He is at present a Director of the 
Savings Bank of Baltimore and of the Maryland Institution for the 



GEORGE NATHANIEL EATON. 249 

Instruction of the Blind. In 1844 he married the daughter of 
William E. Mayhew, an old and respected merchant of Baltimore, 
and at the time of his death President of the Peabody Institute 
and of the Farmers and Planters Bank. In his religious views Mr. 
Eaton is a Unitarian. 

Though of decided political opinions, Mr. Eaton has never been 
an active politician. On some special occasions he has been identi- 
fied with party action, but has never sought office, being disinclined 
by temperament to the excitement of public life. Always in favor 
of upholding the constitutional provision as to slavery within the 
States, he was never an admirer of that system, and he accordingly 
sympathized in the efforts made to prevent its extension, and he did 
not waver in his devotion to the cause of the Union when he con- 
sidered its integrity was put in peril. 

The even tenor and regular routine of a purely commercial career 
rarely furnish many of those striking incidents and salient points 
which add interest to a biography. Business demands from its 
followers a close observance and undivided attention as the condi- 
tions of success, and the ardor of the pursuit often — perhaps too 
often — becomes so absorbing as to disqualify them for other occupa- 
tions and legitimate enjoyments. In this respect Mr. Eaton's life 
has been exceptionally fortunate, and he has been able, without 
detriment to his more urgent affairs, to find leisure to devote to 
those literary pursuits to which his taste has always inclined him ; 
and he has, moreover, at various times, enjoyed the pleasures and 
advantages of foreign travel, including a winter's residence in the 
Island of Madeira, — thus agreeably diversifying a life otherwise 
unmarked by noteworthy events. At the present time he has 
withdrawn from an active participation in business in consequence 
of impaired health. 




o4^c^ 



JAMES ISOM FISHER. 



James Isom Fisher was born in Baltimore, on the 11th of October, 
1798. In the year 1815, he entered the counting-house of Messrs. 
R. II. & William Douglass, then among the most prominent and 
respected shipping merchants of the city. After the death of the 
junior partner, in 1821, the business was continued by Mr. Richard 
H. Douglass, with whom Mr. Fisher retained his connection, and 
ultimately formed a co-partnership under the style of R. II. Doug- 
lass & Company. From the dissolution of this firm, by the death of 
Mr. Douglass, in 1829, Mr. Fisher carried on the shipping and com- 
mission business, in his own name, until 1854, when he took into 
partnership with him his sons Robert A. and Richard D. Fisher, 
under the firm of James I. Fisher & Sons. In 1863, Mr. Fisher 
retired from business, and the house now bears the name of Fisher 
Brothers & Company, and is extensively engaged in the West India 
trade. 

Forty-eight years of active business life, in all its stages, secured 
to Mr. Fisher not only the prosperity and leading position he de- 
served, but a reputation, justly unsurpassed, for scrupulous probity 
and honor. Educated to regard his calling as a liberal profession, 
he sought its rewards in none but its legitimate pursuits, and it 
would be difficult to find a better illustration than his career, of the 
reasonable certainty with which success may, by such means, be 
assured, where intelligence and integrity are combined with pru- 
dence, industry and system. The well-balanced intellect and char- 
acter, so efficient and so fully recognized in the commercial life of 
Mr. Fisher, were equally conspicuous, at the same time, in all his 
modest and exemplary relations to society. His firmness and stead- 
fastness of purpose and conviction were always happily tempered by 
fairness and moderation and a proper regard for the rights and 
opinions of others. It is thus that the rivalries and collisions of a 
long and busy life have left no animosities to cloud his retirement, 
and the respect in which he is held is as nearly universal and un- 
qualified as may be, among men. 




^d 




RICHARD FULLER. 



The Baptist Church in Baltimore has counted among its mem- 
bers some of our most eminent citizens, and although as a sect it 
was very limited in the early history of the city, it now exhibits a 
strong and rapidly progressive growth. To this end no one has 
contributed so materially as the Rev. Dr. Fuller. He was born in 
Beaufort, South Carolina, in 1808. At an early age he prepared 
for college, and received his degree at Harvard University in the 
class of 1824, although he left college at the end of his junior year. 
While at Cambridge, he was distinguished for scholarship, and the 
versatility of talent he displayed. On his return to his native State 
he adopted the law as his profession, and having completed his 
studies was admitted to the bar before the age of twenty-one, as 
required by the laws of the State. He at once entered on an exten- 
sive practice which grew so rapidly that, at the third term of the 
court after he was admitted, he had one hundred and fifty cases to 
argue. While thus engaged, with every prospect of future eminence 
as a lawyer, he was prostrated by a severe illness, during which his 
mind was much exercised on the subject of religion. On his re- 
covery, he decided to join the Episcopal Church, and some years 
later was converted to the Baptist persuasion. Having been bap- 
tized, and entering ardently into the communion he had chosen, he 
abandoned his legal pursuits, and diligently studied theology for a 
year in his preparation for the ministry. He was then ordained 
and took charge of the Beaufort Baptist Church. During the time 
that he had charge of it, lie extended the sphere of his labors be- 
yond his own parish, and as a missionary displayed great zeal in 
preaching the gospel among the slaves. In 1836 he proceeded to 
Europe, spending a year there in consequence of impaired health, 
and on his return resumed his office with great effect. 

Since 1847, Dr. Fuller has resided in Baltimore, taking; charge of 

' * © © 

the Seventh Baptist Church, and laboring diligently and with 
marked ability and success in building up the sect to which he is 
devoted. When he came to this city the Baptists were, compared 



254 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

with other religious denominations, very few in numbers, but now 
ten or twelve prosperous churches attest the growth of the sect, and 
Dr. Fuller is justly regarded as the most influential of its pastors. 
Honorary degrees have been conferred upon him by Harvard and 
Columbia Colleges. Dr. Fuller is a powerful pulpit orator and dis- 
putant. He has published several works : his principal writings 
being " Correspondence with Bishop England concerning the Roman 
Chancery:" "Correspondence with Dr. Way land on Domestic 
Slavery ;" " Sermons ;" " Letters," &c. He is also noted for his collo- 
quial powers, and wide culture of mind. The society of which Dr. 
Fuller is pastor is now erecting a new structure on the corner of 
Eutaw and Dolphin streets, facing Eutaw Square. It is entirely 
built of white marble, with a lofty pointed spire of the same 
material, and when completed, as it will be at no distant day, will 
present one of the noblest and most beautiful church edifices in the 
city. 



HORATIO N. GAMBRILL. 



Horatio E". Gambrill, eldest son of John and Abigail Gambrill, 
was born in Anne Arundel comity, Maryland, on the first day of 
December, 1810. In the following year his parents removed to 
Baltimore comity, about four miles from the city. Here he received 
an elementary education at the country schools, until he reached 
the age of sixteen, when he was placed by his father as an appren- 
tice to the Savage Manufacturing Company of Maryland, to learn 
the business of the cotton manufacture. The term of his appren- 
ticeship endured between five and six years ; during which time he 
was constantly and industriously employed in the various depart- 
ments of the business. In accordance with the custom of the time, 
the young apprentice was employed in many duties which would 
probably be looked upon by many young men of the present day as 
menial ; but which, in reality, aided no little in fostering habits of 
industry and developing self-reliance and independence of character. 
The salary he received at this time was about $100 per annum for 
board and clothing. 

At the age of twenty, young Gambrill was promoted by the agent 
of the Compan} 7 , Mr. Amos A. Williams, to the responsible position 
of overseer of the spinning department, and in about a year more 
received further promotion, and was made overseer of the carding 
department, the most important branch of the manufacture. After 
occupying this situation for about two years, he left the employment 
of the Savage Company, taking with him an excellent letter of 
recommendation from their agent. 

Mr. Gambrill then visited the West, with the intention of taking 
up his residence in that section, but after a short absence returned 
to Maryland, and accepted the superintendence of the old Jericho 
Factory, situated on the Little Gunpowder Falls in Baltimore 
count\\ In the year 183G he resigned this position, and in connec- 
tion with David Carroll, commenced, in a very small way, the manu- 
facture of cotton yarns at a place called Stony Works, near the 



256 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

city of Baltimore. The buildings occupied for this purpose were 
those afterwards used by Michael Hurley as an ice house. 

An incident which happened to him at this period, is worthy of 
record as exhibiting the independent spirit of the young manufac- 
turer, and its ready appreciation by one who was no ill judge of 
character. One day, as he was driving a one-horse wagon, sitting 
astride a round bale of cotton which he was taking to his factory, 
he was stopped by the founder of a prominent commercial house in 
Baltimore, a gentleman still living at an advanced age, who said to 
him: " Don't you know, young man, that that is the most honorable 
position you can occupy ?" Mr. Gambrill was much gratified at 
being thus noticed and encouraged by one so much his senior and a 
leading merchant ; and to this day he never fails to revert to it with 
pleasure. 

In the small business, thus commenced he was greatly assisted by 
his old employers, the Savage Company, who furnished all the requi- 
site machinery on the most reasonable terms and at long credit. 
The last of the notes which were given in this transaction was 
paid exactly two years in advance of its maturity. 

After continuing this business with encouraging success for two 
years, Mr. Gambrill leased from the trustees of Charles T. Ellicott 
the property then known as the Old Whitehall Flouring Mill, on 
Jones's Falls, and, in connection with others, built the Whitehall 
Cotton Factory, where in 1839 they commenced, with five looms, 
the manufacture of cotton duck for sails. In 1842 they purchased 
the Woodberry property from Messrs. Collins and Pettigrew of 
North Carolina, and in the following year built the Woodberry Fac- 
tory for the purpose of carrying on the manufacture on a more 
extensive scale. 

In 1815 he doubled the producing capacity of this factory, and 
the water power proving insufficient, steam was introduced in the 
following year. In 1817, in connection with other parties, Mr. Gam- 
brill purchased from Hugh Jenkins, the Laurel Mill on Jones's 
Falls, and soon after built the Mount Vernon Mill, No. 1, converting, 
later, the old flouring mill into a cotton factory. 

In 1852, Mr. Gambrill, with others, purchased the Washington 
Factory on the same stream, and proceeded to rebuild and enlarge 
the establishment, in which he put in operation 52 looms and 3,500 
spindles for the manufacture of the lighter numbers of cotton duck. 
In the next year the Whitehall Factory was destroyed by fire, and 
upon its site was erected the Clipper Mill, a one-storied building, 
600 feet in length and 50 feet wide, with such expedition that the 



HORATIO N. GAMBRILL. 257 

machinery commenced running in less than six months from the 
day of the fire. 

Shortly after the completion of the Clipper Mill, Mr. Gamhrill 
built the Park Mill at Woodbeny, where he commenced the manu- 
facture of netting for seines on the machinery invented and patented 
by the late John McMullen of Baltimore. 

Both branches of manufacture continued to increase until the 
year 1865, when Mr. G-ambrill sold out his entire interest to his 
partner, Wm. E. Hooper, and commenced building the Druid Mill, 
at present the largest manufacturing establishment in Maryland. 
This mill was put in operation in April, 1866, and has now running 
eight lappers, sixty-six carding engines, eight thousand spindles, and 
one hundred duck looms, consuming twenty bales of cotton dail}*, 
and turning out goods worth, at present prices, $55,000 per month, 
most of which are sold in Philadelphia, New York, and Boston. 
The establishment and machinery was erected at a cost of $170,000, 
and gives employment to three hundred persons. 

Before the Old Whitehall Factory, previously mentioned, was 
built, all, or nearlj 7 all, the cotton duck used in this country was 
manufactured by the Passaic and Phoenix mills in Paterson, New 
Jersey, and the prices charged by those establishments greatly hin- 
dered the extension of the trade ; but soon after the operations of 
the Whitehall Factory placed an equally good article in the market 
at a much lower price, the Maryland goods found such extensive 
favor as to almost entirely drive from the market the productions of 
the Russian and English looms, from which the mercantile marine 
of the country had hitherto been almost exclusively supplied. This 
continued until after the commencement of the war of 1861, when 
the price of the raw material rose so high as greatly to check the 
manufacture and bring the foreign goods into the market again. In 
1866 cotton fell to about forty cents, when the manufacture and 
consumption of cotton duck revived, and at the present time the 
domestic article has again nearly driven the foreign from* the market. 
The Passaic and Phoenix mills have also ceased producing this de- 
scription of goods, being unable to compete with the Baltimore 
manufacturers in the markets of Philadelphia, New York and Boston. 
Large quantities of these goods are also exported to the British Pro- 
vinces, and to South America, and they find considerable sale in the 
markets of Liverpool and London. 

All this trade is supplied by the mills on Jones's Falls; the 
demand in Baltimore amounting to about $100,000 yearly, and for 
the eastern cities about a million and a half dollars. The annual 



258 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

consumption of cotton by these mills is about 24,000 bales, or 
10,800,000 pounds, which at the present price of sixteen cents, 
amounts to $1,728,000, from which the goods produced reach a 
value of not less than $2,500,000. The expenditure for labor in 
the factories alone is about $300,000 per annum. 

This business, now so extensive and valuable to the city of Balti- 
more is the legitimate offspring of the five looms started in the old 
"Whitehall Factory, in the year 1839. Although during nearly the 
whole of Mr. GambriU's business life, other persons were associated 
with him, yet to his industry and perseverance is mainly due these 
great results. Brief as this memoir is, we know of none which con- 
tains a more valuable lesson to young men entering business life, of 
what results may be obtained by diligent devotion to their business, 
by freedom from that foolish pride which contemns honest manual 
labor as unworthy drudgery, by that ennobling self-reliance which 
springs from thorough knowledge; by enterprise, courageous, but 
not rash, and by integrity which no temptation can make swerve 
from the right. 

During the early period of his business, several very advantageous 
offers were made to Mr. Gambrill to leave Maryland, and prosecute 
his manufacture in Massachusetts. A capital of $200,000 was 
offered for this purpose ; but after duly weighing the proposals, he 
preferred to remain in his native State. 

Soon after the building of the Woodberry Factory in 1843, it 
was deemed necessary to have a church for the religious instruction 
of the operatives, and for the accommodation of other persons in 
the neighborhood. Measures were accordingly taken by Mr. Gam- 
brill, which resulted in the erection of a very neat church, which 
was used as a place of worship from that time until the year 1867. 
At this time, it having become entirely inadequate to meet its 
purposes, it was removed to give place to the large and elegant 
edifice just completed on the old site. The old church was mainly 
built by Mr. Gambrill and his business associates, and was for 
several years used as a place of worship for all denominations of 
Christians. It was finally presented, together with the lot of 
ground on which it stands, to the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Previous to the inauguration of the free school system in Balti- 
more county, Mr. Gambrill, in connection with his business asso- 
ciates, opened a school at Woodberry, and emplo} r ing a teacher, 
gave gratuitous instruction to the children of parents in their 
employ, and to such other children in the neighborhood as chose to 



HORATIO N. GAM BRILL. 259 

avail themselves of the opportunity. This school was continued 
until the inauguration of the free school system in the county. 

Mr. Gambrill, for twenty years of his life, was actively engaged 
in the Sunday School cause, and, in connection with his personal 
friend, the late Rev. E. Y. Eeese, did much toward building up the 
Sunday School at \Voodberry, which is now one of the most pros- 
perous Sabbath Schools to be found in this county. 

We cannot forbear mentioning an instance of his kindness to 
those who faithfully serve him. 

Surely nothing would so reconcile (and prevent the many con- 
flicts of) labor and capital, and stimulate emulation and mutual 
interest, as appreciative notice, and judicious reward to capable and 
worthy men. In 1860, the mill of the Savage Manufacturing Co., 
in which Air. Gambrill served his apprenticeship, was sold. Subse- 
quently, Mr. Gambrill acquired one-half interest in the mill, and 
disposed of it to Messrs. Donaldson & Burgee, the deserving super- 
intendents of the " Clipper" and the " Washington" Mills. The 
terms were so generous and unexampled, that both gentlemen 
achieved a brilliant pecuniary success, and gratefully bore testimony 
to the liberality and favor of their employer. 

In connection with another party, now deceased, several valuable 
improvements in machinery have been invented by Mr. Gambrill ; 
among others, a self-stripping cotton card, the right of which he 
sold in England for $66,000, and from which he receives, in the 
United States, an annual royalty o*f S4,000. 

Mr. Gambrill is now sixty years of age ; in the full enjoyment of 
excellent health, and still in the prime vigor of his bodily and 
mental faculties. He continues, in association with two of his sons 
and Henry C. Tudor, the prosecution of his large and pros- 
perous business. He has embarked in no enterprise or speculation 
outside of his legitimate occupation, the cotton manufacture, to 
which his energies are still devoted, and which now yields him, in 
an ample income, the well earned reward of his active life. 





n^x. 




Coy-e 



l£ 



~> 



JOHN W. GARRETT. 



John W. Garrett, the President of the Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad Company, was born in the City of Baltimore, on July 31st, 
1820. He was the second son of the late Robert Garrett, a wealthy 
merchant, largely engaged in foreign and domestic commerce, who, 
throughout a long life, enjoyed the respect of his fellow citizens for 
his intelligence, enterprise and purity of character. 

John W. Garrett was educated in the city of Baltimore, until 
his removal to Lafayette College, in the State of Pennsylvania, 
where he completed his studies. On his return home, he entered 
his father's counting room, and became a partner with his lather 
and elder brother, Henry S. Garrett, at the early age of nineteen 
years, in the firm of Robert Garrett & Sons. 

Mr. Robert Garrett knew, thoroughly, the unlimited resources and 
production of the Western States, and understood the geographical 
advantages which Baltimore enjoyed as their market and place of 
supply. He therefore spared no pains in cultivating close relations 
between the City of Baltimore and the communities west of the 
Alleghany Mountains, and gave a zealous support to the projects for 
opening those communications by canal and railway, which were 
required by the rapid increase in the population of the States 
bordering on the Ohio river. 

J lis sons, Henry S. Garrett and John W. Garrett, shared the 
opinions of their father, and, when they entered into business with 
him, devoted themselves to the same great objects, while, by their 
energy, they enlarged the scope of the business of the firm of Robert 
Garrett & Sons. The house became the active correspondents and 
representatives of George Peabody & Co., of London, and of other 
well known European firms, as well as of many leading mercantile 
firms, in the Western States, and held a leading position in the 
commerce of the city. 

"While thus engaged in active commercial life, Mr. John W. 
Garrett was a close observer of the progress of the construction of 
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. This work, although nominally 
18 



262 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

opened to Wheeling, in 1852, remained embarrassed and practically 
ineffective to as late a period as 1856. Mr. Garrett, although 
solicited to take part in its affairs at an earlier day, declined to 
participate in the contests in which the Company was engaged, 
until 1857, when he was induced to attend a meeting of the Stock- 
holders, which had been called to consider its affairs. He took an 
active pari; in the discussions which arose at that meeting. He 
maintained that, although the stock of the Company was owned in 
part by the State of Maryland, and in part by the City of Baltimore, 
as well as by individual citizens, yet the nature of the ownership of 
each proprietor was the same ; that each was alike interested in the 
profitable management of the Company, and that a similar obliga- 
tion was devolved upon the representatives of each class of propri- 
etors. He insisted that it was the duty of every Board of Directors, 
by whatsoever constituency its members were elected, to employ to 
the best and most profitable advantage the property committed to 
its charge ; to maintain a just proportion between the expenses and 
revenues of the Company, and to practice the exact and rigid 
economy, in dealing with its property, which any just and intelligent 
agent would employ in managing property belonging to himself. 

These opinions were embodied in resolutions which were adopted 
by the stockholders' meeting to which we have alluded. They form 
the ground work of that policy which has, after a struggle of thir- 
teen years, made the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad m Company an 
unrivalled example of successful management. 

In October, 1857, the stockholders of the Company, being deter- 
mined to give, if possible, effect to the resolutions which they had 
adopted, requested Mr. John W. Garrett to accept the office of 
Director in the Company. He did not shrink from the performance 
of the laborious duty, which he had foreseen would devolve upon 
those who undertook to reform the management of the Company 
and to conduct it solely as an industrial enterprise. 

The embarrassment in which the Company was involved was of the 
most serious character ; and, although it had arisen accidentally, was 
difficult to remedy. When the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Com- 
pany was incorporated, in the year 1827, it was believed that the 
sum of three millions of dollars would suffice to construct and equip 
the line from Baltimore to the Ohio river. This sum, therefore, 
was assumed to be the basis upon which the ratio of representation 
in the Board of Direction ought to be computed. The Legislature, 
with great wisdom, provided a scale of representation which gave 
the management of the road to the individual stockholders, 



JOHN W. GARRETT. 263 

although they were authorized to subscribe to one-half part only of 
the capital stock of the Company. Xo party considerations in- 
duced the State to grant the charter authorizing the construction 
of the road, and it was wisely determined to place the management 
of the property in the hands of those who were personally and per- 
manently interested in its productiveness, rather than commit it to 
the control of the rapidly-changing representatives of a political 
body. But, unhappily, the estimates made of the real cost of the 
road were not well founded, and it was soon discovered that a large 
increase of the capital stock was necessary to the completion of the 
work. The stockholders of the Company were unwilling to sacri- 
fice the large sums of money which they had already invested ; the 
public clamored for the completion of the road ; the Legislature, 
less wise or less liberal than the body by which the charter had 
been granted, in giving new aid, and in authorizing it to be given 
by the City of Baltimore, insisted upon increased representation 
for the State and City; whilst the friends of the railroad company 
omitted to reserve any right to increased representation to the 
individual stockholders who might agree to increase in equal or 
greater ratio their ownership in the stock of the Company. The 
result was that, although the new stock subscribed for by the State 
and the aid afforded by the City of Baltimore were insufficient to 
complete the road, and means were provided by the individual 
stockholders, thus making them the owners of the majority in 
value of the whole stock in the Company, yet they were, in fact, 
represented only by a minority in the Board of Direction — the 
State and Cit} T having, together, in the year 1857, eighteen Direc- 
tors, while the individual Stockholders, owning a majority of the 
stock, could be represented only by twelve Directors. 

The evil effects of this condition of affairs were manifest when the 
State of Maryland and the City of Baltimore were agreed in politi- 
cal opinion. A majority of the Board of Directors became, of course, 
a part of a compact political organization, which could, at its plea- 
sure, control the management of the Company. When the State of 
Maryland and the City of Baltimore disagreed in political opinion, 
the plurality of votes in the Board remained with the representa- 
tives of individual stockholders ; but, nevertheless, they were unable 
to adopt or maintain any policy, without the concurrence of the 
political directors, appointed by the State or city, or without the aid 
of so many individual members from one or the other of these dele- 
gations as would give a majority of votes to the directors represent- 
ing the stockholders. 



264 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

Those who are familiar with the history of internal improvement 
corporations in this country can he at no loss to conjecture the diffi- 
culties arising from this circumstance, if no others had existed, when 
Mr. Garrett became a member of the Board of Directors in 1857. 
The corporation was in hourly danger of becoming one of the prizes 
of the political arena. Its resources, though undeveloped, were 
large ; its revenues, though meagre in comparison with their present 
amount, were far greater than those of any other corporation in the 
State, the patronage of the company was very great, and a large 
number of men in the city of Baltimore and in the western coun- 
ties were in its employment. It was, as has been shown, practically 
subject to political control. 

It cannot be pretended that the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 
Company escaped the ruin, which political management would have 
brought upon it, because of the self-denial practiced by any one of 
the political parties, which elected the majorities of its Directors. 
Each party, as it rose and fell in the State of Maryland, endeavored 
to obtain control of the Company, but each was foiled by the inde- 
pendent action of some of the political members of the Board, who 
deemed it to be their duty to prevent the subordination of the Com- 
pany to political rule. 

Mr. Garrett, however, plainly perceived that the Company could 
not always reckon upon escaping from this danger; and therefore, 
from an early day, after his election as a Director, he considered the 
necessity of taking such measures as would rescue the Company 
from the impending peril, and save the property of the State, city 
and individuals alike from great depreciation and loss. 

In the autumn of 1858, the measures shadowed forth in the address 
and resolutions offered by Mr. Garrett, became the subject of earnest 
and excited discussion in the Board of Directors. Four of the 
Directors, representing the State and city, having declared their 
adherence to the new policy, Mr. Johns Hopkins nominated Mr. 
Garrett for the Presidency of the Company, and the controversy 
ended by his election to that office. 

The practical wisdom of the policy inaugurated by Mr. Garrett, 
was shown at the close of his first year of office. Although, owing 
to n depression in commercial transactions, the gross receipts of the 
Company were in 1859, the first fiscal year of his administration, 
less by S'_!7-V.><):5 50 than in 1858, the increase in the aggregate 
comparative net gains of the Company — the result of his wise 
economy and careful supervision — was $725,325 16. These greatly 
increased earnings so improved the financial condition of the Com- 



I 



JOHN W. GARRETT. 265 

pany, that a semi-annual dividend was declared in the Spring of 

1859, which was the first of that series of regular dividends, which 
has been maintained since that period. 

In 1860, the second year of his administration, the results were 
still more remarkable. The gross earnings were So, 922, 202 94, an 
increase of 8303,584 49 over the preceding year, and of $65,715 15 
over the fiscal year of 1858. Notwithstanding this limited improve- 
ment in the general traffic, the increase of net profits on the Main 
Stem amounted to $980,300 83. The Board announced in its annual 
report of that year, that all purchases had been made for cash, and 
that the Company was entirely free from floating debt. The general 
economical management of the business and finances of the Com- 
pany resulted in an aggregate of profits for the fiscal year of 
$1,834,569 25, which showed a net gain of more than 18 per cent, 
on the capital stock. During this year the extra dividend of a por- 
tion of the surplus fund, which had been declared on the 17th of 
December, 1856, was finally decided to be legal and valid, and the 
interest, which had accumulated upon this dividend, whilst it was 
in litigation, viz. from the 1st of June, 1857, to the 1st of June, 

1860, $545,950 80, was paid from the earnings of the Company. 

On the 17th of November, 1858, the period at which Mr. Garrett 
became President of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company, the 
market price of its stock was $57, and of the extra dividend, 
(amounting to $3,033,060, and then in litigation,) $10 for each $100 
thereof, making the actual average market rate at that date $46 
per share for the capital stock on the aggregate basis subsequently 
established. The extra dividend was declared in certificates of in- 
debtedness, which bore interest at six per cent., until converted into 
the stock of the Company on the 1st of June, 1862.* 

No other proofs were needed to confirm the views of the new 
President. The path of success being now clearly marked out, he 
addressed himself to the task of providing against those partisan 
attempts, which in the existing organization of the road, always 
threatened to endanger its profitable usefulness. 

When we consider that all men are to-day agreed that it is wise 
to separate works of internal improvement from political control, 
and that it is an especial cause of public thankfulness that this Cor- 
poration has been withdrawn, to a large extent, from such influences, 
it is painful to reflect upon the opposition made from 1858 to 1864 
to the proposition that the several classes of stockholders in the 

* The present price of the stock, as thus augmented, is one hundred and forty 
dollars per shaie. 



266 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

Company should be allowed to exercise an influence in its manage- 
ment proportioned to the extent of their respective interests in the 
property. The motives to that opposition were, however, not wholly 
political, but arose partly from different impulses. From whatever 
cause it sprang, it was strong enough to resist, year after year, 
the calm and dispassionate request of the Company that some 
mode might be devised by which the impending evil of political 
control could certainly be avoided. 'No remedy was devised for 
the evil until 1864, when the State, by authorizing its financial offi- 
cers to exchange the stock owned by it in the Company in a certain 
order and with particular exceptions, necessarily provided for the 
relinquishment of a portion of its control. This provision again 
engrafted upon the Constitution of 1867, finally secured the stability 
of the Company as a purely industrial enterprise. 

These changes in the organic law of the State, and in the rela- 
tions of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company to the State, 
have been the marked incidents in the history of the Corporation. 
The work of bringing them about forms a signal labor and success in 
the official life of President Garrett. The individual stockholders 
of the Company do not even yet exercise a power and influence in 
anywise proportioned to the amount of interest owned by them in 
the Company ; but they hold, nevertheless, owing to the energy and 
success with which Mr. Garrett has upheld their rightful claims, 
authority enough to protect the Company against the dangers which 
had previously beset its path. On the other hand, Mr. Garrett has 
never f iled to acknowledge the cordial and efficient support which 
he has received from the stockholder directors, or to recognize the 
confidence reposed in him by the great majority of those represent- 
ing the State and city, in his long official career. 

While engaged in this great struggle to maintain the stability of 
the Company as a purely industrial enterprise, Mr. Garrett was not 
neglectful of other questions which deeply concerned its interests. 
He never forgot the maxims which he had inculcated upon the 
stockholders when he first took part in their deliberations. He 
maintained always the opinion that the success of every railroad 
company was assured if its business concerns were managed with 
strict care, skill and integrity. He therefore held every officer and 
every employee of the Company to a strict accountability, and ex- 
acted from each a rigid economy in the disbursement of the funds 
of the Corporation. He insisted upon an ample equipment of the 
road, upon completeness in the workshops of the Company, upon 
the construction of extensive buildings to meet the varied wants of 



JOHN W. GARRETT. 207 

the Corporation, and upon the adoption of every improvement 
which would facilitate the transportation of freight and assure the 
comfort of the passenger. 

This sytem of management was in full force and activity when 
the great civil war commenced, in April, 18(31. The location of 
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was apparently as unfortunate as 
could well be imagined. From Baltimore to the Potomac river, 
near Harper's Ferry, it was located within the State of Maryland. 
From Harper's Ferry to a point not far from Cumberland, in Mary- 
land, it traversed the State of Virginia. From thence it crossed 
the mountain region of Maryland ; and again entering the State of 
Virginia, crossed that State to Wheeling, while its branch road, 
diverging at Grafton, ran thence one hundred and four miles to 
Parkersburg, on the Ohio river. 

The line of road, therefore, skirted the territory which was des- 
tined to be the chief route of armies throughout the war. Owing 
to this circumstance the line was broken many times, as armies 
advanced and retreated, or as forays were made or repulsed. The 
effect of each breaking of the line was to convert the road, appar- 
ently, into isolated and separate fragments. But such was the 
wonderful energy shown by President Garrett, and infused into the 
skilful, and disciplined men under his control, that the practical 
utility of the road was never lost. When such disasters occurred, 
they had been so far foreseen and provided for, that each severed 
section of the road seemed to be possessed of its own organization 
and equipment, and able to do the enormous military business en- 
trusted to it, as perfectly as if the whole road had remained entire. 
]STo incident of the war — no personal, public or local excitement — ■ 
interfered with the operations of the road, when there was any 
possibility of conducting them as usual. The President, cheer- 
fully sustained by the majority of his Board, remembered that he 
was responsible, primarily, for the safety of the great property which 
had been committed to his charge, and he administered it in strict 
subordination to those principles which he had prescribed as proper 
for the government of the Company at the stockholders' meeting 
held in 1857, to which allusion has already been made. 

At the conclusion of the war the Company, under the lead of its 
President, entered upon a yet more active career of usefulness. 
The Parkersburg Branch Railroad was put in thorough order and 
its twenty-three tunnels solidly walled and arched, at a cost of one 
and a half millions of dollars. The Washington County Branch 
Railroad, from Knoxville to Hagerstown, was built; the Central 



268 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

Ohio Division, from the Ohio river to Columbus, was reorganized, 
and a branch road provided from Newark on the Central Ohio Road, 
a distance of one hundred and sixteen miles, to Sandusky, on Lake 
Erie. The line of the Marietta and Cincinnati Railroad, worked in 
connection with the Baltimore and Ohio Road, was improved ; the 
Metropolitan Branch Road, from the Point of Rocks on the main line 
to the city of Washington, was placed under construction ; the build- 
ing of one great iron bridge over the Ohio river at Parkersburg, and 
of another over the same river at Bellaire, was commenced ; and a 
provision of means was made to complete fully, within a brief period, 
the railroad extending from Pittsburgh, through Connellsville, to 
Cumberland, in Maryland, where it will connect with the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad Company. In addition to these undertakings, 
arrangements were also organized to open more direct communica- 
tions, through the Valley of Virginia, between the City of Baltimore 
and the Southwestern States. These improvements and changes, so 
far as completed, have resulted in increasing the aggregate receipts 
of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company from the sum of 
$4,301,009 27, received during the fiscal year ended September 30th, 
1859, to the sum of $10,840,370 48, received during the fiscal year 
ended September 30th, 1870. After the payment of all interest and 
dividends on capital invested in the road and its branches, the Com- 
pany is possessed of surplus profits amounting to $21,375,050 73, 
which are undivided, and represented by its proprietorship of 
branch and connecting roads and other property. Thus the enor- 
mous sum of $19,355,835 66 of net earnings has been accumulated 
and invested in works adding largely to the usefulness of the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company during the administration 
of President Garrett. 

In addition to the development of the railway enterprises, to 
which allusion has been here made, Mr. Garrett has of late years 
steadily directed the attention of his Company to the propriety of 
organizing steam lines of communication between the chief ports of 
Europe and the harbor of Baltimore. The Board over which he 
presides has already, by an arrangement with the North German 
Lloyd Steam Ship Company, secured a semi-monthly line of first 
class steamers between Bremen, Southampton and Baltimore, and 
measures have been taken to secure a similar line of steamers 
between Liverpool and Baltimore. There can be no question, that 
the opening of such lines of steam communication from Baltimore 
to Liverpool, Havre, Bremen and Rotterdam, would do much to 
increase the trade, and to add to the general prosperity of Baltimore. 



JOHN W . GARRETT. 269 

Its neighborhood to the cotton and tobacco growing sections of the 
United States, the shorter lines of railway, connecting it with the 
South, Cincinnati, St. Louis and the South west, and with Chicago 
and the Northwest, and its cheaper fuel, give it advantages with 
which no other city on the Atlantic coast can profitably com- 
pete. It is very fortunate for that community, that the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad Company, has been willing and able to undertake 
the partial support of such lines of ocean travel and traffic. It is no 
less fortunate that the people of the State of Maryland, keenly alive 
to the importance of exerting every power to promote the welfare of 
their chief commercial city, agree thoroughly with the committee 
of the House of Commons, of which Lord Stanley, now the Earl of 
Derby, was Chairman in 1864. That Committee, when the subject 
of the steamboat powers of railway companies was under consider- 
ation, did not hesitate to affirm the expediency of permitting 
railway companies to carry by sea, as well as by land ; and English 
railway companies are now largely engaged in subordinating ocean 
traffic and travel, to the uses and developments of their home com- 
panies and home ports. 

These great results enuring, year by year, most advantageously to 
the interest and prosperity of the State of Maryland, and of the city 
of Baltimore, have contented both ; and, fully satisfied with the 
practical working of the policy, which Mr. Garrett inaugurated, 
under so many difficulties, the great majority of the representatives 
of both constituencies, have united, year after year, in soliciting him 
to remain in the occupation of the Presidency. 

In concluding this notice, it is impossible to forbear mention of 
the fact that Mr. Garrett has not hesitated to apply his rules of 
economical administration to himself, in his official relations to the 
Company. He believed that example taught a better lesson than 
precept. After he became President, and gave his time so largely to 
the duties of his office, the Board of Direction, by a unanimous vote, 
increased his salary from $4,000 a year, which was the rate when 
he took office, to $10,000 a year. This increase of salary he 
declined. It was not to be wondered at, therefore, that he should 
refuse to accept the offer of the presidencies of other railway com- 
panies, though accompanied — one by the proposition of a salary of 
$30,000 per year, and one by a proposal of a salary of $50,000 per 
year. He has been content, apparently, to abide with those among 
whom his life began. He certainly could propose to himself, no aim 
or purpose, more useful than the complete and successful develop- 
ment of that entire system of Maryland Railways, with which his 



270 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

name has been and must remain inseparably associated. Mr. 
. Garrett continues to occupy the office of President of the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad Company, and is also the head of the firm of 
Robert Garrett & Sons, doing business in the City of Baltimore. 
Robert Garrett, his father, died greatly respected, in 1857 ; and 
Henry S. Garrett, his elder brother, died equally esteemed and 
lamented, in the prime of life, in 1867. The two sons of Mr. John 
W. Garrett, Robert Garrett and Thomas Harrison Garrett, are now 
with their father, the only members of the firm. The house, in its 
commercial relations, maintains the unspotted reputation which has 
always distinguished it, and continues as it has always, to promote 
every railway, steamship or other enterprise, which could add to the 
commercial prosperity of the town, as well as to promote those 
other objects of public charity, recreation, or instruction, which 
excite the interest of the people of Baltimore. 




4 






■ 



7- 



JAMES SULLIVAN GARY. 



James Sullivan Gary, born at Medway, Massachusetts, on Xo- 
vember loth, 1808, was descended from John Gary, who with his 
brother James, emigrated from Lancashire, England in 1712, and 
settled in this country ; James at Marblehead, Massachusetts, and 
John in New Hamsphire. 

His father having died, leaving a large family dependent on their 
own exertions for subsistence, James went to work, at the early age 
of five years, in the cotton mill of the Medway Manufacturing Com- 
pany, where he remained constantly employed until 1820, acquiring 
thus a thorough practical knowledge of the minutest details of the 
manufacture which contributed largely to his success in after life. 

His opportunities of education were necessarily very limited, but 
were improved to their fullest extent, in which he was aided by a 
kind and exemplary mother. 

Quitting the Medway Company to find more remunerative em- 
ployment elsewhere, he was engaged successively in various manu- 
facturing establishments, thas enlarging his knowledge of the busi- 
ness, and in 1830, by strict economy and incessant industry he had 
succeeded in accumulating a few thousand dollars. In this year he 
was married to Pamelia, daughter of Deacon Ebenezer Forrest of 
Foxboro', Massachusetts, and removed to Mansfield, Connecticut, 
where he became a partner in a cotton factory. This first adven- 
ture in business on his own account proved unfortunate ; the agents 
of the mill became bankrupt, and the capital he had invested was 
entirely lost. 

After this disaster, Mr. Gary returned to Rhode Island, and for a 
number of years had charge of one of the departments of the mills 
of the Lonsdale Manufacturing Company. In 1838, he removed 
with his family to Maryland, having been engaged to take charge 
of one of the departments in the Patuxent Manufacturing Company, 
at Laurel, Prinee George county. Here he remained until 1844, 
when with three other gentlemen, he established the Ashland Manu- 
facturing Company of Baltimore county, and assumed the entire 



272 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

control of the mill. This Company was one of the most prosperous 
of its kind that was ever inaugurated. While thus engaged he was 
invited by the Patuxent Company, who had been greatly impressed 
with his energy and administrative ability, to undertake the general 
supervision and control of their works, which for some time he did, 
without severing his connection with the Ashland Company, but 
visiting and directing both. The latter Company continued in 
successful operation until 1854, when the buildings and machinery 
were destroyed by fire. 

A year or so before this occurrence, Air. Gary, in connection with 
another gentleman, had established the Alberton Manufacturing 
Company, at Elysville, in Howard county, which continued in 
operation until 1857, when it shared the fate of many other 
business houses in the financial crisis which swept over the 
country. A reorganization was effected, however, soon after, aud 
operations resumed under the name of the Sagouan Manufacturing 
Company. 

In 1859, Mr. Gary discovered that through the management of 
his associate who controlled the financial operations, the Company 
had become involved in outside operations to a large amount, and 
with disastrous results. Upon this he arranged to assume the entire 
ownership of the establishment, accepting the heavy indebtedness, 
which, in the opinion of the creditors stood, but a poor chance of 
complete liquidation. Recognizing the fact that Mr. Gary ought 
not to be held responsible for what had been done without his 
knowledge, they were ready to agree to a very liberal compromise ; 
but Mr. Gary declined to take any advantage of their generous 
disposition, and only asked time to recover from this unexpected 
misfortune, when he would discharge every claim in full. 

A settlement on this basis was effected, and Mr. Gary assuming 
the entire control of the business, showed that his qualifications for 
mercantile aud financial transactions were not inferior to his skill as 
a manufacturer. His affairs prospered rapidly; and in half the time 
for which he had asked, he was able to pay off the indebtedness of 
the concern in full, with interest. 

In 1861, he took into partnership his son James Albert Gary, 
under the firm name of James S. Gary & Son, with office and 
warehouse in Baltimore. In 1863, for the purpose of securing 
a wider field of operation in the purchase of cotton and sale of 
manufactured goods, a branch house was established in St. Louis, 
Missouri, under the style of James S. Gary & Company. Great 
prosperity attended these enlargements of the business. 



JAMES SULLIVAN GARY. 273 

"We puss over the events of the war, merely noting that during 
that troublous time Mr. Gary was a sincere and zealous Unionist. 

In 1806, the property of the firm at Elysville, commonly known 
as Alberton, was considerably damaged by a freshet. It was again 
visited in the same manner, and far more disastrously, in the mem- 
orable flood of 1868, when the whole valley of the Patapsco was 
suddenly swept by a torrent which destroyed many lives and millions 
of property. On this occasion Mr. Gary, himself, narrowly escaped ; 
but the waters which spared his life, carried destruction to his cher- 
ished objects of pride, his little village and the mill. The prospect 
was a disheartening one; it would cost much time, great labor, and 
many thousands of dollars to repair the devastation of a few hours. 

But scarcely had the waters subsided when Mr. Gary set to work 
with his usual indomitable courage and will. His first act was to 
relieve the immediate necessities of the sufferers around him, and 
this done, to repair and rebuild his mill, so as to have it as quickly 
as possible in running order. At this task he worked day and 
night, until the end was accomplished ; and though the Alberton 
Mills had suffered more extensive damage than an)- other factory on 
the stream, excepting one which was entirely destroyed, they were 
by some weeks the first to resume operations. At this time many 
improvements and additions were made, such as Mr. Gary's judg- 
ment and experience suggested, and the capacity of the mill was 
doubled. 

Mr. Gary died rather suddenly, from the effects of a carbuncle, on 
March 7th, 1870, aged sixty-two years, and was buried at Alber- 
ton, the scene of his many labors, where the busy factory and its 
pleasant surroundings remain as monuments to his energy and skill. 
He was a man of genial manners and amiable disposition ; kind and 
considerate to those in his employment, though strict in his dis- 
cipline. He left two children, a son and a daughter; the latter 
married to H. B. Holton, and residing at the mills. 

Mr. Gary afforded a striking example of what an undaunted 
spirit and untiring energy can accomplish in the face of the most 
disheartening circumstances. Although past middle age at the time 
of the pecuniary difficulties above referred to, he did not despair as 
most men would, but casting all thoughts of the past and its gains 
and losses to the winds, he addressed himself to the future, and in 
an incredibly short space of time, he had not only shaken off the 
shackles of debt, but accumulated a large fortune. 

The village of Alberton is pleasantly situated on the Patapsco 
river, in Howard county, about twelve miles from Baltimore, and on 



274 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

the line of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The population num- 
bers some nine hundred, consisting entirely of persons employed in 
the mills, and their families. The houses are mostly built of brick 
and supplied with gas and water. The village has the advan- 
tages of a school and library ; a commodious hall for lectures, 
religious services, and Sunday school ; a store for supplies ; a post- 
office, and a resident physician. It was Mr. Gary's constant aim to 
provide every comfort for his large family of operatives, and to pro- 
tect them from all immoral influences. Hence one of his strictest 
regulations was that forbidding the sale of intoxicating liquors 
in the village. 

The mills are built of granite, in a solid and substantial manner. 
The machinery, comprising two hundred and twenty-eight looms 
and eight thousand spindles, is of the latest and most improved de- 
scription, driven by an unfailing water-power. The goods manufac- 
tured are various, consisting chiefly of sheetings, drills, osnaburgs, 
light duck, denims, awning stripes and warps. Under their various 
brands of u Alberton," "Kentucky," u Sagouan," " "Western Star," 
&c, they have all acquired high reputation in the leading markets 
of the country. Their production consumes annually about three 
thousand bales of cotton. 

The precautions against fire in this establishment are especially 
ample, and the provisions made for its extinction, of a peculiar kind, 
probably superior to those in any mill in the country. 

Since Mr. Gary's death the business has been continued in the 
same name by his son, like his father, a practical manufacturer. 




(sfutyfr *, &ustja) 



PHILIP T. GEORGE. 



The parents of Philip T. George were both Marylanders, of 
English descent. His father, William E. George, came to Baltimore 
from Kent county, in the year 1800, and engaged in connection with 
the late Philip E. Thomas, in the hardware business. His mother 
was the daughter of Jonathan H. Ellicott, who, with his brothers, 
came to Maryland from Pennsylvania, near Philadelphia, about 
the year 1765, and established mills and iron works on the Patap- 
sco, and located themselves on the site formerly called from them, 
Ellicott's Mills, now Ellicott City. Their son, Philip T. George, 
was born in Baltimore, in 1817. 

In his fifteenth year young George entered his father's store, 
taking, as was the custom at that time, when men were scarcely 
thought duly qualified for business, unless they had risen regularly 
from the ranks, the lowest position in the establishment. 

Mr. George married Miss Jenkins, of Baltimore county, whose 
family, also English, had left the mother country about the middle 
of the seventeenth century, on account of the persecution of persons 
of the Catholic faith, which they held, and settled in St. Mary 
county, whence they subsequently removed to Baltimore county, 
where they acquired land by patent in the locality known as Long 
Green. 

In 1848 Mr. George formed a partnership with T. R. Jenkins, for 
the purpose of carrying on the wholesale provision business, as com- 
mission merchants and packers and curers of hams and bacon. 
This firm, bearing the name of George & Jenkins, is still flourishing. 

For three years the new business made but little progress ; but 
constant attention and hard work bore their rarely failing fruits, 
and success was assured after the fourth year. 

About 1850 the planters in the South began to devote their entire 
attention to the cultivation of the especial Southern staples, cotton, 
sugar, tobacco and rice, to the neglect of grain ; a procedure which 
of necessity prevented them from making their own salted provi- 
sions. Hence arose a great demand for bacon, pork and lard, and 



276 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

made an opening for an active trade in those articles, of which 
merchants were quick to avail themselves. As a matter of course 
many difficulties had to he overcome in meeting this rapid expan- 
sion of business ; and one of the chief was the deficiency of steam- 
boat communication with Southern cities. At that time Baltimore 
had not an ocean steamer running to a Southern port ; and shippers 
had to rely upon transient sailing vessels, making voyages at 
irregular intervals. This uncertainty and deficiency of transpor- 
tation was long a serious embarrassment to the merchants ; and 
by placing Baltimore at a disadvantage in this respect, compared 
with some other cities, deprived her to a great extent of the 
advantages of her position and market, in competing for the 
Southern trade. 

With all her wealth and energy, it must be confessed that the 
good city has been at times slow to put into effective action lines of 
policy, the wisdom of which was patent to all ; and various plans 
were broached and partly acted upon for }~ears before sufficient 
co-operative force was brought to bear upon any to make it a 
decided and permanent success. 

At last a number of business men and capitalists, among whom 
was Mr. George, determined that this impediment to the increasing 
prosperity of Baltimore should no longer exist. One line was 
started; then another, which were worked with varying success, 
until at present there are now steamers running regularly to Wil- 
mington Charleston and Savannah; and steamers make daily trips 
to Richmond. 

Thus, ample provision has been made for that Southern trade 
which is daily increasing in value, which naturally belongs to Balti- 
more, and which it is her true policy to attract and foster. Some 
idea of its increase under these favoring circumstances may be 
formed from the fact that the freight now shipped by way of Nor- 
folk alone, exceeds the total shipments to all Southern ports twenty 
years ago. 

These seaboard communications, co-operating with her great Rail- 
road, make Baltimore the grand entrepdt between the Southern 
Atlantic States and the great West, and enable her to pour into the 
former the breadstufis, the provisions, and other staples furnished 
by the prolific soil of the latter. Thus, among the important 
branches of traffic to which the city owes its prosperity, the provi- 
sion houses occupy a foremost place. 

The following statistics will give some idea of the extent of this 
trade, and of its importance to the city. 



PHILIP T. GEORGE. 277 

The sales for the past two years have been in round numbers: 

1869. 





Pounds. 


Barrels. 


Value. 




47,000,000 
6,000,000 


18,000 


$8,700,000 
1,200,000 


Pork, -. 


550,000 








$10,450,000 


1870. 




Pounds. 


Barrels. 


Value. 




45,000,000 
7,000,000 


20,000 


$6,750,000 

1,350,000 
500,000 




Pork, 




* 


$8,600,000 



There are fourteen houses engaged exclusively in the trade, with 
an active capital of §'2,500,000. Of these the house of George & 
Jenkins, from the extent of its business, may justly be styled the 
head. 

In character, Mr. George is peculiarly unassuming, rather 
shrinking from prominence than coveting it ; and his talents have 
been chiefly devoted to the development and conduct of his business, 
or to matters having a direct bearing upon the commercial interests 
of the city. In business transactions he exhibits the quick apprecia- 
tion and prompt decision which are as necessary to the successful 
merchant as the successful general ; but tempered with a courtesy 
which wins the esteem of all who come into contact with him. In 
private life his amiable and generous disposition have endeared him 
to numbers of personal friends. 



19 




^— — ■ /*. -y 




WILLIAM FELL GILES. 



William Fell Giles, Judge of the United States District Court, 
for the District of Maryland, was born in Harford county, Mary- 
land, April 8th, 1807. His ancestors, the Gileses and, on his 
mother's side, the Pacas, were among the early settlers of the State. 
The latter family were originally Friends who had sought an 
asylum from the religious persecutions of the old world in the 
colony founded by Lord Baltimore— the home of toleration in a 
bigoted age. 

Judge Giles secured his early education at Baltimore College ; he 
was subsequently a pupil for several years of Dr. Barry, the head 
of a once flourishing academy in Baltimore city, but completed his 
education at the academy in Bel Air, in his native county, then 
under the charge of the Rev. George Morrison, as head master. In 
1826, he came to Baltimore to study law, and entered the office of 
the late Judge Purviance. In 1829, he was admitted to the bar. 
and began the practice of the profession, to which he continued to 
devote himself with increasing reputation and success, until his ele- 
vation to the bench in 1853. During the whole of his professional 
life and since, Judge Giles's residence has been in Baltimore city. 

In 1837, being then thirty years of age, he was nominated for the 
Legislature by the Democratic party, to whose principles he has 
always been attached, and was elected a member of the House of 
Delegates from Baltimore city; leading the entire party ticket. 
After serving one term in that body, Mr. Giles declined the renomi- 
nation which was tendered him, preferring to devote himself to the 
practice of his profession ; but his party having been defeated the 
following year, in 1839, he was prevailed upon to accept a second 
nomination for the Legislature, and was again triumphantly elected. 
He could not be induced, however, to become a candidate a third 
time, although the nomination was again pressed upon him. It 
was impossible, however, for Mr. Giles to withdraw himself alto- 
gether from political life. He was a sincere and earnest Democrat, 
interested in the success of Democratic principles, which he believed 



280 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

to be those of the Constitution, and his character and abilities, as 
well as his previous services in the Legislature, caused him to be 
recognized as one of the leaders of his party in this State. Conse- 
quently, in 1845, he received the Democratic nomination for Con- 
gress in Baltimore city, and was elected in a district thought to be 
strongly Whig ; and under circumstances which made his success 
extremely flattering. His Whig competitor on this occasion was 
John P. Kennedy, the accomplished author of " Horseshoe Robin- 
son," and "Swallow Barn," as well as of the "Life of William 
Wirt," and who was afterwards Secretary of the JSTavy under the 
administration of President Fillmore. After serving his full term 
in the House of Representatives, at Washington, Mr. Giles declined 
a renomination, and returned to his practice. He continued, how- 
ever, to take an active interest in the politics of the country and of 
the State until July, 1853, when, upon the death of Judge Glenn, 
he was appointed by President Pierce, Judge of the District Court 
of the United States, which office he now holds. From the. time of 
his appointment and entrance upon his judicial duties, Judge Giles 
has scrupulously refrained from taking an active part in politics, or 
even from attending political meetings. It is his opinion that in 
such matters, as in every relation of life, which may by any possi- 
bility be supposed to affect his impartiality, or expose him to any 
imputation of unfairness, a judge should not only be free from 
blame, but above suspicion; and his practice has been strictly in 
accord with the rigid rule he has laid down for himself in this 
respect. The example is one which it would be well for all who 
occupy judicial stations to imitate. 

Judge Giles was for more than thirty 3 T ears an officer of the 
Maryland State Colonization Society, and for more than twenty 
years one of the Commissioners of the State of Maryland for remov- 
ing its free people of color, such of them as chose to go, with their 
own free consent, to Liberia. He was in fact an early, as he has 
been a constant friend of the colored race, sympathizing with them 
in their efforts for self-improvement, and ready to contribute in any 
useful and practical way to the amelioration of their social and 
political condition. Inheriting, perhaps, some of the peculiar views 
of his Quaker ancestors, in regard to the institution of slavery, he 
never owned a slave. While respecting the opinions (as well as the 
rights) of others upon this subject, he did not hesitate to express 
his own sentiments in an address which lie wrote and published in 
behalf of the Colonization cause as early as 1835. He then said, 
speaking of the dangers which were inseparable from the continued 



WILLIAM FELL GILES. 281 

existence of slavery, in language which at this day seems almost 
prophetic: " Look abroad over the face of your land, and say, is 
there no cloud in the heavens? Is there nothing that tells you that 
danger is nigh, and that there is an evil within your borders which 
must be removed? Can any one contemplate the scenes which have 
lately taken place in Mississippi, and witness the feeling that per- 
vades the South, without being convinced that slavery is a great 
curse, and that every one who loves his country should do some- 
thing to lessen its burden while it hangs over us, and fervently 
hope that the day may come when it will no longer rest upon the 
land ?" 

It may be observed that views similar to those here expressed by 
Judge Giles were not uncommon among the public men of the 
South at that day, and that in Maryland and Virginia, particularly 
after the horrors of the Southampton massacre and the Xat Turner 
insurrection in the latter State, there was a very strong feeling in 
favor of the policy of gradual emancipation, especially in connection 
with the scheme of African colonization. That which changed the 
current of popular thought and feeling at the South, and converted 
many of the emancipationists of 1835 into strong pro-slavery men, 
was doubtless the intemperate zeal, the extreme opinions and still 
more the revolutionary conduct of the fanatics at the Xorth. 

Besides the address from which we have just quoted, Judge Giles 
was the author of many other published addresses and discourses on 
various public occasions, which are replete with sound and patriotic 
sentiments, and passages of striking force and eloquence. His 
speeches in the House of Representatives, in the session of 1845-47, 
on the Oregon question, the Wilmot proviso, and the Loan bill, 
attracted much attention at the time they were delivered ; as did, 
also, his subsequent addresses to his fellow citizens of Baltimore 
upon the occasion of the passage of the Compromise measures of 
1850. In 1840, Judge Giles delivered the Fourth of July oration 
at Fairmount, and in May, 1856, he was selected to pronounce the 
address of welcome in the name and behalf of the citizens of Balti- 
more, without distinction of party, to President Buchanan, on the 
occasion of his public reception in this city. He also delivered the 
address at the dedication of the Odd Fellows' Hall in Washington 
city, May 25th, 1846, being then a Past Grand of the order. His 
lecture on the " Hungarian Revolution," before the Maryland Insti- 
tute, in 1851, helped to awaken a spirit of sympathy in this com- 
munity for a gallant and struggling people. In 1866, Judge Giles 
delivered, by invitation, the annual address before the Maryland 



282 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

Historical Society, in which, after reviewing in a spirit of honest 
and natural State pride, the Colonial and Revolutionary history of 
Maryland, and counting the roll of her departed heroes, he paid an 
eloquent tribute to the memory and services of Col. John Eager 
Howard, one of the foremost, of that band of heroes, and of whose 
life and character he gave an interesting sketch. It is to be re- 
gretted that the limits of an article like the present do not admit of 
an extract, even, from another address of Judge Giles, which was 
delivered in 1854, at the Commencement of the Baltimore High 
School, and which is full of sound and useful advice to young men 
just setting out in life, and for which class his remarks were spe- 
cially intended. 

Judge Giles has been upon the bench of the United States District 
Court for seventeen years. During the greater portion of that time, 
owing to the infirm health of the late lamented Chief Justice Taney, 
and the unavoidable absence of Chief Justice Chase, Judge Giles 
has sat alone as Judge of the Circuit Court, also, and performed all 
the arduous duties and labors of both positions. Latterly, with the 
gradual increase of business in the Federal courts, ami especially 
since the passage of the Bankrupt Law, these duties have been 
exceedingly onerous. It is to the great credit of Judge Giles, that 
he has been able to discharge them all, expeditiously, carefully, 
faithfully, and to the entire satisfaction of the profession and of the 
community. Of course, the Judge's life has been necessarily a very 
laborious one, but his industry and perseverance have been equal to 
every emergenc} T . Many important questions have necessarily come 
before him. Important admiralty and patent cases, and cases 
frequently of first impression, presenting questions entirely new, 
arising under the acts of Congress, both of a civil and criminal 
nature, have been adjudicated in his Court, and his decisions are 
always received with the greatest respect, and have been as seldom 
reversed, perhaps, as those of any District or Circuit Judge of the 
United States. During his long service on the bench, there have 
been forty-eight appeals from his decisions taken up to the Supreme 
Court. That Court has affirmed him in thirty-five cases ; reversed 
him in ten cases, and three appeals were dismissed by the parties 
themselves. His opinions, which are orally delivered, are rarely 
written out, and it is to be regretted that they have not been 
reported and preserved for the guidance and instruction of the 
profession and of legal students. 

The purity of the private life and character of Judge Giles has 
added dignity as well as usefulness to the position which he holds. 



WILLIAM FELL GILES. 283 

It is very difficult for a bad man to be a good judge, and tbe admin- 
istration of justice in the tribunal over which Judge Giles presides 
enjoys the advantages of all the weight and authority which attach 
to the possession of an unspotted character and name. 

The Judge is and has been for many years an Elder in the Presby- 
terian Church, having first been chosen to that position in the Second 
Presbyterian Church, of which he became a member when the Rev. 
Robert J. Breckinridge was its pastor. He remained connected 
with that society until 1861, when he became attached to the 
Franklin Street Church, of which he was also chosen an Elder. 

Judge Giles has been twice married ; first, in 1831, to Miss Sarah 
Wilson, daughter of John "Wilson, of Baltimore city ; subsequently, 
in 1847, to Miss Catharine Donaldson, daughter of Dr. William 
Donaldson. He has living four children — three sons and a daugh- 
ter. His eldest son, William F. Giles, Jr., is a member of the Balti- 
more Bar, and for several years resided abroad as United States 
Consul at Geneva, to which position he was appointed by President 
Buchanan. 



ROBERT GILMOR 



An unusual number of merchants of remarkable energy seem to 
have been attracted to Baltimore, whilst as A T et it was a place com- 
paratively insignificant in size. The name of Robert Gilmor occurs 
among them as deserving of mention. He was born in the town of 
Paisley, Scotland, on the 10th November, 1748. He was taken into 
business with his father, Gavin Gilmor, at that place, when a very 
young man, and being desirous of visiting the Colonies of America, 
came out in one of the tobacco ships annually trading to this 
country, sailing from Glasgow on the 24th July, 1767, and arriving 
at Oxford, in Talbot county, in the month of September following, 
bringing with him a shipment of merchandise such as he supposed 
would be adapted to the wants of the place of his destination. 

The following year he chartered a vessel and returned, stopping 
on the voyage at Fayal, and making there some valuable friends. 
In 1769, he returned to America, landing at Benedict, on the 
Patuxent river. For a number of years he here pursued a profit- 
able business, and married the daughter of the Rev. Thomas Airy, 
of Dorchester county, Maryland, but the war of the Revolution 
occurring, he took a decided part with the country of his adoption, 
not, however, going into the regular army, but serving with the 
militia of the county (St. Mary). Two young gentlemen living with 
him as clerks at the time, Mr. John Eccleston and Mr. John Gale, 
went into the regular service and distinguished themselves. 

In December, 1778, he determined to remove to Baltimore, then 
a small but thriving town, and not long afterwards having con- 
siderable transactions with the celebrated house of Samuel Inglis 
& Co., of Philadelphia, in which Mr. Robert Morris (the well-known 
financier of Congress) and Mr. Thomas Willing, both signers of the 
Declaration of Independence, were partners, a mutual confidence 
and friendly feeling' growing up between them and the son-in-law 
of Mr. Willing, Mr. William Bingham (whose career was also one 
of extraordinary success,) and Mr. Gilmor, a copartnership was the 



286 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

result ; the purpose of whichwas the transaction of the American 
business at Amsterdam, in Holland. The firm was formed under 
the name of "Bingham, Inglis & Gilmor." The latter was to reside 
abroad and have the active conduct of the business. Accordingly, 
on the 27th November, 1782, Robert Gilmor embarked for the place 
thus selected for the operations of this concern, and soon after 
reached it with his family. Starting under very favorable auspices, 
in this association he met with gratifying success, and made mer- 
cantile connections of the highest character in all parts of Europe. 
Eighteen months later, however, the death of Mr. Inglis brought 
the prosperous career thus inaugurated to a sudden close. 

Mr. Gilmor declined an offer from Messrs. Morris & Willing for 
a renewal of the copartnership with them, but accepted a similar 
proposal from William Bingham, and articles of copartnership be- 
tween him and the latter were signed in London in the month of 
February, 1784. The style of this firm was Robert Gilmor & Co., 
and the place fixed for the transaction of its business was Balti- 
more. One of the ships of this firm, the brig Ann, Captain Skinner, 
was sent in that year to St. Petersburg for Russia goods, with 
which she arrived in America the same year ; she was immediately 
dispatched to Batavia, and in both places she was the first vessel 
that ever displayed the American stripes. The active member in 
the last formed connection, Mr. Gilmor, again returned to Balti- 
more, and made it thenceforward his permanent home. Thereafter 
he became largely engaged in foreign commerce, principally de- 
voting his attention to the East India trade, of which he may be 
considered the founder in this country. In this trade he was joined 
by the prominent Philadelphia house of Mordecai Lewis & Co. 
From it he derived an extensive fortune, and he continued in it 
until finally when it was overdone by the number of vessels fitted 
out from the Northern ports, and the market inundated with this 
description of goods from Boston and Salem. 

In 1799, after lasting for fifteen years, his copartnership with Mr. 
Bingham was closed, and he took into business with him his two 
sons, Robert and William, under the firm of "Robert Gilmor & 
Sons," a house which, for the period of some fifty years, ranked 
with those of the highest standing and respectability here and 
abroad. 

Mr. Gilmor died in January, 1822. He had no inclination for 
public situations, but was nevertheless called on to fill many im- 
portant and influential positions. 



ROBERT GIL M OR. 287 

It was mainly through his exertions, acting in conjunction with 
Mr. Patterson and a few other enterprising merchants of that day 
in Baltimore, that the first Bank in Baltimore received its origin. 
The Bank of Maryland obtained its charter in 1790, and was the 
first institution of the sort chartered south of Philadelphia. 

In 1797, Baltimore was raised to the rank of a city by the Legis- 
lature of the State, and under the first charter election Mr. Gilmor 
was chosen a member of the Second Branch of the City Council, 
and by the members of that body made President, which office he 
continued to occupy for several terms, assisting materially in or- 
ganizing the city government, and in framing many of the early 
ordinances. 

He was one of the Committee of Merchants of Baltimore, who, 
when the French Directory in 1797 refused to treat with our Com- 
missioners, Marshal Gerry and Pinckney, and Congress authorized 
the capture of vessels belonging to French citizens, offered to fur- 
nish two sloops of war for the use of the Government, and was 
made Chairman of the Committee which fitted them out. 

In 1807, a company was formed to carry on the trade between 
India and China, and Baltimore, and from his superior experience in 
this branch of commerce, Mr. Gilmor was appointed President. 

In 1821, a Chamber of Commerce was established, and of this, he 
was called to be the President, a position to which he was unani- 
mously re-elected, and, we believe, held at the time of his death, at 
the venerable age of seventy-three years. 

The community, and a large circle of immediate friends in Avhich 
he moved, entertained an exalted opinion of his worth and benevo- 
lence in the use of the ample fortune he accumulated, and the 
expressions which his death elicited evidence a remarkably high 
appreciation of his ability as a merchant. The following quotation 
is from a letter written by Mr. Alexander Baring, of the house of 
Baring Brothers, the English bankers, afterward Lord Ashburton, 
to Robert Gilmor, the son of the subject of this notice. 

" I had before learnt the loss of my old and excellent friend, your 
worthy father, which I can assure you gave us all sincere concern. 
I can well conceive what a loss he must have been to his family ; 
as a friend, I owe him great obligations; and as a merchant, 
although I have seen and dealt with a great many, I never knew 
his superior, if his equal." 

After his death, the house of Gilmor converted its business into 
that of Bankers, and its reputation was fully maintained by the son 



288 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

of the gentleman of whom we have been speaking, also bearing his 
name. Mr. Robert Gilmor, the son, died at Baltimore in 1849. He 
was a gentleman of very affluent fortune and of refined culture, who 
had moved in the most elevated circles, and had accumulated 
extensive treasures in literature and art, many of them of peculiar 
interest and value. 





2— 




JOHN S. GITTINGS. 



Xorth of the city of Baltimore, and about fifteen miles distant, 
in that beautiful valley known as Long Green, some of the earlier 
immigrants to Maryland, in search of a rich soil and peaceful skies, 
settled with their families. Many of their homesteads remain to 
this day, in possession of their descendants, hallowed by association 
and endeared by domestic ties ; while, in the eye of the stranger 
passing that way, long, low roofs and quaint old gables rise up, 
here and there, in the midst of more modern improvements — his- 
toric relics, marking the line between the proud present and the 
simpler past. Among the first drawn to this spot was Thomas 
Gittings, the great-grandfather of John S. Gittings. He came to 
Maryland about the year 1084 ; and in 1720 obtained patents for a 
large tract of land in the valley, under the then name of Gittings' 
Choice — now known as the Long Green Farm. Here he lived and 
died ; devising his estate to his son James. The mother of James 
was of the Webster family, of Harford county. James Gittings 
married the daughter of Dr. George Buchanan, "one of the founders 
of Baltimore." The wife of Dr. George Buchanan was Eleanor 
Rogers. Dr. Buchanan was the proprietor of Druid Hill, now 
Druid Hill Park. He was the father of General Andrew Bu- 
chanan, the Lieutenant of the county during the Revolution, and 
afterwards Chief Judge of the Court ; also of William Buchanan, 
one of the first Registers of Wills of Baltimore county and 
city ; grandfather of James M. Buchanan, late United States 
Minister to Denmark ; and great-grandfather of Admiral Franklin 
Buchanan. James Gittings, junior, the father of John S., married 
Harriet Sterrett, daughter of John Sterrett, whose wife was 
Deborah Ridgely, daughter of John Ridgely, which latter gentle- 
man was the eldest son of the original proprietor of " Hampton," in 
Baltimore county. John Ridgely married a daughter of Colonel 
Edward Dorsey, of Elkridge. James Gittings, senior, and John 
Sterrett, were zealous and active during the Revolution ; they were 



290 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

members of the General Assembly of Maryland, at a time when tlie 
principal citizens were selected for the public service. 

John Sterrett Gittings, the prominent living representative of 
the family of his name in Maryland, was born at Long Green in 
the house where his grandfather and father were born ; and he is 
now the owner of the estate. Standing upon the old threshold, 
worn by the feet of three generations of his family, with the graves 
of many of them in view, the crowding memories that there over- 
whelm him, come with no murmuring voices out of the past, 
charging degeneracy as a descendant and son. True to the dictates 
of a high nature, ever responsive in breasts from which pride is not 
flown, to the just wishes of those who see not, nor hear — yet, speak 
down the years with an unmistakable emphasis, he has withheld 
the home of his forefathers from the hand of the stranger. Thus, 
in the winter of life of one other of the race, fast hastening to join 
the band gone before, no ghosts of the departed bemoan, in that 
beautiful valley, the homestead and hearthstone deserted. 

The childhood of John S. Gittings was passed at Long Green; 
and the rudiments of his education he there acquired at a mother's 
knee. He further pursued his studies at Dickinson College, Penn- 
sylvania. At the age of sixteen he left college, to enter the 
counting house of James A. Buchanan. At seventeen he was 
made discount clerk in the City Bank. In the spring of 1820 his 
father died, and he was recalled to the country, to take charge of 
his father's estate. In 1821, he married Eleanor Addison Smith, 
daughter of William Rogers Smith, and granddaughter of Cumber- 
land Dugan by his first wife, who was a Miss May, of Roxbury, 
Massachusetts. In the same year (1821) Mr. Gittings commenced 
business in Baltimore as a stock broker. In 1835 he was elected 
President of the Chesapeake Bank. In 1836 he was appointed 
Commissioner of the Loans for the State of Maryland, which office 
he filled until removed through a change in the State's administra- 
tion. He was reinstated under Democratic rule, but again removed 
under a Republican administration. For many years Mr. Gittings 
was a member of the City Council of Baltimore, during which 
time he was chairman of the Finance Committee. He was elected 
by the City, and also appointed by the State, a Director in the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company, during the presidency of 
Mr. William G. Harrison, and was chairman of the Finance Com- 
mittee. Mr. Gittings for two years was President of the Northern 
Central Railroad. When Hie State of Maryland was divided into 
four Judicial Districts, he was elected Commissioner of Public 



JOHN S . G I T T I X G S. 291 

Works. In the Democratic State Convention which nominated E. 
Louis Lowe for Governor, Mr. Gittings's name was presented as the 
choice of Baltimore county. 

In 1848 Mr. Gittings lost his wife, who left two children, Eleanor 
Addison, who married George II. Williams, a prominent member of 
of the bar of Maryland ; and William S. Gittings who died several 
years since, leaving two children, a son and a daughter. 

In Xovember, 1853, Mr. Gittings married Charlotte Carter Rit- 
chie, daughter of the venerable and distinguished Thomas Ritchie, 
and granddaughter of Dr. Fouche of Richmond. 

In the business world Mr. Gittings is eminent as a banker. He 
is now President of the Chesapeake Bank, a position which he has 
filled successfully and uninterruptedly, with the confidence of the 
public, for thirty-five years. In point of individual wealth he ranks 
with millionaires. As a business man, he is a model. Discipline, 
fixed, severe, is the basis of his business course. Prompt and 
methodical himself, he requires an unremitting exercise of the like 
qualities in those about him, so that the machinery of which he is 
master and main-spring, moves with the precision of the stroke of 
time. In all strictly business transactions, his rule is — payment for 
value received — equivalent for equivalent — dollar for dollar ; and to 
the uttermost farthing he stands by the spirit and letter of con- 
tract ; where differences arise, and other means fail, he invites to 
the courts of law and abides their decisions. In the world he is of 
the world, and facing its face, he looks out with the eyes, and wears 
the armor of a Girard and a Peabody. Just, he observes the prime 
law ; true to himself, he is an example to others. 

In that more sacred world — the domestic circle — where is cast 
the needless outer armor off, he stands revealed iu all the strength 
and devotedness of connubial and parental affection — in the pride 
of fatherly care — in undiminished solicitude, yet satisfaction — the 
faithful sentinel off guard, within the citadel of heart and home. 



ROBERT GOODLOE HARPER. 



Eobert Goodloe Harper was born near Fredericksburg, Virginia, 
in 1765. His parents were poor, having much to struggle with, 
and his prospects at the outset of life were anything but flattering. 
During his childhood the family removed to Granville, North 
Carolina. The war of the Revolution desolated the South, and the 
Carolinas were terribly harassed with the presence of the enemy and 
Tory partisans. Young Harper had only entered on his fifteenth 
year when he joined a troop of horse, and under General Greene 
served in the latter part of the Southern campaign. His military 
training, however, did not extinguish in him the love of learning, 
and he made every exertion to profit by the limited advantages he 
had. With diligence and perseverance he qualified for college, and 
in 1785 he graduated at Princeton. While there he acted for a 
time as tutor to lower classes than his own. After leaving college, 
he proceeded to Philadelphia in search of some congenial occupa- 
tion, but finding little encouragement there he sailed for Charleston, 
South Carolina, and arrived at his destination almost penniless. 
As he was standing upon the pier uncertain of the future, he was 
accosted by a person who inquired his name, and on learning it 
spoke of his own son, who having been at Princeton, had known 
Harper there. This person, who proved to be a tavern-keeper, 
learning of Harper's needy circumstances, kindly provided for his 
wants, and finding that his predilection was for legal studies, intro- 
duced him to a lawyer. 

Harper now applied himself with great diligence to his studies, 
and in one year was prepared to practice in the courts. He 
removed into the interior of the State, and soon began to attract 
attention as an able and clear headed lawyer. He also busily 
employed his pen, and wrote many vigorous articles for the news- 
papers on political subjects, chiefly in regard to the change of the 
State Constitution. He was elected to the Legislature of South 
Carolina, and in 1794 to the National House of Representatives, 
serving with distinction until 1801. He was regarded as one of the 
20 



294 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

leaders of the Federal party, and vigorously supported the adminis- 
trations of Washington and Adams. In 1801 he retired from 
Congress. He married Catherine, daughter of Charles Carroll, of 
Carrollton, and removed to Baltimore. He came to this city with 
a distinguished reputation, and he shone conspicuously at the bar of 
Baltimore, at the period of its greatest brilliancy, when beside him- 
self it was graced by William H. Winder, Luther Martin, Roger B. 
Taney, William Wirt, and William Pinkney. He was employed as 
counsel for Judge Samuel Chase in his famous trial of impeachment, 
in connection with J. Hopkinson and Luther Martin. He partici- 
pated in the defence of Baltimore against the attack of the British 
in 1814, and during the war attained the rank of Major General. 
In 1815, he was elected to the United States Senate, and took an 
able and active part in the debates. In 1819-20 he visited Europe 
with his family. His own reputation and the celebrity of his 
father-in-law gave him ready access to the most illustrious society 
of the continent. He returned to Baltimore, resuming the practice 
of his profession, and taking a very active interest in the Maryland 
Colonization Society. He died very suddenly on the 14th of Janu- 
ary, 1825. He had only the day before argued a case in court for 
three hours with his usual ability, and gave no sign of the slightest 
indisposition up to the very moment of his death. He attended a 
large party the evening before his decease, and appeared in most 
lively spirits. The succeeding morning after breakfast, while 
standing before the fire and reading a newspaper, he fell and 
instantly expired. General Harper's mind was of singular clearness, 
and his power of statement was considered almost unequalled. His 
private virtues endeared him to a wide circle of friends, and his 
public services rendered him an honor to the State and to the 
nation. 



PETER HOFFMAN & SONS. 



The City of Baltimore lias been greatly indebted to many German 
merchants who have settled here at various periods. Trained at 
home in systematic habits of industry, and skilled in all the minutiae 
of the counting-house, many of them have become eminent in their 
new field of labor, and have left enduring monuments of their 
mercantile ability and liberal public spirit. Among these merchants 
Peter Hoffman, Senior, the founder of the house of Peter Hoffman 
& Sons, and the first of his family who settled in Maryland, deserves 
honorable mention. He was born in 1742, near Frankfort-on-the- 
Main, and came to America when quite a young man. He pur- 
chased a farm near Frederick, Maryland, which he sold in 1776, for 
the sum of thirty thousand dollars, and removed with his family to 
Baltimore. His family eventually became a large one, consisting of 
eight sons and four daughters. His sons were Jacob, Jeremiah, 
A\ 'illiam, Peter, George, John, Samuel and David. All of them 
became active and prosperous merchants, with the exception of 
David, the youngest son. He adopted the profession of law, in 
which he acquired reputation; but is more widely known as an 
author. Beside various lectures on legal subjects, he published 
several literary works, one of them being, " Viator, or a Peep into 
my Xote-books ;" issued in Baltimore, in 1841. His most extensive 
work, however, is entitled " Chronicles selected from the originals of 
Cartaphilus, the Wandering Jew; embracing a period of nearly nine- 
teen centuries;"' published in Loudon, 1853-54, in three large octavo 
volumes. These " Chronicles" display wide research and much pro- 
found learning. 

Another one of the family was also distinguished as a man of 
letters, Peter Hoffman Cruse. He, with his friend the late John P. 
Kennedy, published in 1828, " The Red Book," a series of essays, 
giving great promise of future eminence. He was, however, cut off 
in the flower of his age, being one of the earliest victims of the 
Asiatic cholera, during its first visit to this city in 1832. 

Returning to Peter Hoffman, Senior, he soon established himself 



296 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

in Baltimore as a dry goods merchant, and in due time formed the 
mercantile firm of Peter Hoffman & Sons. He, as the head of the 
house, was joined by his sons John, George and Peter, Jr., in Balti- 
more, while William and Jeremiah became residents of London, 
where for many years they carried on business as American com- 
mission merchants. Peter, Senior, lived in Calvert street, south of 
Baltimore street, but afterwards built two houses on Baltimore 
street, one for a dwelling, the other for a store. The white marble 
store of Messrs. Hamilton Easter & Sons now occupies the site of 
these buildings. Mr. Hoffman was one of the selectmen of " Balti- 
more-Town," before the adoption of the city government, and was 
much interested in the various improvements of the town as well as 
in its early charitable institutions, of which he was a promoter and 
director Among the projects which he labored to effect must be 
mentioned the City Spring, in Calvert street, adjoining Saratoga. 
He was instrumental in building and laying out this spot, which 
although now somewhat shorn of its attractions from the removal 
of the Gothic building, with its niche enclosing the Armistead 
Monument, for very many years was considered one of the orna- 
ments of the city, and was the resort of the best classes of our 
citizens. Mr. Hoffman died in 1809, and was buried in the grave 
yard attached to the old Otterbine German Church, leaving an ex- 
cellent reputation as an upright merchant and Christian man. His 
eldest son Jacob, was for a time a sugar refiner in Alexandria, 
Virginia, but subsequently retired to a farm in Loudoun county, 
where he passed the remainder of his life. 

John Hoffman retired from a successful business about the year 
1820. He lived in Hanover street, between German and Lombard 
streets. This locality is now wholly occupied by large warehouses, 
but half a century ago contained some of the best residences ia the 
city. He built several warehouses on Charles street, between the 
two just named, and four on Lombard street, between Uhler's alley 
and Hanover street, which were afterwards sold to John Eager 
Howard, who converted them into the present " New Assembly 
liooms." Mr. Hoffman died in 1837. He was much esteemed for 
his generosity of disposition, and for his lively humor. 

His brother George being also prosperous retired about the same 
time, 1820. He was prominent as a promoter of many of the lead- 
ing enterprises of the city, and was a man of uncommon business 
sagacity. He was one of the Baltimore Directors of the Bank of 
the United States, in Philadelphia, and was one of the original 
friends, organizers and directors, for many years, of the Baltimore 



PETER HOFFMAN & S N S . 2 ( J7 

and Ohio Railroad. He lived and died in the house on the corner 
of Franklin and Cathedral streets, now occupied by the Maryland 
Club. The grounds attached to this fine mansion were beautiful 
and very extensive, there being for many years only one other 
house that of the late Dr. Thomas Edmoudson, Jr., between them 
and the Unitarian Church. The main building of the Maryland 
Club fronting on Franklin street, is very much as Mr. Hoffman left 
it, and its interior especially is a remarkably beautiful specimen of 
domestic architecture. 

Peter, Jr., after conducting, under his own name, a successful dry 
goods business, retired about the same time with his brothers, in 
1821. He was one of the incorporators and trustees of the Balti- 
more Orphan Asylum, was a vestryman of St. Paul's Church, and 
actively connected with nearly all the public charities of the city, 
while his many good deeds in private have otherwise endeared his 
memory. He, in connection with his son Samuel Owings Hoffman, 
built the present " Law Buildings" on the corner of St. Paul and 
Lexington streets: and on the site of the first Athenaeum, which 
was totally destroyed by fire in February, 1835 ; such being the 
intense severity of the weather that the water froze in the hose of 
the lire companies, and rendered unavailing all efforts to save the 
building from the flames. Mr. Hoffman died in 1837, in his house 
on the corner of St. Paul street, opposite to the Law Buildings. 
This house still remains, but is no longer a private residence, having 
been converted into offices. 

Jeremiah Hoffman, who, with his brother William, had long re- 
sided in London where they enjoyed the reputation of a leading 
American house, returned to this country and to his native city in 
1825. William also returned, and died unmarried in 1828. Jere- 
miah bought the house at " Chatsworth" as the neighborhood was 
called, and near the intersection of Franklin and Chatsworth streets. 
The dwelling house a very elegant and substantial structure, fronts 
on Franklin street, with extensive grounds attached, the property 
now being in the possession of Daniel B. Banks. From Mr. 
Hoff mau's long residence abroad, his tastes were decidedly English, 
and during his life these grounds were always kept in the most 
excpiisite order, and were laid out in a truly elegant manner. He 
died in 1844. 

Samuel Hoffman, for some time carried on the dry goods business 
in Philadelphia, but eventually formed a connection with his nephew, 
Samuel Owings, son of Peter Hoffman, Jr., and conducted a dry 
goods jobbing house in Baltimore, under the firm of S. & S. 0. 



298 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

Hoffman. Soon after establishing this copartnership, such opportu- 
nities in the auction business presented, that they availed themselves 
of them and formed the auction house of Hoffman & Co., and occu- 
pied the large warehouse on Charles street, formerly used by George 
& John Hoffman, and now owned by Mr. James S. Waters, and 
fitted up as his book store, the upper floors being employed by Bry- 
ant, Stratton & Co.'s Commercial College. Samuel Hoffman took 
very high rank as a merchant, and his nephew, Samuel Owings, was 
also an excellent business man ; while both were noted for genial 
manners and hospitality, and Mr. S. O. Hoffman possessed a highly 
cultivated mind and fine taste in art. 

S. Owings Hoffman represented the City of Baltimore as Senator 
in the State Legislature. 

Samuel was for many years a Director in the Baltimore Branch of 
the Bank of the United States, and in the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
road, of which, together with his brother George, he was one of the 
original corporators. In the great financial crisis of 1837, when 
terror and disasters pervaded all commercial circles, they stepped 
manfully forward in aid of the dry goods jobbing houses, not only 
with all their public influence, but also with their private means, 
rendering assistance to many in need. Some years afterward, in 
recognition of his services, he, as the head of the firm and financier, 
was presented by a number of the leading merchants of Baltimore, 
with an elegant piece of silver plate. He retired from active 
business in 1842, and died in 1852, in the house which he had built 
nearly twenty years before, opposite to the Unitarian Church, in 
Franklin street. Samuel Owings built the large house on the north- 
west corner of Madison and Charles streets, and there died in 1861. 

All of the children of Peter Hoffman, Sr., have passed away, pre- 
senting the uncommon circumstance of seven of the sons attaining 
w r ealth and distinction as merchants, and contributing materially to 
the commercial eminence and prosperity of Baltimore. 



JOHNS HOPKINS. 



Johns Hopkins was born in Anne Arundel county, Maryland, on 
May 19th, 1795. He was the son of Samuel Hopkins, of Anne 
Arundel comity, and of Hannah Janney Hopkins, of Loudoun 
comity, in the State of Virginia, 

Samuel Hopkins, his father, was descended from an English 
Quaker family of respectability and substance. Soon after the 
colonization of Maryland, six brothers of that family determined 
to emigrate to America, On reaching this country, two of these 
brothers agreed to make their home in New England, and four, 
journeying to Maryland, selected large tracts of land, situated on 
Deer Creek, in Harford county, Maryland, in Baltimore county, 
near Govanstown, and at the head of South River, in Anne Arun- 
del county, Maryland. 

Many of the descendants of the two brothers who settled in New 
England reside in the State of Rhode Island, and are persons of 
well-known character, wealth and influence. The descendants of 
the four brothers who made their home in Maryland are yet more 
numerous. The members of the family have, in successive genera- 
tions, with few exceptions, adhered to the Society of Friends. 

Johns Hopkins, the grandfather of the gentleman who is the sub- 
ject of this notice, was the descendant of that one of the brothers, 
emigrating from England, who established his home upon South 
River, in Anne Arundel comity. He inherited the considerable 
landed estate acquired by his ancestor in that neighborhood, and 
cultivated his property with the aid of some hundred negroes, of 
whom he became possessed by bequest from his parents and by mar- 
riage. He had eleven children. At that period slave labor was 
essential to profitable farming in the colony, and the industry and 
enterprise of Mr. Hopkins were taxed by the necessity of providing 
for the support of so large a family. But doubts arose in his mind 
as to the rightfulness of keeping negroes in bondage ; and he, there- 
fore, gave freedom to all his slaves, cultivating his estate afterwards 



300 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

by his own labor, aided by the toil of his sons and by such free labor 
as could then be procured. 

His son, Samuel Hopkins, was much beloved for his popular and 
social manners. He married in early life Hannah Janney, a lady 
belonging to a wealthy and highly respected family, which had long 
been established in the valley of Virginia, where many descended 
from it yet remain. She was a woman of great intelligence and 
force of character, and exercised marked influence not only in the 
social circle by which she was surrounded, but also in the general 
Society of Friends, of which she was a member. 

Soon after his father's death, Samuel Hopkins became, by pur- 
chase from the other children, the sole owner of the property on 
which his father had resided, and, in his turn, cultivated the estate 
with the assistance of his sons. 

In 1812, however, Johns Hopkins, the subject of this notice, who 
was one of these sons, being then in the eighteenth year of his age, 
showed a strong disposition to engage in mercantile life, and was, 
therefore, allowed to enter the counting room of Gerard T. Hopkins, 
his uncle, who was then conducting a wholesale grocery business in 
the city of Baltimore. Johns Hopkins brought to this new occupa- 
tion the habits of industry and intelligent observation, which he had 
developed upon his father's farm, and entered upon its duties with 
an energy to which his former life had given no outlet. He 
acquired rapidly a knowledge of all the details of the branch of 
trade in which he was engaged, and, in 1819, with the consent of 
his uncle, formed a partnership with Benjamin P. Moore, for the 
purpose of carrying on the wholesale grocery business, under the 
name of Hopkins & Moore. 

The new firm had no money capital whatever. It began business, 
upon the credit which the energy of Johns Hopkins had already 
created, and with no other assured aid, except certain endorsements, 
for purchases of merchandise, with which Gerard T. Hopkins obliged 
the firm. In 1822, the partnership was dissolved ; and Johns 
Hopkins, confident in his individual resources, called to his aid two 
younger brothers, both under age, gave them an interest in his 
business, and inaugurated a new firm under the style of Hopkins & 
Brothers. 

The business of this house was rapidly developed by the great 
personal energy of the senior and principal partner. Its trade with 
the valley of Virginia, where Mr. Hopkins had, as has been said, 
many family connections, was very large, and it rapidly extended 



JOHNS HOPKINS. 301 

through other parts of the State of Virginia, and into adjoining 
States. 

Mr. Hopkins remained connected with this firm for twenty-five 
years. During all this period, which was marked by many periods 
of general financial embarrassment, the house of Hopkins & Brothers 
maintained the highest credit. His means had rapidly increased, 
and the business proved capable of producing even greater results; 
but he determined to lessen the amount of personal labor, devolving 
upon him, and after the active toil of a quarter of a century, relin- 
quished the business to his brothers and to two of his clerks. 

He did not, however, abandon his interest in commercial affairs. 
After the resignation of the late James Swan, who had for many 
years filled with credit the office of President of the Merchants 
Bank of Baltimore, Mr. Hopkins was elected his successor, and has 
ever since discharged the duties of that office, with great ability and 
energy. He has been always a close observer of the conduct, char- 
acter and intelligence of the young men, who were entering business 
life in the city of Baltimore, and he has, uniformly, exercised his 
power, as a bank officer, in such manner as to extend assistance to 
those, who, by their diligence, good sense and integrity, attracted 
his attention and esteem, even in cases where he had no personal 
acquaintance with them. It is well known indeed, that many 
young merchants, to whom liberal discounts were extended, during 
periods of commercial embarrassment, have learned for the first 
time, when their obligations were paid at bank, that they were 
indebted for the discounts, which they had received, to the volun- 
tary and unsolicited endorsement of their paper by Johns Hopkins 
himself, acting as a member of the Board, to which it had been 
submitted for consideration. 

Mr. Hopkins had been, from an early period in its history, a close 
observer of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. He knew thoroughly 
the resources of the country through which it was proposed to 
construct it, and was deeply interested in promoting the progress 
of the work, first to the coal fields of the Alleghany region, and then 
to the Ohio river. In the year 1847, being already holder of a large 
amount of the stock of the Company, he was induced to become a 
Director, and thenceforth took an active part in its management. 
In December, 1855, he was appointed Chairman of the Finance 
Committee of the Company, and he has continued to perform the 
duties of that important office until the present time, contributing 
greatly to the success of the Company, by his firmness, sagacity and 
self-devotion to its interests. 



302 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

It will be remembered, hereafter, to his great honor, that when, 
prior to 1857, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company, embar- 
rassed by the monetary difficulties of the country, and by internal 
dissensions, was unable to provide, in due season, for the heavy obli- 
gations imposed upon it by the extension of the road, Mr. Hopkins 
came voluntarily forward, and, by endorsing the notes of the Com- 
pany, to a very large amount, pledged his private fortune to its 
support, and thus greatly contributed to the maintenance of the 
credit of the Company, and ensured the completion and perfect 
success of the road. 

Mr. Hopkins has added, year by year, to his ownership of the 
stock of the Company, and is now possessed of more than fifteen 
thousand shares, representing a par value of one million five hun- 
dred thousand dollars, and an actual market value of more than 
two millions of dollars. He holds an interest in the Company, less 
only in amount than that owned by the State of Maryland and 
by the city of Baltimore ; and both the State and city have largely 
profited by the sagacity and zeal with which he has devoted himself 
to the promotion of the true interests of the Company. 

The attention of Mr. Hopkins, however, since his retirement 
from the firm of Hopkins & Brothers, has not been confined to the 
interests of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company only. He 
has, throughout his business life, entertained a firm confidence in 
the increasing welfare and prosperity of the city of Baltimore. He 
has, therefore, not only used every effort to open new channels of 
commercial intercourse between that city and other sections of the 
United States, but he has endeavored also to employ his means in 
such manner as would best enable the merchants of the city to 
accommodate and retain its growing trade. With this purpose he 
became the owner of squares and parcels of ground situated in 
localities convenient for the transaction of business, but which 
were useless, because of the mean, or inadequate, buildings erected 
upon them. Upon these squares and lots he has built a large 
number of substantial warehouses, and has thus centered certain 
branches of important trade in proper and convenient localities, 
and supplied them with ample room and accommodation. He has 
also been at the pains to provide massive buildings, in proper 
locations, capable of greater ornament than the warehouses he has 
erected, for the use of those mercantile corporations and agencies 
which grow and increase with the needs of a commercial city. 

By providing full scope for the transaction of an important part 
of the business of the city, and by performing this task in a 



JOHNS HOPKINS. 303 

manner which adds largely not only to the taxable wealth of the 
community, but to its commercial importance, Mr. Hopkins has 
greatly contributed to the prosperity of the city of Baltimore. 
He has especially supplied, for many years, ample occupation to 
many mechanics, who were employed upon his improvements. To 
such work and to the cure of his property in the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad Company, Mr. Hopkins mainly devotes his time. 
Since his connection with the Company first commenced, the stock 
has greatly enhanced in value, but he has not, for this reason, sought 
to realize, by sale, any profit upon his original investments. He 
has full confidence in the permanent value of the stock itself, and 
has, it is believed, set apart the whole fund for the establishment 
and support of a University, to be located upon his fine estate at 
" Clifton," containing nearly four hundred acres of land, and 
situated about one mile from the city of Baltimore, on the Har- 
ford road. 

This University, bearing his name, has been already fully or- 
ganized by the appointment of trustees, under the provisions of a 
general law of this State; and Mr. Hopkins, having already pro- 
vided for the creation of free scholarships, by which poor and 
deserving students from the States of Maryland and Virginia shall 
be maintained, is occupied in maturing, during his lifetime, the 
details of this great work. 

This estate at Clifton will afford ample room, not only for the 
accommodation of the professors and students attached to the Uni- 
versity, but also space for the establishment of a Botanical and 
Agricultural school upon an extended scale. The buildings of the 
University will be surrounded by pleasure grounds as ample as the 
trustees may see fit to maintain ; and if they part at any time with 
outlying portions of the land, they will be able to do it upon terms 
which will protect the grounds and property of the University from 
intrusion, annoyance and injury. 

In the same spirit he has set aside property to the value of more 
than two millions and a half of dollars to be appropriated to the 
erection of a great hospital upon the site of the present Maryland 
Hospital, which, with the grounds around it, have been purchased 
by him for that purpose from the trustees of the Maryland Hospital. 

The Corporation bearing his name, which he intends shall ad- 
minister this great charity, has been fully organized; and it is 
understood that, as soon as the streets and alley-ways, as yet un- 
opened, which might intersect the property, are permanently closed, 
by competent authority, the trustees of the new hospital will be 



304 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

enabled to commence buildings which will be a splendid and en- 
during monument to their founder, and will prove an incalculable 
blessing to the poor of the community in which they will be 
located. 

The new hospital will be possessed of separate buildings for the 
reception of the sick of different sexes, and also of separate build- 
ings for the reception of the sick of different colors, and will be 
dedicated to the cure of bodily injuries and non-contagious diseases. 
It will be placed under the care of the ablest surgeons and physi- 
cians, and its endowment will supply ample funds for its support. 
It is, therefore, reasonably expected by its founder that the people 
of the State and city will co-operate earnestly with him in pro- 
moting its early and secure establishment. 

Mr. Hopkins has also provided for the erection of an asylum for 
the education and maintenance of orphan colored children, in a 
location separate and distinct from the site of the hospital. This 
asylum will be placed under the care and management of the trus- 
tees of "The Johns Hopkins Hospital." 

Mr. Hopkins is awaiting with anxiety the arrival of the time 
when he may regard the admirable site which he has selected for 
his hospital as secured to its public uses by proper legislation, in 
order that he may see that work completed during his life, and may 
be able to assure to the sick and disabled in the community a place 
of refuge, easy of access, healthful in air, with pleasant outlooks 
over the city, harbor and river, and with ample grounds, in which 
the feeble and convalescent may find solace and regain strength. 



JOHN EAGER HOWARD. 



The name of Howard is probably more widely connected with 
the annals of Baltimore, from the very foundation of the city, than 
any other. Joshua Howard, the grandfather of the subject of this 
notice, was an Englishman, and came to America in 1685-6. He 
obtained the grant of a large tract of land in Baltimore County, not 
far from the present city of Baltimore, and his grandson, John 
Eager, son of Cornelius Howard, was born June 4th, 1752. Young 
Howard was brought up on his family estate, but without regard 
to any particular profession ; but on attaining manhood the difficul- 
ties with the mother country warmly enlisted his patriotic feelings. 
At the outbreak of the Revolution a committee of safety was estab- 
lished in Baltimore-Town, and having expressed his desire of serving 
in a military capacity, one of the committee offered to procure him 
the commission of Colonel. Unwilling to accept so responsible a 
post, he chose that of Captain, which was offered him on the pro- 
vision of raising thirty men. In two days the requisite number was 
obtained, and Captain Howard joined a regiment, commanded by 
Colonel J. Carvil Hall. They marched at once to join the army, 
and Captain Howard participated in the battle of White Plains, 
about twenty-five miles north of New York ; and served until 
December, 1776, when his corps was disbanded. He immediately 
rejoined the army as Major, and the winter of 1776-77 was passed 
industriously in raising troops. In April of that year he marched 
with part of his regiment to Rocky Hill, near Princeton, New 
Jersey, where he remained until July, when, on the death of his 
father, he was sent home on recruiting service. He rejoined the 
army just after the battle of Brandy wine, and displayed signal 
courage and ability soon afterward in the battle of Germantown, 
It is a romantic incident in his career, that " Chew's House," a for- 
tified house, occupied by the British, belonged to Mr. Benjamin 
Chew, of Philadelphia, the father of the lady whom he afterward 
married, he having first seen the mansion during the battle. He 
also participated in the action at Monmouth. 



306 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

On the 1st of June, 1779, he was commissioned Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the Fifth Maryland regiment, in the army of the United 
States. In April, 1780, the Maryland aud Delaware troops, about 
fourteen hundred infantry, were detached from the army for the 
purpose of relieving Charleston, which had been besieged by the 
British under Clinton. They embarked from Elk River, at the 
head of the Chesapeake, on May 3d, but did not reach Petersburg, 
on their way South, until June, too late for any succor to Charles- 
ton, which capitulated on May 12th. The disastrous battle of 
Camden, where Gates Avas so signally defeated, followed in July. 
Colonel Howard bore himself bravely in that unfortunate affair ; 
but, overpowered by numbers, was forced to retreat into the 
swamps, keeping a small force together, and being joined at 
Charlotte, sixty miles off, by other officers and men. In December, 
General Greene arrived and took command, and under his able 
leadership affairs were ere long changed for the better. A detach- 
ment was placed under Morgan, and in it Lieutenant-Colonel 
Howard had command of four hundred Continental infantry and 
two companies of Virginia militia. The eventful battle of Cowpens 
soon followed, in which the British were completely defeated. For 
Howard's gallantry in this action he was voted a medal by Con- 
gress, in company with Morgan and William Augustine Washing- 
ton. In the succeeding battles of Guilford Court House and 
Eutaw, he again reudered most signal service, and in the latter 
engagement was severely wounded. Several of our principal streets 
commemorate these victories of the Revolution ; Howard street 
being named in honor of Colonel Howard, and Eutaw for the action 
in which he gained such celebrity. Cowpens' alley, joining these 
two streets, modestty reminds of another successful action. The 
bravery of the Maryland troops, in these and other encounters, 
under the leadership of Colonels Howard, Williams and other 
officers, won the highest encomiums from General Greene, and on 
Howard's return to Maryland, as soon as his wound permitted him 
to travel, he bore with him the strongest assurances of his com- 
mander's regard. 

At the conclusion of the war, Colonel Howard married Miss 
Chew, of Philadelphia, at whose summer residence in Germantown 
he found a much more kindly welcome than had rained from 
British bullets in the heat of action. In November, 1788, he was 
chosen the Oovernor of Maryland for three years, and during that 
period the Federal union was adopted, which measure the Governor 
did all in his power to support. In 17U4, he was appointed Major- 



JOHN EAGER HOWARD. 307 

General of militia, but declined to accept ; and in November, 1795, 
he was invited by General Washington to accept a seat in his 
Cabinet. ' For such a position, however, he had no inclination, and 
though gratified at this proof of Washington's regard, he saw fit to 
decline the offer. Three years later, when the attitude of France 
became such that it was feared w r e should be embroiled in a war 
with that power, and that Washington would again be called into 
the field as commander-in-chief, Colonel Howard's name was one of 
those whom he intended to select for the position of .Brigadier-Gen- 
eral. Fortunately, however, a war was averted, and in 1803, 
Colonel Howard finally withdrew from public life, spending the 
remainder of his life in the management of his very large estate, 
exercising a liberal hospitality, and taking great interest in the 
prosperity and growth of Baltimore. In 1814, when the city was 
threatened by the British, among other arms of defence, a troop of 
elderly men was raised, with Colonel Howard at its head, and 
although this body was not intended to act outside the limits of the 
city, Colonel Howard had resolved to offer his personal services in 
the expected battle. That of North Point, however, took place a 
day sooner than he anticipated. In the excitement and alarm con- 
sequent on the capture of Washington, and the destruction of the 
public buildings, a timid suggestion was made that Baltimore, in 
order to be saved from such a calamity had better capitulate. This 
proposition the old patriot scouted with indignant scorn. " I have," 
said Colonel Howard, " as much property at stake as most persons, 
and I have four sons in the field, but sooner would I see my sons 
w T eltering in their blood, and my property reduced to ashes, than so 
far disgrace the country." Honored and beloved, Colonel Howard 
died on the 12th of October, 1827, he having lost several years 
before his eldest son, his eldest daughter, and his wife, while his 
own health had been impaired for some years, mainly in con- 
sequence of his wound received at Eutaw. 

The noble mansion which he built, at the time of its erection in 
the midst of an extensive estate, always known as Howard's Park, 
still exists (1870), but must probably ere very long go down before 
the inevitable growth of the city. The line of Calvert street, north 
of Eager street, will pass directly through the house. The north 
wing was built in 1786, and the main building and south wing a 
few years later. Of the hundreds of acres originally forming 
" Howard's Park," stretching from Centre street north to the 
present parallels of Hoffman street, and eastward from Howard 
street to Jones's Falls, only five or six acres now remain to encircle 



308 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

" Belvidere," " the proper house and home" designed by Colonel 
Howard as his principal residence at the close of the Revolutionary 
"War. In place of the noble oaks and evergreens which hid from the 
sight the roofs and steeples of the city, and the lawns and dells and 
thickets familiar to our childhood, we tread now through street 
after street tilled with elegant private residences, churches and 
halls. The writer of this sketch, although very young at the time, 
perfectly remembers in 1830 the raising of the statue which crowns 
the Washington monument. He saw it from one of the houses on 
Hamilton street in the rear of the present Maryland Club House, 
and some idea of the growth of the city since then may be formed, 
from the writer's having enjoyed an uninterrupted view of the 
elevation of the statue from this house. ISTot a single building 
existed north of Hamilton street, excepting a few humble tenements 
on the line of Centre street. What is now Mount Vernon Place 
was then only planted with huge forest trees, and a rough, uneven 
country road led from the foot of the Monument to Charles street. 
In 1822, William Wirt, writing to his daughter, and speaking of 
the monument, says : it " is rendered indescribably striking and 
interesting from the touching solitude of the scene from which it 
lifts its head." " Howard's Park" is now only a memory of the 
past, and " Belvidere" exhibits marks of decay. But if we must 
regret the beautiful forest, we can still take pride in the wealth and 
power of the city which has supplanted it ; and rejoice that the 
stately home, so long the chosen seat of historic fame and of refined 
hospitality, will not lose its influence, even with its existence. 



JESSE HUNT. 



The ancestors of Jesse Hunt, were among the early settlers of 
Calvert county, Maryland. In the year 1760, Job Hunt, the 
father of the subject of this sketch, with his brothers, Samuel and 
Phineas, removed from the old homestead to a tract of land in 
Baltimore county, which had been taken up under patent some 
twenty years before, in what was then known as " The Forest," 
and in what is now known as the Green Spring Valley which was 
situated, and settled on adjoining farms. One of these farms 
remains now in Mr. Hunt's possession. 

In 1771, Mr. Job Hunt married Margaret, daughter of Samuel 
Hopkins, of a numerous family of the name, for the most part 
landed proprietors in Baltimore county, in the tract of country near 
the present Govanstown. A numerous family was the result of this 
union, of whom Jesse, the youngest, was boru on July 3d, 1793. 
In February following, his mother died, much regretted by a large 
circle of friends, for her amiable and exemplary character. 

Nothing can ever entirely replace the loss of a mother's care and 
guidance during childhood ; but so far as this was possible, the 
mother's place was supplied by the watchfulness and tender solici- 
tude of a sister, under whose care, combined with that of an upright 
and judicious father, he spent the first years of his life. 

Arrived at the years which made it necessary for him to choose a 
vocation in life, his tastes inclined him to a mechanical calling, and 
in 1808, he became an apprentice in the house of William and 
Richard Hall, saddlers, in Baltimore. The death of his father took 
place in the following year. Thus his youthful son was deprived of 
a truly excellent father, and society of a man of strict integrity and 
hio-h souled honor. 

In June, 1812, came the declaration of war with England, and 
young Hunt, though still an apprentice, took an active part in 
raising a company, known as the Washington Blues, attached to 
the 5th regiment of infantry, of which George H. Steuart, was 
chosen .Captain. This company bore an honorable part in the 
2L 



310 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

defence of the city at the battle of ISTorth Point, September 1 2th, 
1814. Shortly afterwards Mr. Hunt was elected to a lieutenancy, 
which post he filled until 1822. On his resignation in that year, 
his former captain, then colonel of the regiment, wrote him a letter 
testifying in high terms to his conduct as soldier and officer. 

In 1815, Mr. Hunt commenced business on his own account, and 
afterwards became the successor of his former employers. In the 
same year he married Margaret, daughter of Leonard Yundt, for 
many years one of the proprietors of the Baltimore Federal Gazette. 
This marriage, which proved an eminently happy one, was the result 
of an affection dating back to childhood. 

Mr. Hunt continued to conduct his business with a fair share of 
success, and enjoyed a moderate prosperity, thanks to his industry 
and economy and the assistance of his estimable wife. He took no 
active part in political matters, until the great contest between 
Jackson and Adams, in the year 1828, owing to the momentous 
character of the questions at issue, roused even the most indifferent. 
Iuto this contest Mr. Hunt entered warmly, and was an active 
supporter of General Jackson, whose administration he continued 
to support to its close. In 1829, 1830 and 1831, successively, he 
was unanimously nominated by a convention of the Jackson party 
as candidate for a seat in the Maryland House of Delegates ; and on 
each occasion he was returned by a handsome majority. At that 
time Baltimore was represented in the House by only two delegates. 

Mr. Hunt made no pretensions to oratory, and was known rather 
as an active working member than as a public speaker, but he 
occasionally took part in the debates on many of the leading 
questions before the House. One of these affected the interests of 
the public schools of the city, then in their infancy, under the 
following circumstances. A former Legislature had passed an Act 
authorizing the city to sell the properly known as the " old Aims- 
House," near the intersection of Madison and Eutaw streets, and 
appropriate the proceeds to the Public School Fund. The Senate 
passed a bill repealing this Act, and directing the appropriation of 
the money to the House of Refuge, and sent it to the House. Mr. 
Hunt resisted this bill, with his utmost ability in the House, 
arguing that it was both unjust and inexpedient ; that while the 
value of such an institution as the House of Refuge could not be 
denied, the Public Schools had not only the prior claim, but a claim 
of far higher importance. The bill, notwithstanding the urgency of 
the Senate, was finally defeated. 

In 1832, Mr. Hunt was nominated by a convention of the Jackson 



JESSE HUNT. 311 

party, then beginning to be known as the Democratic party, as a 
candidate for the Mayoralty. From the time of the great political 
contest of 1824, the Jackson party comprised a large majority of the 
voters of Baltimore, and yet no decided Jackson man had tilled the 
office of Mayor. It was a sort of neutrality, which operated 
adversely to the majority of voters, who saw nearly all the muni- 
cipal offices filled by their political opponents. In accepting the 
nomination, Mr. Hunt refused to pledge himself to any specific line 
of conduct, in regard to the retention or removal of officers, deter- 
mining to be guided solely by what he believed to be the best in- 
terests of the city ; and this determination, to the best of his ability, 
he carried out from the time of his election, removing no officer 
except where he was convinced that the public welfare required it, 
filling such vacancies with his political friends. In pursuing this 
course, however, he did not escape the noisy censure of those who 
considered that all public offices, were the legitimate prizes of the 
victorious party. 

Upon his re-election in 1834, these clamors were revived ; but the 
Mayor was firmly supported by the great majority of the Demo- 
cratic party, as well as by a number of the more moderate among 
the Whigs, who had assumed the name of the Workingmen's party. 
At this election strong attempts were made to injure Mr. Hunt's 
popularity, by dwelling upon and misrepresenting his connection 
with the Bank of Maryland, then a subject of extreme popular 
odium. As the circumstances of this affair, have become a feature 
of the history of the city, and for a long time were used to blacken 
her good fame, we will give, as briefly as possible, some account of it. 

The Bank of Maryland suspended payments about six months 
before the election we have just referred to. As it had enjoyed 
great popularity, and the deposits were heavy, the failure gave rise 
to great distress, excitement and indignation. Popular meetings 
were held; it was alleged that the Bank had been managed in the 
interests of a few influential citizens, to whom the smaller stock- 
holders and depositors had been sacrificed. Some of the parties 
accused, dreading an outbreak of popular fury, endeavored to shift 
the odium upon others, and mutual recriminations were the conse- 
quence. Pamphlets and placards abouuded, and the temper of the 
sufferers urged on by that reckless part of the community that 
delights in disturbance, gradually approached the boiling point. 

Every means was used to turn the tide of this feeling against Mr. 
Hunt, at the election. He had injudiciously allowed himself to be 



312 BIOGRAPHTCAL SKETCHES. 

chosen a Director of the Bank — a merely nominal office, as it was 
well known that the ownership of the Bank was held by a few indi- 
viduals — but this was thought sufficient reason for identifying him 
with the subject of popular hatred. He succeeded, however,- in 
proving that so far from having reaped any profit from the Bank, 
he was a loser by it, being its creditor to a considerable amount. 

After the election, the feverish state of excitement still continued. 
The financial condition of the whole country had been much dis- 
turbed by various causes; and the opponents of the administration 
fiercely assailed President Jackson for the course he pursued, espe- 
cially in regard to his firmness in maintaining that gold and silver 
were the only constitutional currency of the country. The failure of 
the Bank of Maryland was followed by that of a number of fraudu- 
lent institutions, assuming the name of Savings Banks, spreading 
misery and ruin widely around, especially among the working 
classes, who saw the little provision they had made for sickness or 
old age, thus suddenly swept away. The losses by these failures 
were far heavier, and affected a class of persons who suffered far 
more than the losers by the Bank of Maryland ; who endeavored, 
and in part succeeded, in screening themselves by turning the 
popular fury against the Bank of Maryland, as the real cause of 
all the mischief. The law-suits to which the settlement of the 
affairs of the Bank of Maryland gave rise, afforded further oppor- 
tunities for stimulating the excitement ; and the charges and 
counter-charges of the parties in controversy grew fiercer than ever. 

In August, 1835, it was evident that popular irritation was on 
the point of some violent outbreak. Nocturnal meetings were held, 
which, however, the Mayor, aided by the day police, only about 
twenty strong, the night-watch, and a few resolute volunteers, 
succeeded for a time in dispersing. But the determination to 
avenge their wrongs against the real or supposed authors of them, 
it was plain to see, had in nowise Jjeen shaken; and the Mayor, who 
saw the imminence of the danger, was indefatigable in his attempts 
to rouse the law-abiding citizens to take effective steps for pre- 
serving the peace of the city. His efforts, however, were nearly 
ineffectual; the great mass of the citizens exhibiting an apathy 
which could only be explained by ignorance of the real extent of 
the peril, and refusing to aid the civil authorities in the forcible 
preservation of the peace. At last the Mayor led a forlorn hope, 
consisting of bis handful of police, and a few citizens whom he 
induced to assist him against a large gathering of riotously disposed 



JESSE HUNT. 313 

persons in Monument Square. Their efforts to disperse the mob, 
though fearless, were unavailing. There was no destruction of 
property; but the persons arrested were immediately rescued by 
force, and the city authorities openly defied. 

The civil authorities thus finding themselves not strong enough to 
cope with the danger, an order was issued calling out the uniformed 
volunteer Light Brigade, at the time under the command of Col. 
Benjamin C. Howard. At ten o'clock on the following morning Col. 
Howard reported to the Mayor that he had issued orders for the 
assembling of the Brigade at eight o'clock, but that so far only three 
men had presented themselves for duty. He continued his efforts 
until five in the afternoon, with the result of obtaining a doubtful 
promise from about twenty men. Convinced now that they had 
nothing to fear from the military, the mob proceeded to execute 
their vengeance by assailing the houses of several of the citizens 
most obnoxious to them, destroying the furniture and carrying off: 
the valuable articles which the occupants in hasty retreat had left 
behind. 

The violence of the mob, and the danger of its resorting to still 
more deplorable extremities, had the effect of rousing from their 
culpable apathy a large number of the citizens, who had hitherto 
abstained from any active support of the city authorities, and a 
genuine determination to restore order at any cost was manifested. 
Even some of those who had previously sided with the mob, now 
arrayed themselves on the side of order, Avhether from regret at 
their excesses, or the desire to elude punishment, may be a matter 
of doubt. 

The assault on the Mayor, and the charges of complicity with the 
Bank authorities, still continued, and his continuance in office was 
alleged to be the main cause of popular irritation. Mr. Hunt, 
convinced that his influence over the people was greatly impaired, 
and unwilling to give rise for any pretext, however unjust, 
that impeded the return to order, tendered his resignation. The 
City Council, in accepting it, unanimously passed the following 
resolution: 

" Resolved, By both branches of the City Council of Baltimore, 
that, while we regret that the measures adopted by Jesse Hunt, 
Esq., late Mayor of the city, did not prove effectual in suppressing 
the riots which have disturbed the order and destroyed the peace 
and quiet of the community, w r e entertain the fullest confidence in 
his integrity and fidelity, and hereby tender to him the thanks of 



314 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

the corporation, for the honest and unceasing exertions made by 
him to restore peace to the city and supremacy to the laws. 

By order: 

HENRY W. GRAY, 

Assistant Clerk to 1st Branch C. C. 

IT. Myers, 

PresH pro tern. 1st Branch. 

F. Lucas, Jr., 

PresH 2d Branch: 1 

Public meetings were also held, at which resolutions were passed 
expressive of undiminished confidence in the late Mayor, and at one 
of these he was nominated for re-election, which gratifying evidence 
of their confidence he, however, judged proper to decline. 

Mr. Hunt at once returned to his saddlery business, in which he 
had retained an interest, and recommenced working with his own 
hands. In this position, however, he did not long remain. In less 
than three months after his resignation as Mayor, and during his 
absence from the city, the office of City Register became vacant by 
the death of its occupant. Mr. Hunt was immediately named by 
his friends for the vacancy. On his return, without being aware 
that a vacancy had occurred, he found himself in effect Register of 
the city. At the election by both branches of the City Council, 
which took place a few days afterwards, Mr. Hunt not only received 
the entire support of his political friends, but of a portion of the 
opposition also. He filled this really responsible office to the satis- 
faction of all. 

At the time of his taking this office, the finances of the city were 
in a condition very far from satisfactory ; but they became still worse 
in the years 1840-42. Indeed, at that time the financial condi- 
tion of the whole country was deplorable. The banks were in sus- 
pension, the State failed to meet the interest on its public debt, and 
the city was compelled to meet its payments on the $3,000,000 sub- 
scription to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, by forced sales of city 
stock, with the result of finally depressing the stock to 50, while that 
of the State was less than 30. At this time a strong opinion was 
current that both State and city would be compelled to repudiate 
their debts ; or at the very least the city would be under the neces- 
sity of ceasing to pay the interest on its stock debt. But the Regis- 
ter not only insisted that the good faith of the city should be kept, 
but maintained that the city had abundant ability to meet its 



JESSE HUNT. 315 

obligations, if the authority was given him to conduct the necessary 
negotiations. He was invested with the requisite power, and after 
much difficulty succeeded, so that the city at no time failed to meet 
the interest as it fell due. The season of embarrassment and finan- 
cial depression soon passed over, and the city stock rose not merely 
to par, but commanded a premium. 

Mr. Hunt's conduct of the city finances gave such satisfaction, 
that he was five times re-elected to the office which he thus filled 
for more than ten years, being assured of his election for the sixth 
time if he would make a change in the office of deputy, then filled 
by a most faithful officer, whom he refused to remove. On his 
retirement from office, resolutions highly complimentary to his 
efficiency and integrity were passed by both branches of the City 
Council. This event closed Mr. Hunt's long connection with the 
public service. 

In 1847, the Eutaw Savings Bank was incorporated, the Presidency 
of which was unanimously tendered to Mr. Hunt. Finding that 
the Board of Directors were all gentlemen of the highest respect- 
ability, and amongst the most wealthy citizens of Baltimore ; and 
that the institution was strictly benevolent in character, the charter 
abundantly securing to the depositors the entire net earnings of 
the Bank, he accepted the position, for the time being, without any 
pecuniary compensation. He has been re-elected each successive 
year, the last election being in June, 1870. The Bank has proved 
an entire success, and justly ranks among the most prosperous and 
faithfully conducted institutions of its character. At the close 
of the year 1870, it had upwards of nine thousand depositors and 
assets exceeding three millions of dollars. 

Previous to the year 1849, there was no organized association for 
the general relief of the poor of the city, and convinced of the great 
need of such an association, a few benevolent citizens started the 
" Association for the Improvement of the Condition of the Poor." 
In its organization Mr. Hunt took an active part, and has for a 
number of years been its President. The funds of this association 
are derived from voluntary contributions, and it has been the means 
of relieving much suffering and greatly improving the condition of 
the deserving poor. 

On the 18th day of May, 1860, Mr. Hunt was deprived, by the 
act of Providence, of the associate of his childhood, his chosen com- 
panion and partner in early manhood. Of this excellent lady it can 
be justly said, that she was an affectionate wife, a devoted mother, 
a sincere and unpretending Christian. 



316 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

In closing this brief sketch of the life of Mr. Hunt, it is proper to 
remark, that during the long, exciting and often angry discussions 
which continued throughout his more public and political career, his 
social and domestic life was marked by that uniform kindness and 
courtesy, which commanded the confidence and respect of all with- 
out regard to party or sectarian affiliations. 










A 



g ** * <?? % 4 /&£^n4& 






HENRY JAMES. 



In every community there is to be found a distinct class of citi- 
zens more quiet in habits of life, more painstaking in business 
pursuits than the great mass, from whose slow, patient, almost 
unobserved, yet sure and substantial labors, large fortunes, in time, 
accrue, — the proud rewards of persevering industry, — securing not 
merely individual independence and all worldly comforts to their 
possessors, but adding, likewise, in a thousand ways, directly and 
indirectly, to the stock of power and importance of a common- 
wealth. It is to this class of citizens good society owes its chiefest 
debt of gratitude; for, usually, the founders of society, they are, also, 
always the truest custodians of its interests. Such, too, are ever 
the friends of material progress. The eye which dwells in wonder 
and with pleasure on the splendid structures that adorn and make 
our cities great will not fail, behind the solid masonry, to detect 
the patient, plodding power whose hand was at the foundation 
stones. A specimen of the class of which we speak was William 
Penn, in the past. In the present are many prototypes of his in 
character, in greater or lesser degree, in the various departments of 
labor and life. Henry James is one of these. Poor, and without 
acquaintance or friends in the State, he came, when but a youth, to 
Baltimore in quest of occupation and a livelihood, — a promise of 
which the superior advantages of the city, as a business mart, held, 
encouragingly, out to him, — and the city has answered to his hopes. 

Mr. James was born on the 21st of July, 1821, in the town of 
Truxton, Courtland county, New York. His parents were Nathaniel 
and Elizabeth Ingersoll James, natives of Vermont, but of English 
descent, distinguished in the community in which they lived for pru- 
dence and piety of life. Henry James was educated in the town of 
his birth, in the common schools, until he reached his fifteenth year, 
when he was sent to an academy in the same town, from which he 
graduated. The greater part of his youth was passed upon a farm, 
where he participated in all the labors of farm life, rendering robust 



318 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

a naturally good constitution, and acquiring those habits of thrift 
and industry on which success in business so largely depends. 

At the age of nineteen, seized by a spirit of enterprise, he left his 
birthplace and home to test the qualities of his ripening manhood, 
and to try his fortune in the world. Hope, energy, faith in himself, 
and a strong will — these were his resources and only capital. His 
first three years were passed in the city of New York, where he 
managed creditably to maintain himself, — adding to his acquisitions 
the valuable ingredient of experience. In the early part of 1843 he 
removed to Baltimore, and, although an entire stranger, soon suc- 
ceeded in securing for himself a competency and the confidence of 
the business men with whom he came in contact. His whole career 
in the city of his adoption, and the city, now, of his pride and 
affection, has been one of success, commensurate with the deserts of 
worthy and honest effort, while the confidence of his fellow citizens, 
augmented by time, surrounds him as from the first. Mr. James is 
the active managing partner of the present firm of Henry James & 
Co., the other members being William E. Dodge and James Stokes, 
of New York, and Daniel James, of Liverpool. The house repre- 
sents large tracts of timber lands lying in the counties of Tioga, 
Clinton, Cameron, Elk, and Lycoming, in the State of Pennsylvania, 
and owns extensive mills for the manufacture of lumber in Clinton, 
L3 7 coming, and York counties, Pennsylvania, and in Harford county 
in Maryland, being one of the largest establishments of the kind in 
the United States. The principal office of the firm is in Baltimore, 
with branch offices in the various places where their operations are 
carried on. 

Mr. James, besides his large interest and business connection in 
the firm of Henry James & Co., has, also, for many years been iden- 
tified with, and a Director in, the Citizens' National Bank, and is 
now President of that institution, having been elected to that office 
on the death of his predecessor, John Clark. 

The capital of the bank has been doubled since Mr. James's in- 
cumbency, and the splendid marble banking house, on the northeast 
corner of Pratt and Hanover streets, was erected under his auspices. 
In no particular has the zeal of Mr. James been more conspicuously 
or more usefully displayed than in the matter of the organization of 
the Baltimore Warehouse Company, of which ho was one of the first 
projectors and friends. He is still a Director in the Company. 

At the age of thirty Mr. James was married to the daughter of 
A. Gate, of this city, and has a large and interesting family. 

lie is a member of the Westminster Presbyterian Church, of 



HENRY JAMES. 319 

which the Rev. Dr, Dickson is pastor. His attention to the duties 
of his religion is marked by regularity of attendance at his place of 
worship; and it is the whole truth to say of him that he is a sincere 
Christian, and a churchman without cant, bigotry or ostentation. 

The course of his life has been, and is, apart from the political 
contests and excitements of the day. A quiet vote is the usual 
expression of his views, under a careful and calm consideration of 
measures and men, — a method, in itself, most seeming good, and 
not without merit in the light of example. 

The strong points in the character of Henry James are visible in 
the conduct of his daily life ; as a man of business, he is energetic, 
positive, firm ; as a citizen, spirited and liberal ; as a patron, the 
friend of enterprise; as a Christian, devout; as a man, honest, — 
modest and retiring withal. 

The very extensive business operations of the firm of which he is 
a member, and the interests of the Bank of which he is President, 
occupy the larger part of his time, requiring his diligent supervisory 
attention and care. 

In the proud list of her citizens, known and honored throughout 
the business world for stability, integrity and fair dealing, Balti- 
more has no cause to be other than satisfied with the record and 
name of her adopted son, Henry James. 




4=b**g 



WILLIAM JENKINS. 



The ancestors of William Jenkins were among the earliest colo- 
nists of Maryland, having emigrated from Great Britain ahout the 
year 1660, to escape the persecutions exercised against Catholics, 
and settled at the head of the St. Mary's river, near the old city of 
St. Mary's. Here they lived peacefully for years under the just and 
mild rule of the Lord Proprietary. But ahout the beginning of the 
next century the spirit of religious persecution arose in the hitherto 
happy colony ; and the Act of 1704, imposing test oaths and other 
disabilities on the Catholic inhabitants who had themselves set the 
noble example of toleration, compelled many of these to quit their 
homes, and seek a refuse elsewhere. Amono; these emio-rants was 
Michael, the father of Air. Jenkins, who, with his brothers Thomas 
Courtcnay and Ignatius, sought a new home in Baltimore county, 
then an outlying part of the province, almost a wilderness, and still 
inhabited by Indians. Here, in the year 1710, they took up a tract 
of land by patent, on " Long Green," which still remains in the 
possession of the family, and upon it is yet standing the substantial 
old house, constructed according to the rural architecture of the 
time. While here, the father married the niece of Mr. Ignatius 
Wheeler, a wealthy Catholic gentleman of Harford county. 

Ten children sprang from this union, of whom William Jenkins, 
the subject of this sketch, was born in 1767. Though but a child at 
the commencement of the Revolutionary struggle, he felt the enthu- 
siasm and military ardor which pervaded all classes. He used to 
relate, as an illustration of the spirit of the time, how the' country 
schoolmaster who had scarcely a boy over ten years of age, would, 
after lesson hours, draw up his little school in military array, arm 
them with cornstalks, and put them through their drill. 

At the close of the war, young Jenkins, being thirteen years old, 
and perceiving that his father could with difficulty provide for the 
wants of his large family, determined to go to Baltimore and carve 
out his own fortunes. Here he became apprentice to William Hay- 
ward, a tanner, a member of the Society of Friends; an estimable 



322 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

man and kind master, of whom Mr. Jenkins always spoke with 
affection and respect, and to whom he rendered cheerful and sub- 
stantial service in business affairs. At the close of his apprentice- 
ship, and before he was of age, he commenced business on his own 
account, in Baltimore, occupying a small building on Water street. 

While quite young he married Ann, daughter of Solomon Hillen, 
of Baltimore county, who, however, lived but a few years. He then 
married Eleanor, daughter of Mark Willcox, of Delaware county, 
Pennsylvania. 

In 1805, an accidental fire destroyed all the stock in his tan yard, 
thus sweeping away nearly the whole of his capital — a total loss to 
him, as there was then no insurance company in Baltimore. He, 
however, applied himself to retrieve his loss by persevering industry, 
and with such success that in three years he found it necessary to 
enlarge his small establishment on Water street by the construction 
of a large three-story warehouse and dwelling on the same site. 
Thirty-one years later he again enlarged it by building a large 
four-story warehouse, which he was occupying at the time of his 
death, having carried on his business — which for many years was a 
large one, extending to all the surrounding States — for fifty-six 
years on one spot. 

In 1812, Mr. Jenkins built a large tan yard on the York road, to 
which, some years after, he added another. He introduced im- 
provements in the process of tanning which gave to Baltimore 
leather a peculiarly high reputation, which it has ever since en- 
joyed ; and, indeed, he may justly be spoken of as the father of 
the leather trade of this city. 

Early in life Mr. Jenkins joined what was called "Paul Bantalou's 
Legion," a body of volunteer cavalry, which in those days often 
escorted General Washington from Waterloo to Baltimore, on his 
way from Mount Vernon to Philadelphia, where Congress then sat. 

At the commencement of the last war with Great Britain, 
Mr. Jenkins, though over the military age, became a member of a 
volunteer troop of cavalry, and took an active part in the defence 
of Baltimore, having also four brothers in the field. A few days 
before the battle of North Point he was sent to the city on special 
duty, and, having permission, made a brief visit to his own family. 
Before returning, he laid aside his uniform and accoutrements to 
enjoy a few moments' repose, and when about to resume them, 
found that his wife, who had suffered great anxiety before his 
arrival, from a false report that his troop had been cut to pieces by 
the enemy, had concealed his uniform to prevent his return. Upon 



WILLIAM JENKINS. 323 

his remonstrating, she besought him to remain, urging his exemp- 
tion from duty, and all the arguments that affection and solicitude 
could suggest, but without avail : he remounted his horse in citi- 
zen's dress, as she refused to restore the uniform, and reported 
himself for duty at the time appointed. 

In all matters tending to the improvement of the city he took a 
lively interest, and frequently an active participation. lie was one 
of the originators of the York and York Haven Turnpike Road 
Companies, as, at a later period, of the Baltimore and Susquehanna 
Railroad Company, (now the Northern Central,) of which he was 
one of the first Directors. When the advantage which would 
follow the extension of the Baltimore and Ohio road from Cumber- 
land to Pittsburgh, became manifest, he was a member of the first 
committee appointed by the city to examine the route via Con- 
nellsville. 

In all his dealings, both public and private, he was not merely 
just, but generous and kind. When he had introduced any new 
process or machinery tending to improve his manufacture, so far 
from endeavoring to secure all the advantages to himself, he took a 
pleasure in exhibiting it to other manufacturers, and inviting them 
to avail themselves of his improvements. This unselfish and noble 
spirit pervaded all his actions, and coupled with his kindness of 
heart and truly Christian charity, made him not only respected but 
beloved by all who knew T him well. For those in his employment 
he had an almost parental regard. During the prevalence of epi- 
demic yellow fever, at the beginning of the present century, one of 
his apprentices being attacked by the disease, Mr. Jenkins nursed 
and tended him with really fatherly care, sleeping with him in the 
same room for the purpose of ministering to his wants, although at 
that time the disease was believed to be infectious, and never leav- 
ing him until the fatal termination. 

Nothing could exceed the tenderness and beauty of his domestic 
relations ; and it is probable that there was not in the world a 
happier home than that at his beautiful country seat of Oak Hill. 
From his youth upward he was an humble and devout Christian, and 
a constant worshipper according to the faith of his fathers. 

In person he was finely formed, of a commanding presence, fre- 
quently reminding observers of General Washington. He was a 
good horseman and fond of equestrian exercise. In his dress he 
alw r ays followed the fashions of the old school, and to the day of 
his death he wore his hair in a cue, as it had been worn in his 
youth. 



324 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

He died on February 21st, 1843, from the results of a paralytic 
attack. Previous to his death, surrounded by his devoted children, 
five sons and one daughter, he settled all his earthly affairs, and 
having prepared himself for the change, with the humble piety and 
faith which had guided him through life, went to his reward. 

The funeral rites were performed by the Most Reverend Arch- 
bishop Eccleston, and his remains were attended to the grave by a 
large concourse of his fellow citizens. 




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REVERDY JOHNSON. 



Reverdy Johnson is one of the most conspicuous men Maryland 
has ever produced. Distinguished as being perhaps at the very 
head of the legal profession in America, he has also a wide reputa- 
tion as a Statesman. He was born in the city of Annapolis, May 
the 21st, 1796. His family, on his father's side, was of English 
descent, and on that of his mother, French, and his ancestors were 
among the earliest settlers in Maryland, several of them holding 
prominent positions under the Colonial Government. His father, 
John Johnson, was an eminent lawyer, who, after serving in both 
Houses of the General Assembly, was, successively, Attorney 
General, one of the Judges of the Court of Appeals, and Chan- 
cellor of the State.* His mother was a daughter of Reverdy 
Ghiselin, who was long known as Commissioner of the Land 
Office, at Annapolis. Educated at St. John's College, in his native 
town, Reverdy Johnson entered the grammar school at six, and 
left the institution at sixteen, years of age. He immediately com- 
menced reading law under the direction of his father, and was, 
afterwards, for awhile, a student in the office of the late Judge 
Stevens. He was admitted to the Bar and began practice in 
Prince George's county, in the village of Upper Marlborough, in 
1815, when only in his twentieth year. He was soon appointed 
by the Attorney General of the State his Deputy for the Judicial 
District, and performed the duties of that responsible office, 
in the most creditable manner, until November, 1817, when he 
removed to Baltimore, and started in his career as a lawyer, 
which, for brilliancy and success, has seldom been equalled. De- 
veloping, thus early, that wonderful vigor of intellect and deter- 
mination of character, which so distinguishes him, he at once took 
an excellent position, and, notwithstanding his youth, was soon 
recognized, by lawyers and laymen, as a man of unusual ability. 
In a short time he became the professional associate and intimate 

* The late Chancellor of the same name was another distinguished son of the 
gentleman here alluded to. 
22 



826 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

companion of Luther Martin, Robert Goodloe Harper, "William 
Pinkney, Roger B. Taney, William H. Winder, and several others, 
who had already made the Bar of Maryland famous. Laboring 
with untiring energy and earnestness of purpose, Mr. Johnson 
obtained a large practice, which, to the present day, has only been 
interrupted by his various public services. Soon after coming to 
Baltimore, he was appointed Chief Commissioner of Insolvent 
Debtors. In 1821, he was elected to the State Senate for a term of 
live years, and re-elected for another term. After serving two years 
of the second term he resigned, and devoted himself exclusively 
to his practice from that time until 1845, when he was elected to 
the Senate of the United States. Composed, as the Senate then 
was, of the very ablest intellects from all parts of the country, 
Mr. Johnson was among its leading members. Chosen by the 
Whigs, he was naturally very intimate with Clay and Webster 
and the other statesmen of that school, but his course in the 
Senate was marked by the most liberal and comprehensive view 
of public measures, and by an independence of party trammels 
which rendered him conspicuous. Regarded, alike by friend and foe, 
as possessing the clearest foresight and capable of the boldest step, 
the position he might assume in any important debate was looked 
for with more than ordinary interest. Retaining, always, the 
personal regard of Senators on both sides, he was never without 
influence, and was invariably listened to with attention. In the 
memorable debates upon the question of the war with Mexico, 
Mr. Johnson differed from the sentiments of his party, and was 
among the supporters of the Democratic Administration of Presi- 
dent Polk, in the advocacy of that war. In 1849, he resigned his 
seat in the Senate to accept the position of Attorney General, ten- 
dered him by President Ta}'lor. As a Cabinet Minister, during the 
short term of office of General Taylor, Mr. Johnson was no less 
distinguished than in the Senate. On the accession of Mr. Fillmore 
he retired, and resuming the practice of his profession, at once 
appeared in its foremost rank. He was retained in almost every 
important cause in the Courts of Maryland and in the Supremo 
Court. His advice and services were sought from distant States, 
and in 1854 he was employed by an English house to argue a case 
involving a claim of great magnitude against the United States 
Government, before the joint English and American Commission, 
then sitting in London, lie was associated professionally, in this 
matter, with the present Lord Cairns, then in the House of Com- 
mons, and a leading member of the Chancery Bar, and, subse- 



EEVERDY JOHNSON. 327 

quently, Lord Chancellor under the D'Israeli administration. During 
his sojourn in England, Mr. Johnson received much attention from 
the public men and members of the English Bar. Returning home 
he was unceasingly engaged with his practice, and took no active 
part in politics until the winter of 1860-61, when he was called upon 
by the exigencies of that memorable period. He was sent as one of 
the Delegates from Maryland to the Peace Convention, which 
assembled at Washington. He avowed himself a Union man, and 
utterly repudiated the doctrine of secession, believing it to be in 
violation of the letter of the Constitution and inconsistent with the 
spirit and stability of our Government. Pie was, however, conspicuous 
in that Convention by his earnest and eloquent efforts to avert the 
threatening calamities of civil war by measures of compromise and 
conciliation. When all hope of a peaceful settlement of the sectional 
difficulties had vanished, Mr. Johnson advocated the preservation 
of the Union by the military power of the General Government. 
Soon after the war had actually commenced, the position of the 
State of Maryland became one of peculiar difficulty and embar- 
rassment. Although refusing by legislative enactment to join the 
other Southern States in secession, the sympathies of the large 
majority of her people were, undoubtedly, against the Government. 
In this trying crisis, and, throughout the strife, Mr. Johnson, while 
maintaining firmly the position he had taken in favor of coercion, 
was zealous in endeavoring to allay the bitterness of feeling which 
was naturally enkindled. He did all he could to prevent, and, as 
far as possible, to redress personal wrongs, and to save the soil of 
Maryland from the actual havoc of war. 

In 1861, he was sent from Baltimore county to the House of 
Delegates. After the capture of New Orleans, he was sent to that 
city by President Lincoln, as special Commissioner, to revise the 
decisions of the military commandant, General Butler, in regard to 
several important matters involving our peaceful relations with 
foreign governments. He deemed it necessary and proper to reverse 
all those decisions, and for the good effect of so doing he received 
the thanks of the Administration. In the winter of 1862-63, 
he was elected to the United States Senate, and in March, 1863, 
resumed his seat in that body, after an absence of fourteen years. 
He soon participated actively in all the debates, and while unswerv- 
ing in the support he gave to the Union cause, he frequently re- 
sisted measures of the dominant party, which he thought uncalled 
for by the necessities of war, and subversive of the true liberties 
of the people and the rights of the States. He voted for the 



328 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



constitutional amendment abolishing slavery, having, all his life, 
deplored the existence of that institution. After the surrender 
of the Southern army, Mr. Johnson advised the immediate re- 
admission of the seceding States and an unconditional amnesty to 
their people, and in his continued and urgent advocacy of that 
course by the Government, and in his resistance to the passage of 
the reconstruction acts, he became, in Congress, and, was recognized 
throughout the country as the leader of the Conservative party. 
In voting for one of the reconstruction bills, which he held to be in 
violation of the rights of the States, he declared that he did so 
only because he believed, that if its provisions were not accepted 
by the Southern people, harsher terms would be exacted by the 
party in power — a prediction which has certainly been fulfilled. 

In the summer of 1868, Mr. Johnson was appointed Minister to 
the Court of St. James, and the appointment was immediately 
confirmed. 'In England he was the recipient of attentions never 
before paid to an American Ambassador. He visited different 
portions of the kingdom and was everywhere met by a popular 
ovation. In the chief commercial and manufacturing towns ban- 
quets were given him, and so general was this demonstration that 
Lord Clarendon, writing to a friend in America and referring to 
the matter, expressed his belief that " Mr. Johnson was the only 
Diplomatic Representative that had ever brought out the true 
friendly feeling of the British people for those of the United States." 
Nor was it alone in his official relation that he was so cordially 
received. His fame as a distinguished American lawyer and jurist 
brought him into the most agreeable intercourse with the Justices 
and leading Barristers of England. 

In a few months after his arrival in England, Mr. Johnson 
succeeded in negotiating a treaty between the two nations, for the 
settlement of the questions in dispute, growing out of what are 
known as the "Alabama Claims.''* This treaty was in strict accord- 
ance with the letter of Mr. Johnson's instructions, on entering 
upon his mission, and accomplished, in fact, more than had ever 
even been expected the English Government would yield. The 
Senate, however, refused to ratify the treaty, although it was 
privately acknowledged, by Mr. Sumner and other leading men, to 
secure all that our Government had a right to ask or any reason to 
expect. It is known that a supposed party necessity alone caused 
the adverse action of the Senate. Mr. Johnson's despatch to the 
State Department in explanation and defence of that treaty was 
given to the public at the time, and was a clear and able vindication 



REVERDY JOHNSON. 329 

of his own course and of the justice of the terms of settlement pro- 
posed. Mr. Johnson returned from England in June, 1869, and 
has resumed his practice in Baltimore and at Washington, having 
argued recently some of the most important causes. 

In his professional life, it may he truly said of him, that from his 
very youth to his present ripe age, he has had uninterrupted success. 
Great as is his reputation as a lawyer of profound learning, and an 
advocate of strong reasoning powers, and of the most forcible, as 
well as persuasive eloquence, he is, perhaps still more remarkable at 
the Bar, for his display of an acute knowledge of human nature and 
an ingenious and irresistible manner of examining and cross-examin- 
ing witnesses — eliciting truth from the most unwilling, and dis- 
covering the falsehood of the most unblushing. In the exercise of 
this peculiar faculty Mr. Johnson has no superior. Of Mr. Johnson's 
private life and character, nothing could be said more correctly 
expressing the estimation in which he has ever been held by his 
personal friends and those with whom he has been brought in con- 
tact, than that he is a genial, unassuming gentleman. Married, 
when only twenty-one years old, to a lady of rare beauty, and force 
of character and mind, his domestic circle, has, for more than fifty 
years, been. the scene of comfort, refinement and happiness. Simple 
in his tastes, kind and generous in his impulses, a warm and confid- 
ing friend, and a most forgiving enemy, he is not only entitled to 
the place we have given him among lawyers and statesmen, but he 
commands an equally elevated position as a man. 



BISHOP KEMP. 



The Episcopal Church of Maryland has been adorned by many 
men of shining talents and virtues, and has always had a very strong 
influence on the history and destinies of the State. James Kemp, 
although not of native birth, attained to distinguished position in 
the church, and left an exalted record for piety and benevolence. 
He was born in the parish of Keith Hall, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, 
in 1764, being baptized and educated in the Presbyterian faith. He 
was sent at a very early age to the grammar schools of Aberdeen, 
where he at once became conspicuous for good conduct and scholar- 
ship, and after obtaining the highest honors of that institution, he 
entered Marschal College, a famous seat of learning, in 1782. He 
was particularly noted for his mathematical attainments. He took 
his degree in 1786, but anxious to avail himself of the advantages 
of the college, he remained a year longer than usual, attending the 
lectures on divinity of the celebrated Dr. George Campbell, and 
also turning his attention to various ornamental branches of litera- 
ture. He was then very strong^ urged by some of his friends to 
adopt mercantile pursuits, for which he was well fitted by nature ; 
but finding himself averse to this course, he resisted the importuni- 
ties of his counsellors, determined on embarking for America, and 
sailed for the United States, in April, 1787. 

He came to Maryland, and soon after his arrival was employed as 
private tutor in Dorchester count}*, on the eastern shore, passing 
two j'ears in this position and continuing his theological studies. 
At this time, however, his religious opinions underwent a change. 
He abandoned the Presbyterian communion, in which he had been 
reared, and joined the Episcopal Church. Under the instruction of 
Rev. Dr. Bowie, Rector of Great Choptank parish, he prepared for 
the ministry, and being ordained in December, 1789, he succeeded 
Dr. Bowie in charge of the parish, in August of the succeeding 
year. 

During his labors on the eastern shore, for a period of twenty- 
four years, he acquired a high reputation in the church for his piety 



332 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

and zeal, while he became endeared to those who differed with him 
in religious views, by the Christian charity he exercised toward all 
men. His excellent business qualities also were of signal service to 
his flock, and many persons were in the habit of consulting him, 
regarding their temporal affairs, and seeking the benefit of his sound 
practical sense. 

In 1813, he became associate rector with Rev. Dr. Beasly, of St. 
Paul's parish, Baltimore, previous to which appointment he had 
been made Doctor of Divinity by Columbia College, New York. He 
removed to Baltimore with a distinguished reputation as a clergy- 
man and philanthropist, and in this city very soon made numerous 
friends among all classes of society. In 1814, he was elected by the 
convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Maryland, to act 
as Suffragan Bishop during the lifetime of Bishop Claggett, and to 
succeed him in case of survivorship. In September of the same year 
he was consecrated to the Episcopal office at New Brunswick, New 
Jersey, by the venerable William "White, presiding Bishop of the 
Church. Thenceforth, during the life of Bishop Claggett, the more 
especial province of Bishop Kemp consisted in the jurisdiction of the 
Eastern Shore, but in 1816, the death of his superior advanced him 
to the position of diocesan. He continued to discharge the duties 
of his office until 1827, when his eminent and useful career was 
suddenly terminated. He had visited Philadelphia to assist in the 
consecration of the Right Rev. Dr. H. IT. Onderdonk, and on his 
return home, he was fatally injured by the overthrow of the stage- 
coach in which he was a passenger. He lingered in great suffering 
for three days, and died on Sunday, 28th of October. His wife had 
died in the preceding year, leaving two children, a daughter and a 
son, the late Judge Kemp; both of whom left descendants still resid- 
ing in Baltimore. 

Bishop Kemp beside being eminent as a minister of the gospel, 
and as a man of learning, was a very public spirited citizen. 
Benevolent enterprises always claimed his interest and sympathy, 
while his liberal spirit extended beyond the bounds of his own 
church. He felt a deep solicitude in the welfare of the colored 
population, and was ever active in his efforts to ameliorate their 
condition. To piety, and warmth of feeling, he joined strong 
common sense, and the cultivation and refinement of the Christian 
gentleman. 



JOHN PENDLETON KENNEDY. 



John Pendleton Kennedy was born in the city of Baltimore, 
October 25th, 1795, and died at Newport, August 18th, 1870. 
He was of Irish descent, and his father at the time of his birth, 
was a prosperous merchant of this city. His mother came of the 
distinguished Pendleton family of Virginia. He graduated at the 
Baltimore College in 1812. When the war with Great Britain 
broke out, he volunteered, and, with the late George Peabody, 
served as a private at the battles of Bladensburg and North 
Point. Many years after, he and Mr. Peabody received from the 
United States, the bounty land awarded to the soldiers of that 
war. 

He studied law with the late Judge Walter Dorsey, and in 1816, 
was admitted to the bar, and practiced law successfully for about 
twenty years. 

In 1818, in connection with the late Peter Hoffman Cruse, he 
commenced authorship, by the publication of a serial, called " The 
Red Book," which continued two years. 

In 1820 he was elected a member of the House of Delegates. 

In 1832 he published his first novel, " Swallow Barn," descriptive 
of plantation life in Virginia. In 1835 his second novel, " Horse- 
shoe Robinson," a revolutionary story, appeared, and proved the 
most successful of his writings. In 1838 he published " Rob of the 
Bowl ; " a legend of St. Inigoes, a Maryland story of the days of 
Cecilius Calvert — second Lord Baltimore. In 1838 Mr. Kennedy 
again entered political life, and was elected to Congress as a repre- 
sentative from this city by the Whig party, of which he became a 
prominent member, and was chosen a Presidential elector from 
Maryland, in the contest which elected General Harrison in 1840. 
In this year, he published " The Annals of Quodlibet," a humor- 
ous and satirical account of the Presidential campaign. He was 
re-elected to Congress in 1841, and again in 1843. The first 
appropriation by Congress to enable Mr. Morse to try the experi- 
ment of the magnetic telegraph, between Washington and Balti- 
more, was made mainly through the efforts of Mr. Kennedy. In 



334 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

1846 he was again elected to the House of Delegates of this State, 
and was chosen speaker. In 1849 he published his " Life of William 
Wirt, Attorney General of the United States." In 1852 he was 
appointed by President Fillmore, Secretary of the Navy, to fill the 
vacancy occasioned by the retirement of William A. Graham, and 
warmly advocated and sustained the Japan expedition and Dr. 
Kane's second Arctic voyage. At the time of his decease he was 
President of the Board of Trustees of the Peabody Institute, Vice- 
President of the University of Maryland, and Vice-President of the 
Maryland Historical Society. He was the author of a large number 
of political tracts, speeches, reports, &c, among which his review of 
Mr. Cambreling's " Free Trade Report," in 1830, his report on " The 
Commerce and Navigation of the United States," when Chairman 
of the Committee on Commerce, in 1842, and his several pamphlets 
in favor of the protective system are best known. Many historical, 
biographical and literary discourses, essays and reviews will doubt- 
less soon be collected and with the manuscripts of " notes of travels," 
&c, left by Mr. Kennedy, given to the public by his literary execu- 
tors. When Mr. Peabody revisited his native land in 1856, and 
resolved upon his noble endowment of the Peabody Institute, in 
this city of his early efforts, he named Mr. Kennedy as one of the 
board of trustees for his great gift, and on the death of Mr. May hew, 
Mr. Kennedy was elected president. The earnestness with which 
he entered upon and pursued the work of organization committed 
to him, was highly and gratefully appreciated by Mr. Peabody to 
the last. During the late war, Mr. Kennedy was a devoted lover of 
the Union, and all his influence and efforts were on the side of the 
Government. In 1865 was issued the last work which he gave to 
the public, being a collection of a series of letters on the principles 
and incidents of the war, which, under the assumed name of " Paul 
Ambrose," he had communicated to the " National Intelligencer." 
At this time, he made his third visit to Europe, in the hope of 
reinvigorating his shattered health. Familiar with the best English 
and continental society, he renewed old intimacies and formed 
manj' new ones with the literary men of the Old World. As a 
refined and cultivated American, the mansions of the English 
nobility were always open to him, and he was a frequent and 
honored guest under their roofs. During this last tour ho was 
selected by Mr. Seward, then Secretary of State, as one of the 
United States Commissioners, at the grand Exposition of the 
Industry of all nations in Paris, and in that capacity rendered 
valuable services ; especially as one of the small select commission, 
under the presidency of Prince Napoleon, to which the subject of a 



JOHN PENDLETON KENNEDY. 335 

uniform decimal currency was referred. While in Paris the 
Emperor Napoleon conferred upon him the cross of the Legion of 
Honor. 
• His last public appearance before the people of his native city, 
was in October, 1868, when on his return home, he presided at the 
great Republican mass meeting, held here in that month. 

Though long past three score and ten, Mr. Kennedy was of so 
genial and joyous a nature, that the idea of his being an old man 
never occurred to any one of his friends, but the hand of the 
universal destroyer was reaching out toward him, and he was 
himself not insensible to the approach of the inexorable hour. This 
was fully evidenced, not only in his utterances, but in the corres- 
pondence which he still kept up, with a few of his older and dearer 
friends. 

In the summer of 1870, he went to Saratoga Springs by the 
advice of his physician, and a few weeks later to Newport, which 
had been his summer residence for years. Here a hidden malady 
was developed, which after two days of agony, patiently and 
bravely borne, and one day of tranquil slumbers, released him to 
his rest, In a blessed interval of wakefulness and ease, he eagerly 
renewed those pledges of Christian faith, which he had given in 
health, and was able to take leave of those dearest to him as he 
said, " in perfect peace of mind and body." 

His remains now repose in the sod of Greenmount, at the dedica- 
tion of which in 1839, he delivered the address. 

"Mr. Kennedy," says one of the friends who knew him best, 
Eobert C. Winthrop, (from whose address before the Massachusetts 
Historical Society, we have extracted largely in this sketch,) "as 
a man, was greater and better than all his books. One certainly 
looks in vain in all that he wrote or did for the full measure of 
those gifts and acquirements of mind and heart ; that learning and 
wisdom; that wit and humor; that whole soulecl cordiality and 
gaiety and kindness, which shone out so conspicuously in the 
intimacies of daily intercourse. A truer friend or more charming 
companion, has rarely been found or lost by those who have enjoyed 
the privilege of his companionship and friendship ; and among these 
may be counted not a few of our most distinguished authors and 
statesmen." 

The courtesy which Mr. Kennedy displayed upon all occasions, 
was not the mere formal discipline of elegant manners. There was, 
as has been said by another friend, a sense of benefaction in it. 
To approach him was to feel the friendly charm which his nature 
radiated. Excellent in anecdote and reminiscence, his qualities of 



336 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

companionship were remarkable, and were lured out by the sym- 
pathy of the fireside and the table. Thirty years ago, when he was 
in Congress, and Washington society was in the zenith of its 
renown, he was one of its most popular members. In those days 
of famed dinner parties, when sparkling wit and brilliant repartee 
flashed and danced around the hospitable board; when song and 
story went up and down ; when the statesman forgot the affairs of 
State, and when political rivalries and dissensions were thrust out 
of sight in the clasp of the hand, or the pledge of the health, the 
Baltimore member was ever welcome, and it is related that John 
Quincy Adams, himself a delightful companion, often forgot his 
resolution against late hours, in listening to Mr. Kennedy. Wash- 
ington Irving, in visiting Baltimore, met Mr. Kennedy for the first 
time at the table of a common friend, and a close intimacy sprung 
up between them, which was only broken by the hand of death. 
Mr. Winthrop says, " a delightful week, which I passed under his 
(Mr. Kennedy's) roof, many years ago, gave me an opportunity of 
witnessing the esteem and affection, in which he was held by my 
only fellow guest, Washington Irving, whose life indeed, contains 
more than one letter to him, beginning ' Dear Horseshoe ' and 
ending ' Geoffrey Crayon.' " 

Thackeray and Dickens while in America, met Mr. Kennedy, and 
the acquaintance ripened into a friendship and an intimacy, which 
they were both happy to renew on his visits to England. He was 
just the man to appreciate the keen satire of the one, and the 
exquisite humor of the other, while those fascinating qualities of 
mind and heart, which so marked him, won their no less esteem. 
Oliver Wendell Holmes alluding to an interview with Mr. Kennedy, 
a few days before his death, says: "He was full of talk, so 
cheerful, so genial, so varied — sometimes on political and historical 
matters, with which he was familiar, sometimes relating personal 
experiences of which he had such a fund in his memory, always 
lively, entertaining, graceful in his discourse — that I have rarely 
sat in a company when one man did more to keep all the rest happy 
in listening to him. There was no look of warning, no tone that 
could suggest a melancholy foreboding ; but bright and brave in the 
face of fast gaining infirmity, which he would not betray to sadden 
others, he shed sunshine about him to the last." 

Mr. Kennedy left no children. His wife, who survives to mourn 
him, and who with her sister, Miss Gray, rendered his home for 
more than thirty years, so dear and delightful to himself, and so 
attractive to his friends, is a daughter of the late Edward Gray, 
one of the most respectable merchants of Baltimore. 



"WILLIAM KENNEDY. 



It is a notable fact that among the leading business men of Balti- 
more, and the same is probably true of other commercial cities of 
this country, there are to be found the names of several whose 
boyhood and early manhood were spent at sea, and who have 
stepped from the quarter-deck of the vessel they commanded into 
the positions they now hold of trust and confidence in the mer- 
cantile community. This seems to be particularly the case in con- 
nection with the management of large enterprises of associated 
capital. The explanation is not far to seek. A good commander 
must necessarily be a man of administrative and executive ability. 
Accustomed to think and act for others, not only for those who are 
under his personal control and who obey his orders, but for the 
owners, whose interests are entrusted to his care on distant seas and 
in foreign ports, fidelity to his trust and a strict adherence to the 
line of duty will naturally be characteristic of such men. The very 
responsibility of their position will tend to develop in them those 
qualities of sound judgment, prompt decision, firmness and system, 
which are essential to the successful management of any corporate 
or associated enterprise. Hence, those who have such interests are 
generally fortunate when they are able to commit them to the hands 
of a man, who, amid the trials, temptations, and dangers of a sea- 
faring life, has established the character of a prudent, faithful, and 
skillful commander. The traits which such a character implies are 
worth their weight in gold, whether on shore or afloat. The subject 
of this sketch was quite long enough at sea and had a sufficient 
share of the vicissitudes and experiences of a nautical life to have 
his character formed and his qualities tested in the rough school 
which either makes a man or mars him. 

Born in Philadelphia, February 26th, 1801, Captain William 
Kennedy made his first voyage to the West Indies when he was a 
lad of fourteen. From that time until he finally quit the seas, in 
1834, he was continuously in the merchant service, and from the 
year 1820 was in command of a vessel. 

In 1835 he came to Baltimore to live, and formed a copartnership 
in the hide and leather business with Mr. William Jenkins, to 



338 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

whose daughter he was married in 1831. After the death of his 
father-in-law, in 1843, Captain Kennedy continued in business by 
himself until September, 1847, when he was induced to devote him- 
self entirely to the management of the interests of the Mount 
Vernon Manufacturing Company, of which corporation he was 
made President. This position, after the lapse of twenty-three years, 
Captain Kennedy still holds. It is not the only position of trust, 
however, to which he was elected long years ago, and which he still 
retains, in proof of the high estimation in which his services are 
held by those who have once enjoyed the benefit of them. For 
more than thirty consecutive years he has been a Director in the 
Bank of Baltimore, and for more than twenty-five years a Director 
of the Equitable Fire Insurance Company. He is also a Director in 
the Baltimore Savings Bank. 

The Mount Vernon Mills, the property of the Company whose 
affairs he has so long and faithfully administered, are among the 
most important manufacturing establishments in the vicinity of 
Baltimore. Situated on the Falls turnpike and on the bank of 
Jones's Falls, and distant about two miles from the city, they give 
employment to about three hundred operatives, one half of whom 
are females. The mills are run partly by water and partly by steam, 
and are employed in the manufacture of cotton sail duck, ravens, 
twine, felting for paper makers, and an article of canvas, wide 
and light, used for threshing machines. The production in 1869 
amounted to 1,240,245 yards of goods and 23,233 pounds of twine. 
The consumption of raw material amounted to 3,144 bales ; the mills 
have a capacity, however, to work up a much larger amount, or 
about 5,000 bales per annum. The Company's property embraces 
some sixty acres of land, prettily embellished and improved, on 
which are erected eighty or more dwellings for the operatives, the 
majority of which are built of stone, and which constitute the little 
village of Mount Vernon. 

Captain Kennedy himself resides near Baltimore city, his country 
seat, where he has lived for more than forty years, being situated a 
short distance beyond the Green Mount Cemetery. His character 
is what the record of his life would indicate, — that of an upright, 
modest, unassuming gentleman, who, while habitually shrinking 
from notoriety and doing nothing to court public attention, has ac- 
quired the respect and esteem of the community, by the energy and 
fidelity with which he has fulfilled every trust committed to his 
charge, and particularly for his successful management of the im- 
portant manufacturing enterprise to which he has devoted the latter 
portion of his life. 





-U-mad 




THOMAS KENSETT. 



Thomas Kexsett was born in Cheshire, Connecticut, on February 
12th, 1814. His father, also named Thomas, was a native of Eng- 
land, who immigrated to America in the early part of this century, 
and settled in Connecticut, where he soon after married Elizabeth 
A. Daggett, of Xew Haven. 

In the year 1819, Mr. Kensett, Sr., invented a mode of preserving 
meats, fruits and vegetables, which in all essential particulars is the 
same with that now in general use. Seeing at once the commercial 
importance and value of his invention, he resolved to make arrange- 
ments for conducting the process on a larger scale, and to this end 
removed to the city of Xew York, where he established himself in 
partnership with his father-in-law, Mr. Ezra Daggett. The business 
thus established was successfully prosecuted by the partners until 
the year 1825, when Mr. Daggett retired from the firm and returned 
to Xew Haven, Mr. Kensett continuing the business until his death, 
in June, 1829. 

The trade in "canned goods," which has since developed into such 
gigantic proportions, was at this time in its infancy. The demand 
was limited to the purchases made by the United States, and con- 
sisted principally of meats, soups and milk for officers' stores, and 
hospital use in the navy, and of supplies for vessels bound on long 
voyages. 

Mr. Kensett, the subject of this sketch, resided in Xew York, 
engaged in mercantile pursuits, from the year 1820 to 1849. In 
1838 he married Miss Eliza P. Wheeler, daughter of J. B. Wheeler, 
a member of the State Legislature. In 1849 he removed to Balti- 
more; and about the same time, (his first wife having died some 
years before,) married Miss Sarah Ann Wheeler of Xew York, with 
whose brother he formed a partnership. Mr. Wheeler remained in 
Xew York to represent the business, that being the principal centre 
of demand, while Mr. Kensett established his factory on York 
street, near Light, in Baltimore, as the latter city afforded by far 
the greatest facilities for procuring the oysters and fruits which 



340 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

were the staple articles of the business. The rent of the building 
he occupied then was $125 per annum. 

Just at this time occurred the discovery of gold in California, 
which gave so amazing an impetus to nearly all branches of trade, 
and to none more than that in canned goods, both for sea-stores and 
for consumption in the mines, where they were looked upon as 
articles of prime necessity. Mr. Kensett experienced a full share 
of this prosperity. The old factory being found inadequate for 
the increasing demands of the business, he erected a new building, 
of what then seemed to the firm the imposing dimensions of 
twenty-five feet by sixty. 

The building which the present firm occupies, on the same site, 
has a length of a hundred and fifty feet with a depth of seventy, is 
three stories in height, and stands upon a site fronting three hundred 
and seventy-five feet on West Falls' avenue, with a similar front on 
the basin. Mr. Kensett also erected another factory for packing 
fruit and the manufacture of cans, which has a front of seventy-five 
feet on Bank street, and a depth of one hundred and ten. 

Upon the death of Mr. Wheeler, in 1857, Mr. Kensett continued 
the business alone until 1864, when he admitted his son, Thomas H. 
Kensett, and his nephew, EL N. Vail, to interests in the house. 

Until the breaking out of the war between the States, in 1861, 
the principal foreign markets for canned goods were Australia, 
California and South America ; but during the war the demand for 
home consumption was enormously increased, and the quality of the 
goods packed in Mr. Kensett's establishment gave so much satisfac- 
tion and attained so wide a reputation, that the business has greatly 
increased in extent. 

The statistics of this trade afford an interesting proof of how 
vastly the natural wealth of a country may be increased by the 
discoveries of science. The oysters and fruits, which are the staple 
articles of the trade, are of so delicate and perishable a nature that 
they cannot, under ordinary circumstances, bear long keeping or 
distant transportation. Hence of the immense wealth contained in 
the prolific oyster beds of the Chesapeake Bay, but an insignificant 
portion was realized ; while the peach orchards on either shore, 
though in numbers and extent but a small fraction of those now 
flourishing, produced crops of delicious fruit, of which great part 
was sold at a trivial price or perished for want of a market. At 
the time when Mr. Kensett, Sr., obtained his patent for preserving 
meats and fruits, in 1825, the market value of poaches was from 
forty to seventy cents per bushel; when now it is not unusual for 



THOMAS KENSETT. 341 

a packer to pay three dollars, and even five dollars a bushel for 
fruit of good quality. Two years ago, one of the Baltimore packers 
paid twenty-seven thousand dollars in cash for the peaches taken 
from a farm of a hundred and twenty-five acres, being an average 
of about four dollars per bushel. Eighteen years ago the entire 
product of the farm could have been bought for a third of the 
sum. What is true of this orchard may be applied to nearly all 
the farm lands about the city, which in many places have increased 
in value five hundred per cent. ; and this result has been obtained 
chiefly by the development of the packing business. 

Fifteen years ago the largest houses in the trade did not pack 
more than two thousand bushels during the season ; now many of 
them require from five to eight hundred bushels a day, and this, 
too, during a season which lasts about two months. 

During the season, Mr. Kensett's firm employs eight hundred 
hands ; and to give an idea of the activity of the business, we 
may state that from August 9th to September 14th of the year 
1870, this house packed one million thirty-seven thousand four 
hundred and seventy-six cans of peaches. 

The oysters are principally taken from the Chesapeake Bay and 
its tributaries, and the business of taking as well as packing gives 
employment to a large number of persons. There are houses 
engaged in the packing business in this city, which give constant 
employment during the season to forty and fifty vessels each, and 
which disburse more than five hundred thousand dollars a year. 
The returns on the business, which requires such heavy outlay, 
come from all parts of the country and all quarters of the world, 
except Maryland, where there is so little demand for consumption 
that the entire profits on the goods sold for that purpose in a 
year, by any house, would not pay their book-keeper's salary. But 
this one State excluded, the whole civilized world is their customer. 

A meeting of the Baltimore Oyster Packers' Association, of 
which Mr. Kensett is President, was held on Light street, on the 
9th of April, 1868, at which meeting about thirty gentlemen 
were present, representing at least $15,000,000 of capital engaged 
in this business. Mr. Kensett delivered an address, reciting the 
history of the trade, and filled with interesting facts. After 
dwelling on the importance of this traffic among the various 
industries of the State, he went on to say: "I do not err when 
I state that we are developing our resources, and contributing 
greatly to stimulate and foster the growth of the city by this 
flourishing branch of industry. Our factories, in many instances, 
23 



342 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

employ from three to five hundred persons, during seven months 
of the year, and these, too, of a class who could not easily find 
other occupation. Were it not for the shucking of oysters, many 
children, from twelve to fifteen years of age, would spend much 
of their time in the streets and around the wharves and docks, 
being trained up to immorality and crime, and preparing to fill 
our jails and workhouses. Now they are actively and usefully 
employed, earning from twenty-five cents to a dollar and twenty 
five cents a day. 

" On comparing the business of the packing houses with what 
it was twelve years ago, it can scarcely be realized that each of 
them now cans more goods than were then packed during an 
entire year. The United States Government has purchased more 
canned goods this year than were packed in the entire State eighteen 
years ago. 

" About eleven million bushels of oysters are taken annually 
from the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries, of which nine mil- 
lions are packed in Baltimore. 

" There are seventy regular packing houses, employing fifteen 
thousand persons, and packing about fifteen million cans each year. 

" Seventeen hundred vessels, averaging about fifty tons each, and 
three thousand canoes, are employed in dredging or tonging for 
oysters. 

" The extensive trade in this line of goods has had the effect of 
bringing to Baltimore an immense amount of business in other 
pursuits, which never would have sought the city but for its 
general reputation as a packing depot." 

Mr. Kensett's address, and the important and well authenticated 
facts which it contained, was listened to with great interest, and 
elicited much applause. 

Such has been the growth of a business, which in sixty years 
from the time Mr. Kensett, Sr., packed the first can of hermeti- 
cally sealed goods in the United States, has now grown to be one 
of the most important and flourishing industries in the State. 

Mr. Kensett enjoys the possession of an ample fortune. He is a 
Director in the Second National and Mechanics Banks, and is a 
large stockholder in most of the other Banks of Baltimore. He 
is also largely interested in several railroads, and has been very 
successful in his investments in real estate. He is an attendant of 
the Presbyterian Church. His family consists of three sons and 
three daughters. 




j^^MlJ^*- 



ALEXANDER KIRKLAND. 



Alexaxder Kirklaxd, the second son of William and Margaret 
Kirkland, was born in March, 1784, near Dungannon, County 
Tyrone, Ireland. His father was a farmer of the sturdy Scotch-Irish 
race settled in the north of the island. He was brought up at home 
until he reached the age of sixteen, when he was placed with a 
kinsman, Mr. David Dixon, then doing an active business in the 
lively borough town of Dungannon, which had its weekly grain 
market, and monthly fair, its quarter and petty sessions, and 
returned a member to Parliament. With Mr. Dixon, young Kirk- 
land acquired the correct and steady business habits which were 
characteristic of his whole life. 

After coming of age, he left Mr. Dixon, and embarked in busi- 
ness on his own account, and soon after married Miss Maria Ken, 
daughter of Patrick Ken, of Dungannon. But domestic affliction, 
which overtook him in the loss of his wife and only child, rendering 
his home, with its painful associations, distasteful to him, he deter- 
mined to seek his fortunes in the ISTew World. He had always felt 
attracted towards Baltimore, sharing in this the feeling of many of 
his countrymen who have chosen this city as their home, and 
among whom Baltimore counts not a few of her worthiest citizens ; 
so he selected that as his destination, and arrived in December, 
1809. 

Soon after his arrival he was offered a situation by Mr. Marcus 
McCausland, as cashier and collector in his brewery, with a home 
in the family. He at once accepted the offer, and remained in this 
position until 1813, when he left Mr. McCausland's establishment 
and engaged, on his own account, in the ship-chandlery business. 
About this time, the war spirit, which Mr. Kirkland had found 
very prevalent in this country upon his arrival, had resulted in the 
outbreak of hostilities with England. He, like most of his country- 
men, bore no love for that country, and had a high apprecia- 
tion of the liberties and institutions of the land of his adoption ; 
and in 1810 he had joined a volunteer company of Irishmen, com- 



344 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

manded by the late Christopher Hughes. At the outbreak of the 
war, this company marched in column to the Court House, and 
received their naturalization papers on the spot. 

Upon Capt. Hughes resigning the command, Mr. Kirkland joined 
Capt. Archibald Pike's company of artillery, and during the bom 
bardment of Fort McHenry, in September, 1814, he was stationed 
with his company on the works thrown up at what is now Patter- 
son Park. Upon the landing of the British forces at North Point, 
this company was ordered to meet them by a forced march, an 
order which was countermanded when they had nearly reached the 
front, and they were ordered back to the works they had previously 
occupied. The excessive heat of that day, and their excitement 
and fatigue, will never be forgotten by the survivors. A night of 
extreme severity, owing to the setting-in of the equinoctial storms, 
followed this exhausting day, during which, and for several suc- 
ceeding days and nights, Mr. Kirkland was constantly exposed in 
the trenches. The consequence of this exposure, aggravated by the 
accident of a broken ankle, for a time completely shattered his 
robust constitution, and left its effects in a permanent lameness and 
subsequent paralysis of the left leg. 

In 1819, he was prostrated by the epidemic yellow fever of that 
year; and his convalescence left him so enfeebled, that his physician 
enjoined him to break up his business and take to the seas, which 
he did in the following year, selling out his stock, chartering a 
vessel, which he loaded partly with goods of his own, and partly 
with the consignments of friends, and went as supercargo on a 
trading voyage to the "West Indies. In that day, before the estab- 
lishment of foreign mail lines, and the other facilities for safe and 
speedy communication with distant ports, all vessels bound on 
trading voyages, were accompanied by supercargoes ; and many of 
our most accomplished and successful merchants received the train- 
ing which conducted them to prosperity in this responsible but now 
obsolete office. 

Mr. Kirkland continued to perform these duties, to the entire 
satisfaction of all who entrusted their interests to his hands, until 
1825, when his health being now entirely restored, he made an ar- 
rangement with his present partner, Mr. Daniel Chase, and a Captain 
Fish, to become joint proprietors of the vessel. In the same year, 
he also arranged with Mr. Sidney Mason, of Gloucester, Mass., (now 
of New York,) to embark in a joint account business, Mr. Kirk- 
land to remain in Baltimore, and Mr. Mason to establish himself 
in St. John's, Porto Rico. Mr. George Latimer, of Philadelphia, 



ALEXANDER KIRKLAXD. 345 

afterwards became a party to this arrangement, and opened a branch 
house at Mayaguez, Porto Rico. 

The business thus commenced, has continued without interrup- 
tion to the present time. The original founders are all still living ; 
and the past year (1870) their aggregate exports of breadstuff's, pro- 
visions, &c, to Porto Rico amounted to more thau $470,000, and 
their imports from Porto Rico, to 13,800 hhds. of sugar, which 
exceeds the entire importation of sugar from all sources, at the time 
their house was established. 

The business was at first conducted by Mr. Kirkland under his 
own name ; but Mr. Chase, though actively engaged with his 
bakery, was interested in the Porto Rico trade of the house, and 
purchased most of the goods exported. In 1836, Mr. Chase gave up 
his bakery, and the formal partnership of Kirkland and Chase was 
announced ; and in 1841 the firm was increased by the admission 
of Mr. Allen A. Chapman, a son-in-law of Mr. Chase, and Mr. 
Robert R. Kirkland, son of the senior partner, upon which the style 
of the firm became Kirkland, Chase & Company, as it now exists. 

The introduction of the new partners, both men of remarkable 
intelligence, activity and business talents, gave additional strength 
and impulse to the already prosperous house ; their business in- 
creased from year to year, and they added vessel to vessel, by 
purchase, construction, or charter, to supply the requisitions of their 
enlarging trade. One of their brigs, the Frances Jane, they ran for 
more than thirty years, taking always full cargoes, and making a 
hundred and sixty-three voyages to Porto Rico alone, besides vari- 
ous trips to Brazil ; an amount of trading probably unequalled by 
any vessel of her class in the United States. 

The business community of Baltimore has long recognized the 
position and value of this estimable house, in its relation to the 
commerce of the city, which it has probably contributed more to 
improve and extend than any other mercantile firm. They have 
also given employment to large numbers of mechanics and laborers, 
besides seamen and employes in the various branches of their busi- 
ness ; and have earned with all classes a well deserved reputation 
for integrity, liberality, and public spirit. Far above the petty 
jealousies of trade, they have ever been ready to extend a helping 
hand to young men entering into business, and to assist them, 
when deserving, in their efforts to rise. 

They were largely instrumental in establishing the sugar re- 
fineries whose business is now so valuable to the city ; aiding and 
encouraging their late esteemed and lamented friend, Mr. John C. 



346 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

Brune, by liberal subscription and other assistance, in the establish- 
ment of the Maryland Sugar Refinery, and by their capital and 
credit contributing largely to the success of the Baltimore Sugar 
Refinery of Messrs. Dougherty, Woods & Co. 

Some twenty or thirty years ago, the cargoes of sugar, coffee, &c, 
arriving in port, were always sold at auction, and in the busy 
season this house disposed of such cargoes by auction, having one 
or two sales a week. The brokerage system has now superseded 
the former custom ; but our old grocery merchants will remember 
those sales when R. Lemmon & Company were the auctioneers ; and 
Mr. Kirkland was always to be seen in superintendence, with a 
smile and pleasant word for all. The honorable uprightness, the 
candid, open dealing, and the gentlemanly courtesy of those two 
well known old Baltimore houses, R. Lemmon & Company, and 
Wm. G. Harrison & Company, is still well remembered, and 
deserves at least a passing notice here. 

Though the house of Kirkland, Chase & Company were noted 
for their liberality in allowing credit to all whom they deemed 
worthy of confidence, they weathered the various commercial crises, 
though suffering losses amounting to hundreds of thousands of 
dollars, until the year 1860. The commercial panic which followed 
the election of Mr. Lincoln, with the wide-spread apprehension, 
which too soon became reality , that the excited feeling throughout 
the country would result in a w T ar between the States, brought 
heavy disasters upon the house. They were then holding large 
stocks of merchandise, which rapidly depreciated in value, and in 
one day more than $100,000 of bills were returned to them pro- 
tested. They went into an investigation of their affairs ; their 
actual and estimated losses ; the business assets of the firm, and the 
individual property of the partners, and the result of the investi- 
gation, proved that they were insolvent. 

Though their credit was still good, they deemed it their duty at 
once to close their business. Their liabilities proved to exceed 
$1,800,000. After paying in full every claim which could justly be 
regarded as confidential, they compromised with their creditors at 
seventy-five cents in the dollar, a percentage which many of the 
creditors thought would never be realized from the assets. 

Mr. A. Kirkland, who at the time of the disaster was incapaci- 
tated for active business, strengthened his partners in their resolu- 
tion to give up all their property for the satisfaction of the credi- 
tors. Mr. Chase surrendered all his property, and with the rest, 
the handsome residence, which he had not long built, and removed 



ALEXANDER KIRKLAND. 347 

to a small rented house. The junior partners, Mr. Chapman and 
Mr. R. R. Kirkland, were not behind their seniors in this deter- 
mination to sacrifice all for the honor of the house. 

This failure excited universal sympathy wherever the firm was 
known. The creditors all signed their release ; and such was the 
confidence reposed in them by their foreign correspondents, that 
they were receiving new business before they had completed the 
compromise settlement for the old. 

The spring of 1861 tried them severely ; and it seemed that they 
must break dowu in their efforts to pay the compromised propor- 
tion ; but they straggled manfully, and in less than three years 
from the date of their suspension, paid, not merely the stipulated 
three-fourths, but all claims in full, principal and interest. 

Since that time, the house has gone on with re-established credit, 
and more than regained its former prosperity. In the past year it 
exported goods in seventy-three vessels, and imported 26,000 hhds. 
of sugar, 52,000 bags of coffee, besides other merchandise, on which 
the Governmeut received in duties $1,500,000 gold, being about 
one-hundredth part of its entire revenue from import duties. 

Though Mr. A. Kirkland no longer actively participates in the 
business of the firm, of which he is still the senior, he is cognizant 
of all their large and varied operations. 

In addition to his regular business, Mr. Kirkland has held vari- 
ous positions of trust in public institutions. He has been a director 
in several banks, and still holds that position, though rather as an 
honoraiy than an active office, in the Eutaw Savings Bank, his 
fellow directors in which institution some years since, waited upon 
him in a body, aud presented him with an address expressive of 
their sympathy and respect. He has also held directorships in our 
Marine Insurance Companies ; and in all his official positions, his 
known soundness of judgment and uprightness of character gave 
great weight to his advice and opinions. He never took any active 
part in political affairs. 

On his arrival in this country, he connected himself with the 
Presbyterian Church, but after his marriage he joined the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, of which his wife was a member. 

Mr. Kirkland has now living two sons, "Wm. E. Kirkland (of the 
firm of Kirkland and Von Sachs, New York) and Robert R. Kirk- 
land, his partner ; three daughters, Mrs. Benjamin C. Buck, Mrs. 
John L. "Weeks and Mrs. Talbot J. Taylor; twenty-three grand- 
children, and three great-grandchildren ; and has consequently had 
four generations under his roof. Four years ago he celebrated his 



348 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

golden wedding, and with his aged wife, who is still living, and 
descendants to the third generation, presented a picture of happy 
and honored old age, such as is rarely seen. 




r ^ 



-&€. 



WILLIAM KNABE. 



The career of Mr. "William Knabe, the eminent piano forte 
manufacturer, and founder of the firm of William Knabe & Co., 
who died in this city May 21st, 1864, is an apt illustration of the 
effect which little causes, of the kind commonly called accidental, 
and oftentimes viewed in the light of misfortunes, have in shaping 
the course of human lives to the most fortunate results. Mr. Knabe 
was born at Kreuzburg, in the Duchy of Saxe Weimar, June 3d, 
1803. His father, who was an apothecary, designed that his son 
should be educated for a profession, but owing to the loss of prop- 
erty, occasioned by the calamities of war during the French 
invasion of Germany in 1812-13, was unable to gratify his wish. 
Young Knabe instead of going to the gymnasium and the univer- 
sity, was apprenticed to a cabinet maker. After learning his trade, 
according to the German custom, he traveled for two } T ears in 
the exercise of his craft, and then apprenticed himself for three 
more years, to Langenhahn, a manufacturer of piano fortes, at 
Gotha. 

He afterwards traveled for six years, during which period he 
visited the principal cities of Germany, and was everywhere recog- 
nized as an excellent piano maker. In 1831, while a resident of 
Saxe Meiningen, he formed an acquaintance with Miss Christiana 
Ritz, the daughter of a well-to-do family, which resulted in an 
engagement of marriage ; but before its consummation, the family 
of his affianced decided to emigrate to America, whither a brother 
of Miss Kitz had gone a few years previous. Mr. Knabe accom- 
panied them with the intention of becoming a farmer, but as Dr. 
Ernest Ritz, upon whom the care of the family principally rested, 
had died on the passage ; and, as the difficulties encountered in a 
journey to Missouri, whither they intended going, were learned, 
he resolved to remain in Baltimore, at least one year, to familiarize 
himself with the language and customs of the country. Upon his 
arrival in Baltimore he was united to Miss Ritz, and obtained 
employment from H. llartge (the original inventor of iron piano 



350 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

frames) at five dollars per week, which was soon increased to eight 
dollars per week. By working early and late, he increased his 
earnings so greatly that he sold his agricultural utensils, &c., and 
abandoning his intention to go to Hermann, Missouri, he was 
enabled after four years of hard labor and judicious economy, to 
commence business for himself, in the purchase, sale and repairing 
of old pianos, in the old frame building on the corner of Liberty 
and Lexington streets. 

In 1839, he formed a partnership with Mr. H. Gaehle, and com- 
menced the manufacture of piano fortes. The business increased so 
rapidly, and additional accommodation was so necessary, that the 
firm removed in 1841, to the corner of Liberty and German streets. 
In 1843, in consequence of the growing demand for their pianos, 
they were induced to take the warehouse at the corner of Eutaw 
street and Cowpen alley. Four years later, they rented the ware- 
houses ]STos. 1, 3, 5 and 7 North Eutaw street, still occupied by 
William Knabe & Co., for office purposes and warerooms. In 1851, 
they had two large establishments, one on Baltimore street near 
Paca, the other, on Cowpen alley in the rear of the Eutaw House. 
In November, 1854, the latter manufactory was destroyed by fire, 
and five weeks later, that on Baltimore street was also burnt. 
The major part of their hard earned fortune was thus lost, as there 
was only a small insurance on the factories; and it was only by 
indomitable energy and industry, that total ruin was averted. 
The partnership of Knabe & Gaehle was dissolved, by the death of 
the latter, in 1855, when he recommenced business under the 
present firm of William Knabe & Co. ; and the old paper mill, on 
the corner of West and China streets was bought, for the purpose 
of being converted into a piano factory. The increase of business 
soon led to a corresponding enlargement of his plans, and in 1860, 
he commenced the erection of the present immense structure, at the 
corner of Eutaw and West streets, making the entire plans for 
same as now completed, and now having a front of two hundred 
and ten feet on the former street and of one hundred and sixty-five 
feet on the latter, and one wing of which had been completed, when 
the war in 1861, caused a disastrous interruption in the business 
of the firm. Up to this time, their sales had been chiefly at the 
South. The loss of this trade, consequent upon the war, com- 
pelled the firm to seek a new market for their pianos. This was 
found in the West, and by energy and perseverance, an extensive 
business was gradually built up. The new factory was completed, 
by additions made in 1865 and 1869, and crowned with its cupola, 



"WILLIAM KNABE. 351 

from which an extended view of the city, in every direction, can he 
had, it forms a conspicuous ohject, and one which cannot fail to 
arrest the attention of travelers entering or leaving the city by the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, near the line and depot of which 
company it is situated. This extensive factory, one of the very 
largest and best arranged in every way in the United States, and 
furnishing employment to a numerous body of skillful workmen, 
is capable of turning out forty finished pianos every week. Too 
much credit cannot be given to the indomitable pluck and energy 
with which the business of this firm has been carried on, in the 
face of losses by fire and w T ar, which, w'ere temporarily almost 
ruinous. Beginning life in Baltimore, as we have seen, as a jour- 
neyman mechanic, led by accident, in the first instance, to make 
this city his home, and afterwards to abandon his original design 
of turning farmer, and to engage instead in the business of manu- 
facturing pianos, AVilliam Knabe, from the time he entered upon 
this latter career, pursued it with unflinching energy and resolution. 
He bore his reverses with equanimity, continued faithful to his 
engagements under all circumstances, and in the face of disaster 
and impending ruin, maintained a cheerfulness and decision of 
character, worthy of imitation as well as praise. Qualities such 
as Mr. Knabe possessed, rarely fail in the end to command success. 
He died May 21st, 1864, honored and respected among business 
men for his integrity, loved by his employes for his considerate 
care of their comfort, and deserving to be held in grateful remem- 
brance b}' the many thousands to whose innocent and profitable 
enjoyment, his skill and ingenuity have contributed. 

In August, 1855, Mr. Knabe decided to compete for the gold 
medal to be aw T arded by the Maryland Institute, for the best piano 
exhibited at its next fair. The difficulties encountered in settling 
the accounts of the old firm, rendered it necessary for him to 
temporarily leave the old stock in the hands of others, he was 
therefore compelled to contend for the prize under very disadvan- 
tageous circumstances. Notwithstanding these, in seven tcceks the 
instrument w T as made, which bore away the palm from more than 
twenty competitors. 

Since then, medals, diplomas, and premiums without -number, 
have attested the public appreciation of the excellence of these 
pianos, while Thalberg, Gottschalk, Strakosch, Marmontel, Prune 
and others, have recorded the verdict of the artistic and musical 
world in their favor. 

Owing to the extensive sale which they have commanded, 



352 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

through large portions of the country, the name of " Knabe," has 
become a household word. 

When it is remembered that forty years ago, Americans were 
satisfied to buy indifferently finished pianos, of foreign makers, 
at extravagant prices, and that the prejudice was general and 
inveterate against home manufactured instruments, the part which 
the enterprise and skill of Mr. Knabe have borne in effecting that 
revolution in sentiment and trade, which has enabled the manu- 
facturer of American pianos to supersede those of the foreign 
manufacturer, and in reality to sell a superior instrument, at a 
lower price, deserves especial commendation. 

In closing this sketch, it may be cited as an illustration of Mr. 
Knabe's kindly disposition, and of the pleasant relations which he 
always cultivated with those in his employ, that in 1855 he insti- 
tuted the custom of giving an annual holiday and pic-nic to all 
his workmen and their families, only interrupted for a few years 
during the height of the late war, a custom which the firm has ever 
since kept up. More of such pleasing exhibitions of consideration, 
and sympathy on the part of employers towards those who labor 
for them, would tend to remove much of the asperity which too 
frequently marks the intercourse of employers and employes, and 
embitters the contests between capital and labor. 

The business which Mr. Knabe founded in his lifetime, and left 
at his death in a highly prosperous condition, is being carried on 
with increasing success by his sons, William and Ernest Knabe, and 
his son-in-law Charles Keidel, under the name of William Knabe 
&Co. 



LUTHER MARTIN. 



This very distinguished lawyer, who graced the bar of Maryland, 
at a period when it could also boast of Robert Goodloe Harper, 
Roger B. Taney, William Wirt, and AVilliam Pinkney, was born 
in New Brunswick, New Jersey, in 1744. He was the third of a 
family of nine children, and at an early age displayed a love of 
learning. He acquired the elements of the Latin language, at a 
grammar school to which he was sent at the age of thirteen years ; 
and in 1762, he graduated at Princeton College with the highest 
honors. At this institution he pursued his classical studies, and at 
the same time made some progress in French and Hebrew. 

His family being in very moderate circumstances, Luther at once 
upon leaving college, determined to maintain himself; and having 
chosen the profession of law, although greatly against the wishes 
and views of his friends, he, only two days after graduating, left 
home, and set out on horseback with two or three young men for 
Cecil county, Maryland. His object was to take charge of a school, 
but finding on arrival that the place had been filled, he was advised 
to proceed to Queenstown, in Queen Anne county. Here he was 
hospitably received, and soon entered on his humble duties as a 
schoolmaster. He occupied this position until April, 1770, in order 
to gain a support while studying for his chosen profession of law. 

Even at this period the reckless habits of Luther Martin, which 
so seriously affected his good fortunes during life, brought him into 
debt and consequent difficulty ; but at length in 1771 or 1772, he 
was, through the aid of the distinguished George Wythe and John 
Randolph, admitted to the Virginia bar. He sojourned for a session 
at "Williamsburg, and while there made the acquaintance of Patrick 
Henry and other noted men. Soon after this period, he commenced 
the practice of the law at Accomac, Virginia, and then took up 
his residence in Somerset, Maryland, establishing rapidly a very 
lucrative practice, amounting to one thousand pounds a year, being 
for that time a very large sum. He continued to attract the public 
as an able and brilliant lawyer, and in 1774 he was appointed one 



354 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

of the convention which assembled at Annapolis, to resist the 
pretensions of the mother country. The difficulties with England 
had now fully roused the Colonies, and Luther Martin threw the 
whole weight of his influence and talents into the cause of American 
Independence. A proclamation published by the Howes, command- 
ing the British forces, in the Chesapeake, and addressed to the 
people of that section of the country, was answered by Luther 
Martin, in the most elocpuent and forcible manner. 

In February, 1778, through the influence of Judge Samuel Chase, 
Martin was appointed Attorney General of the State of Maryland. 
He entered upon his office at a period when it required the strongest 
exercise of authority in prosecuting the Tories, who were constantly 
endeavoring to thwart the action of the United States Government. 
Martin proceeded against them with iron will and unflinching pur- 
pose, and greatly aided in their total overthrow in Maryland. The 
office was conferred upon him without any solicitation on his part, 
and holding it as he did for a long period, he constantly added 
to his reputation as an advocate of pre-eminent ability. In 1804, 
his friend Judge Chase of the Supreme Court of the United States, 
having been impeached in the House of Representatives, on charges 
contained in eight articles, for malfeasance in office, Martin de- 
fended him in connection with Robert Goodloe Harper. His argu- 
ment on that occasion, was one of the most powerful ever heard 
in an American court room, and is still referred to with wonder 
by some yet living who listened to it. Judge Chase was acquitted 
on every charge. 

It was the fortune of Martin to be engaged in another cause of 
wider celebrity, and also again with Mr. Harper ; in the trial of 
Aaron Burr for high treason. In 1807, Burr was brought to trial 
before the Circuit Court of the United States, at Richmond, 
Virginia, for treasonable designs, " in preparing the means of a 
military expedition against Mexico, a territory of the King of 
Spain, with whom the United States were at peace." During 
this memorable trial, Martin exerted all his genius in defending 
Burr who, as is well known, was acquitted. 

In 1814, Mr. Martin was appointed Chief Justice of the Court of 
Oyer and Terminer, for Baltimore city and county, and held the 
office with his usual ability until he was compelled to resign it, in 
consequence of a new Act of the Legislature. In 1818, he was 
again appointed Attorney General of the State of Maryland, and 
District Attorney for the city of Baltimore, but by this time the 
advances of age and disease had impaired his vigor and his intellect, 



LUTHER MARTIN. 355 

so that he was unable to attend personally to his duties. His 
powers at length were shattered by a stroke of paralysis, and owing 
to bis pecuniary embarrassments, he removed to New York, accept- 
ing the friendly hospitality of Aaron Burr ; who repaid the services 
which Martin had rendered him in former years ; until at the age 
of eighty-two, the celebrated lawyer died on the 10th of July, 1826. 
The fame of Luther Martin, is still respectfully cherished at the 
bar of Maryland, and must continue to be for very many years, 
although his great legal reputation is now almost wholly traditional. 
His singular eccentricities of character and manner, are vividly 
remembered, his absence of mind frequently so completely absorbing 
him from the world, that he would appear upon the streets closely 
studying his legal papers, and totally unconscious of the passing 
world. It is to be regretted that one so gifted should have been 
afflicted with habits of extravagance and intemperance, which while 
offering warnings to others, rendered his own life often unhappy, 
and in his old age clouded his noble intellect, and reduced him to 
extreme penury. 



BRANTZ MAYER. 



Brantz Mayer was born in the city of Baltimore, Maryland, on 
the 27th of September, 1809, and was veiy thoroughly educated, 
partly at Saiut Mary's College, Baltimore, and partly by private 
instruction. After finishing his education he traveled extensively 
in Europe, and in the East, as far as China, and the islands of the 
Indian Sea. Destined for the bar, he was admitted to the Courts, 
and after his return from Europe practiced law until 1841, when he 
was appointed Secretary of the United States Legation to Mexico, a 
post he retained until the death of his father, the late Christian 
Mayer, one of the early and eminent German merchants of 
Baltimore. On his return from Mexico to his native city he varied 
attendance on the Courts with contributions to literature ; and, for 
some time, edited the "Baltimore American," while it was under 
the administration of its founders, Messrs. Dobbin, Murphy & Bose. 

Mr. Mayer's principal works which have made him so widely 
known as a contributor to the solid, descriptive and historical 
literature of our country, are: First, his book, in one volume, pub- 
lished in 1844, entitled " Mexico as it Was and as it Is ;" Second, 
the " Journal of Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, during his journey 
with Franklin, Chase and Archbishop Carroll to Canada in 1775," 
which Mr. Mayer edited with a rich, historical memoir and notes ; 
Third, " Mexico ; Aztec, Spanish and Republican," an admirable, 
historical, and descriptive work on that country ; and the first 
(native or foreign) that grouped the ancient and modern, as well as 
the productive and statistical characteristics of that interesting 
empire ; Fourth, " Captain Canot ; or, Twenty Years of the Life of 
an African Slaver ;" a narrative of the fads of a real life, derived 
from the adventurer himself, and valuable for the picture it presents 
of aboriginal life, in the interior as well as on the coasts of Africa, 
and of the abominable trade in human flesh ; Fifth, " Observations 
on Mexican History, with some account of the Zapotec Remains at 
Mitla," superbly issued, in large quarto, with plates, by the Smith- 
sonian Institute ; Sixth, an account of " Mexican Antiquities," 
24 



358 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

printed, first, with many splendid illustrations, in copper plates, in 
Schoolcraft's great Indian work, published by the Government of 
the United States, and subsequently issued in a small private edition, 
separately, of about thirty copies ; Seventh, " Tahgahjute ; or, 
Logan, the Indian, and Captain Michael Cresap," an octavo volume, 
beautifully printed by the celebrated Joel Munsell, of Albany, 
vindicating Cresap from the attributed massacre of Logan's family ; 
and Eighth, " A Memoir of Jared Sparks," the historian, printed in 
elegant style by the Maryland Historical Society, for private 
circulation among its members and friends. Besides these substan- 
tial books, Mr. Mayer has contributed largely to the periodical 
press, daily, monthly, and quarterly, of the Union, to the extent of 
at least two additional volumes of miscellaneous articles, addresses 
and speeches. 

In 1844, with half a dozen citizens, most of whom are now dead, 
Mr. Mayer founded the Maryland Historical Society, while he was 
already President of the old Baltimore Library Company, whose 
superb library has since been merged in that of the Historical 
Society. In 1846, with Messrs. Robert Leslie, and William Rode- 
wald, he drew up the plan of the Athenaeum, as a permanent abode 
of the Historical Society, the Library Company and the Mercantile 
Library Association. The views of the projectors were warmly 
seconded by the late George Brown and Osmond Tiffany, and some 
twenty leading merchants of that day ; so that by their joint exer- 
tions, and the liberal donations of our citizens, Mr. Mayer was 
enabled to deliver the Inaugural Address in the edifice during the 
month of October, 1848, when it was opened to the public, at the 
corner of St. Paul and Saratoga streets — a free gift and endowment 
to the societies forever. 

Mr. Mayer is perhaps most extensively known by his works on 
Mexico, and by his Captain Canot, thousands of copies of which 
were sold at the time of their publication, and continue to be read by 
all who require a solid as well as an interesting account of the 
countries and people so graphically described. He was appointed 
one of his executors by John MeDonogh, of Few Orleans, and sub- 
sequently was named a commissioner by Baltimore to manage and 
liquidate this city's share of the eccentric millionaire's property. 
This trust Mr. Mayer fulfilled to the entire satisfaction of his fellow 
citizens, between the years 1855 and I860 — handing over to the 
Trustees of the MeDonogh Educational Institution (an institution 
he devised, and the ordinance for which he first drew up) the 
proceeds of the sales of the real estate made by him and his col- 



BRANTZ MAYER. 359 

leagues. A Whig in politics, and always taking a strong interest 
in public affairs, Mr. Mayer was a decided adherent of the National 
Union cause from the very dawn of our late troubles. He believed 
that war might perhaps be averted by pacific measures, and wrote 
much and widely in favor of conciliation. But, when the die was 
cast, and hostilities began, he cast his lot immediately with the 
Unionists, and during 1861, 1862 and part of 1863, was widely 
known in Maryland and elsewhere as the President of the Union 
State Central Committee — a position he maintained until he received 
a commission in the United States army, in which he has continued 
until the present time. 

On the death, in 1866, of General John Spear Smith, who had been 
President of the Maryland Historical Society from its foundation, 
Colonel Mayer was very properly elected his successor, and has con- 
tributed largely to the interests and possessions of an institution 
over which he so ably presides, and which mainly owes its existence 
and home to his public spirited labors more than a quarter of a 
century ago. 

The name of this gentleman recals to us that of his honored 
father, Christian Mayer, and of his father's partner in trade, 
Lewis Brantz, both of whom were so intimately connected with 
the early commerce and navigation of Baltimore from the year 1783. 
About that time both of these gentlemen emigrated from Germany 
to America, and soon settled in this city as active merchants, con- 
tinuing so until impaired in fortune by the disasters of 1815-20. 
Mr. Christian Mayer then assumed the duties, first, of President of 
the Patapsco Marine Insurance Company, and afterwards, of the 
Neptune Marine Insurance Company. He was, also, the well known 
first Consul-General of Wurtemburg to the United States Govern- 
ment, and was often thanked by the King and Ministry of that 
country for his disinterested devotion to the interests and affairs 
of his former compatriots who emigrated to America. As an oracle 
on insurance he was referred to for opinions, not only by eminent 
lawyers and law writers, but by the Courts themselves, into which he 
was constantly summoned as an expert in solving difficult questions of 
maritime usage. He was a thoroughly educated gentleman and mer- 
chant, having passed through a classical course of studies in his 
native city of Ulm, and subsequently served for several years, until 
attaining his majority, in the celebrated commercial house of Frei & 
Pestalozzi, in Zurich, Switzerland. He read every valuable book 
attainable from the libraries of Baltimore until within a few weeks 
of his death, at an advanced age, in 1843, and was highly respected 



360 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

for his general knowledge, conversational powers, and urbanity by 
all his mercantile brethren. His acquaintance with the commerce, 
and commercial laws, and relations of the world was remarkable, 
and made him a conspicuous example of the class of highly cultiva- 
ted merchants " of the old school" that adorned the early days of 
Baltimore after the Revolutionary war. His partner, Mr. Lewis 
Brantz, was a man of similar stamp and acquirements. He was 
specially inclined to scientific pursuits, and an able mathematician, 
as well as devoted to general literature in his hours of leisure. In 
early life he was one of the earliest explorers of what was then " the 
far West," taking a colony of Germans by land from Baltimore to 
Pittsburg in 1785, building boats there, in which he took them 
down the Ohio, and up the Cumberland rivers to " hash's Station," 
now Nashville ; and returning thence through the Indian-haunted 
wilderness, — in all a journey of 2,398 miles by land to Baltimore. 
In maturer life he sailed his ships as captain, supercargo, or con- 
signee for over twenty years, having many an adventure during the 
long European wars and the days of privateering. As a person of 
scientific culture, he was called on by the Baltimore Marine 
Insurance Companies, about 1816, to make the first regular survey 
of the " Patapsco river, and part of the Chesapeake bay," which, on 
completion, he published — through Fielding Lucas — in a large map, 
used as authority, until the recent Government publications of the 
Coast Survey Bureau. Mr. Brantz was also author of a privately 
printed volume (now very scarce) of the first connected series of 
local " Meteorological Observations" in this country, and made and 
instituted by him at Baltimore. It is to the manuscripts left by him, 
touching the early history of Baltimore trade and commerce that 
we are mainly indebted for the materials of the thorough sketch we 
have been able to present and preserve in the first article of this 
volume of the first mercantile progress and wealth of our metropo- 
lis. He completed the Baltimore, Wilmington and Philadelphia 
Railroad as its President, and died in January, 1838, unmarried, 
and without a known relative ; his name being continued only by 
the gentleman to whose biography this sketch was first devoted, 
and who thus unites the names of his father and of his father's life 
long friend and partner. 

Mr. Mayer's writings are distinguished for clearness and direct- 
ness. There is nothing involved or labored in his style, but all is 
' easy and graceful. He is evidently a close observer and thinker, 
and only writes when he has mastered his subject. His descriptions 
of nature show the artist, and his narratives, the scholarly man of 
the world. 



ROBERT MILLIGAN McLANE. 



Robert Milligan McLaste was born at Wilmington, in the State 
of Delaware, on the 23d of June, 1815. He is the eldest son of the 
late Louis McLane of .Delaware, who, after twenty years of distin- 
guished public service, as Representative in Congress, as Senator, as 
Minister to Great Britain, as Secretary of the Treasury and then 
Secretary of State, retired from political life in 1837, and settled 
in Maryland, having accepted the Presidency of the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad Company. With what vigor and capacity Mr. Louis 
McLane administered the affairs of this Company during the long 
period of his presidency, forms a bright page in the history of that 
great work, and is still fresh in the memory of our citizens. Robert 
M. McLane's grandfather, Colonel Allan McLane of Delaware, was 
an officer of distinguished merit in the Revolution — serving first in 
the Delaware Line, and afterwards and to the close of the war, as the 
second in command in Lee's Legion. He was the friend of Wash- 
ington, who honored him with an important and responsible civil 
office under the government formed in 1787, which he retained until 
his death, in 1829. On his mother's side Robert M. McLane comes 
of good old Maryland stock. His mother, Catherine Mary Mil- 
ligan, a woman of rare accomplishment and merit — the wisest 
counsellor her husband ever had, and his best friend — was the eldest 
daughter of Robert Milligan, of Cecil county, Maryland, and Sally 
Jones, his wife. Robert Milligan, son of George Milligan, a re- 
spected merchant of Baltimore and planter in Cecil county, where 
he had married a daughter of John Baldwin, one of the early 
settlers of that section of the State, was educated at the University 
of Oxford, in England, and on his return home, after graduating, 
married a daughter of John Jones, of Delaware, and established 
his home on the fine family estate on the Bohemia river, in 
Cecil county, once the residence of his maternal grandfather. The 
early death of his wife, in 1796, leaving him with four children of 
very tender years, obliged Mr. Milligan to abandon, for a time, his 
beautiful estate and establish a home in Wilmington, Delaware, 



362 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

where his orphan children could receive proper care and education 
under the guardianship of an aunt. Mrs. Louis McLane's affection 
for the home of her fathers, on the banks of the Bohemia river, 
doubtless had much to do in determining her husband's choice of 
residence, when, as already stated, he retired from political life, in 
1837, and made his home in Maryland. Taking up his residence on 
this same Bohemia estate, which under his intelligent and generous 
management, became the pride of the county and one of the finest 
farming estates on the eastern shore. Robert M. McLane was 
placed, at an early age, in the school of Mr. John Bulloch, a 
worthy member of the Society of Friends, and a noted instructor 
of youth, at "Wilmington, and from thence sent, in 1827, to St. 
Mary's College in the city of Baltimore. It being his father's wish 
that he should be educated for the bar. He accompanied his father 
to England in 1829, and was placed under an instructor in Paris, 
and attended the classes at the College Bourbon. Here he was 
received with great interest by General La Fayette, who cherished 
an affectionate remembrance of his grandfather. He returned to 
the United States in 1831, and manifesting a preference for a mili- 
tary life, was appointed a cadet at West Point, by General Andrew 
Jackson, and graduated in July, 1837, when he was commissioned a 
Second Lieutenant in the First Artillery. Joining his regiment in 
Florida in the summer of 1837, Lieutenant McLane found himself 
in command of his company. He was ordered at once to the 
Everglades, in advance of General Jessup's expedition. His service 
throughout this expedition, marked as it was by constant fighting, 
merited and received the commendation of his brother officers of all 
grades. In the spring of 1838 Lieutenant McLane was ordered 
with his company to join General Scott in the Cherokee country, 
Georgia. It was on the expedition to the Everglades that he first 
met General Joseph E. Johnston and formed a friendship, which 
time and a close family connection have thoroughly cemented. At 
that early day the same soldierly qualities, which have since placed 
Johnston in the very front rank of great commanders, were 
recognized by all who knew him. Later in this same year, 1838, 
Lieutenant McLane was transferred to the newly organized corps 
of Topographical Engineers, and ordered to report to General 
Taylor, then operating in Florida. He remained on duty with 
General Taylor until the fall of 1839, when he joined Captain 
Canfield, then engaged on a military survey of the northern lakes. 
In January, 1841, Lieutenant McLane and Captain Canfield went, 
by order of the Secretary of War, to Europe, for the purpose of 



ROBERT MILLIGAN McLANE. 303 

examining the system of dykes and drainage in Holland and Italy. 
While in Paris, August 2d, 1841, Lieutenant McLane married 
Georgine, daughter of David Urquhart, an honorable and dis- 
tinguished merchant of Louisiana. On his return to the United 
States, Lieutenant McLane proceeded to ~New Orleans, with Captain 
George W. Hughes, Topographical Engineer, for a military survey 
of the approaches to that city. In this and a similar service at the 
Delaware Breakwater, and at Sandy Hook, Lieutenant McLane was 
engaged during the years 1842 and 1843. His winters were passed 
in Washington city, working out the field notes made during the 
summer months, and he availed of the opportunity thus afforded 
him, to prepare for the real work of life which he had now deter- 
mined on. Under the direction of that eminent lawyer, General 
Walter Jones, Lieutenant McLane had pursued a course of legal 
study and been admitted to the bar in the District of Columbia, 
shortly before sailing for Europe, in 1841. He continued these 
studies during the winter of 1842 and 1843, and resigning his 
commission in the United States Army, in October, 1843, took up 
his residence in the city of Baltimore, and commenced the practice 
of the law. 

Reared, as he had been, in the society of public men, an eager 
listener to the political discussions of an exciting and stormy period 
of our political history, it is not surprising that he at once took part 
in the political affairs of this State and of the country. In the ex- 
citing presidential campaign of 1844, which resulted in the election 
of James K. Polk, Mr. McLane actively participated in the efforts 
of the Democratic party to carry Maryland. He was at once recog- 
nized as an able public speaker, and as possessing talents of a high 
order. The following year, 1845, he was elected to the House of 
Delegates. The finances of the State, at this time, were sadly em- 
barrassed, owing to the very liberal aid extended by the State to 
works of internal improvement, and the failure of these works to 
reimburse the State. The credit of the State could only be pre- 
served by a prompt resort to direct taxation. Men of influence 
were to be found in different parts of the State bitterly opposed to 
the imposition of these necessary taxes; and, as many of them be- 
longed to the Democratic party, the Whigs charged the Democratic 
party with advocating State repudiation. Upon the reading of 
Governor Pratt's message, recommending a faithful fulfilment of all 
the obligations of the State, and the imposition of whatever taxes 
might be necessary, Mr. McLane promptly declared himself ready 
to support this recommendation of the Governor, and he con- 



364 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

tributed, in no small degree, to the passage of the laws by means of 
which the faith and credit of Maryland were maintained. Another 
question of scarcely less interest to the people of the State than that 
just referred to, and which claimed the attention of the Legislature 
of 1845, was that of constitutional reform. The then Constitution 
of the State provided a mode for its own alteration or amendment. 
This was by the action of two successive Legislatures. There was 
no reservation to the people of the State of the right to alter the 
Constitution by a sovereign convention ; and thereupon it was con- 
tended that this right did not exist, — the argument being that the 
people had, by their own solemn act, limited their power in the 
premises, and could only alter the Constitution in the mode and 
manner pointed out in that instrument. With this view Mr. 
McLane took issue at an early day of the session, and in a speech, 
which attracted much notice at the time, advocated, ably, the doc- 
trine, which, six years later, was approved by a large majority of 
the people, — the doctrine on which the new Constitution of 1851 
rested, viz. That the right of the people to assemble in sovereign 
convention, and to alter their Constitution as they might see tit, is, 
in its very nature, a right which cannot be surrendered, and that 
any restriction upon this right would be inconsistent with the 
fundamental principles of our republican form of government, and 
of no value. In the fall of 1847 Mr. McLane was elected to 
Congress from the Fourth Congressional District of Maryland. 
The Whigs, profiting by their experience of 1845, when they had 
two candidates in the field, this year united in the support of a 
single candidate, John P. Kennedy, a man of high reputation, and 
very popular with his party. The main issue turned on the 
Mexican war policy of the administration. This Mr. McLane sus- 
tained and warmly defended against the vigorous assaults of his 
opponent. The result was a popular majority of nearly five hun- 
dred votes in a district which the Whigs thought their own. In 
Congress Mr. McLane was soon recognized as a prompt and forcible 
debater, and had there to fight over again the Mexican war policy, 
including the annexation of Texas, against such men as Thompson, 
of Indiana, Stephens of Georgia and Schenck of Ohio. As a 
member of the committee on commerce, he rendered efficient ser- 
vice to the commercial interest of Baltimore; and at the close of 
his second Congressional term, in 1851, during which he had been 
chain i uin of the Committee on Commerce, the Board of Trade of 
Baltimore city passed resolutions thanking him for his efforts in 
this direction. In the fall of 1849 Mr. McLane was re-elected to 



ROBERT MILLIGAN McLANE. 365 

Congress by a largely increased majority. At the expiration of this 
second term, in 1851, Mr. McLane, having accepted a retainer as of 
counsel in one of the suits pending for the possession of the ISTew 
Alameda silver mine, proceeded to California, where he remained 
actively engaged with professional business, until the summer of 
1852. In the fall of this year he was elected on the Democratic 
ticket as a presidential elector. In the fall of 1853 Mr. McLane 
was appointed, by President Pierce, Commissioner to China, with 
the power of a minister plenipotentiary, and at the same time ac- 
credited to Japan, Siam, Corea and Cochin-China. A naval force, 
commanded by Captain Franklin Buchanan, being placed by the 
President subject to his control, Mr. McLane at once set out on 
this important mission, and arrived at Hong Kong in April, 1854. 

The special interest which attached to the China Mission had 
relation to the extraordinary movement that was in progress for 
the overthrow of the existing Tartar Dynasty in that Empire, and 
to the negotiation that was about to be opened by the British 
Plenipotentiary for the renewal of the commercial treaty which 
had been executed ten years before, at the conclusion of the first 
war between Great Britain and China. Mr. McLane had confided 
to him the delicate task of opening communication with the chief 
of the revolutionary movement, who was then in possession of the 
ancient capital of the Empire, while at the same time, he was 
required to maintain diplomatic relations with the Imperial govern- 
ment proper; and co-operate with the British Minister in his effort 
to secure the renewal of the commercial treaty already referred to, 
since by the treaty between China and the United States all 
privileges conceded to Great Britain or any other power were 
secured to the United States. Mr. McLane visited Nankin in the 
summer of 1854, on board the United States steamship Susquehanna, 
commanded by Captain Franklin Buchanan, with the full knowl- 
edge of the Imperial authorities, though without their sanction; 
and notwithstanding the existing state of war in the Empire 
and the presence of hostile fleets and armies in the Yang-tse- 
kiang region, Captain Buchanan's experience and professional skill 
rendered possible the execution of this part of the mission, 
reconciling the military authorities of both parties to the presence 
of a friendly and neutral power, and the passage up the river to 
the city of Nankin of an American ship of war with the 
Minister of that country on board. Our space does not permit 
an account of that interesting expedition, which was accompanied 
by several of the most learned and enlightened missionaries in 



366 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

China, and which resulted in the exposure of the hideous and 
revolting nature of the revolutionary movement, founded upon the 
theory that its chief Taeping Wang, was the younger brother of 
Christ, and his principal Minister of State, the Holy Ghost; the 
two, being commissioned by God to exterminate and kill all who 
would not accept their dominion, gathering together the believers, 
to await the second coming of Christ, the Bible as delivered to 
the Christian converts in China by Christian missionaries being 
the fundamental law and rule of government of the New Empire ; 
prior to this it had been supposed by many that the regeneration 
of China was at hand, and that European nations were destined to 
establish new commercial and political relations with this regene- 
rated people. Mr. McLane's mission exposed not only the mon- 
strous nature of the religious imposition that was being practiced 
by Taeping Wang and his followers, but it also established that the 
commercial and political relations then existing with the Imperial 
government, would not be maintained by the Revolutionary Govern- 
ment at Nankin. 

Sir John Bo wring and Mr. Bourbelou, the British and French 
plenipotentiaries, dispatched ships of war belonging to their respec- 
tive countries to Nankin, (but they did not go there in person,) 
and confirming fully the results of Mr. McLane's mission, the three 
united in a resolution to ignore the existence of the Taeping Wang 
movement and maintain their relations with the Imperial Govern- 
ment at Pekin, co-operating in eftbrts to extend and enlarge the 
same, and especially to co-operate in the effort to secure the renewal 
of the British treaty. Mr. McLane accompanied Sir John Bowring 
to the mouth of the Pei ho, with a combined fleet of British and 
American war vessels, where they were met by Imperial Commis- 
sioners. The result of this expedition to the mouth of the Pei ho 
was to make clear the absolute unwillingness of the Imperial Gov- 
ernment to extend or enlarge commercial intercourse with Western 
nations. The United States Government declined to co-operate 
further with the governments of Great Britain and France in their 
efforts to exact and enforce an extension and enlargement of the 
existing relations between their respective countries and the Empire 
of China. This determination of the Government of the United 
States was definitely taken in the spring of 1855, when the Govern- 
ments of Great Britain and France determined to organize a diplo- 
matic movement, supported by an imposing naval force, which 
resulted in war and in new commercial treaties. Mr. McLane had 
suffered in health during the summer of 1854; and as the active 



ROBERT MILLIGAN MCLANE. 367 

co-operation of the United States with the governments of Great 
Britain and France was to be suspended, he did not consider the 
public interest required him to remain in China, and he accordingly 
requested his recall at the convenience of the Government. In the 
course of the summer, Dr. Parker, the Secretary of Legation in 
China, was appointed his successor, and Mr. McLane returned to 
Baltimore. 

In the Democratic National Convention which assembled in Cin- 
cinnati in 1856, Mr. McLane represented his Congressional district. 
At the commencement of 1859 Mr. McLane was appointed by Presi- 
dent Buchanan Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary 
to the Republic of Mexico. 

When Mr. McLane was appointed to this mission, diplomatic 
intercourse between the two governments was suspended, Mr. 
Forsyth, his predecessor, having been instructed in June, 1858, to 
demand his passports and proceed to Vera Cruz, where an armed 
steamer was in readiness to convey him to the United States. 
Meanwhile, civil war raged throughout the country, and the lives 
and property of American citizens residing there were exposed to 
constant danger, outrages being committed which the Government 
was powerless to prevent. Mexico was falling into anarchy and 
indications were not wanting that European powers contemplated 
some interference in its affairs. General Miramon maintained 
possession of the capital and some of the principal cities of the 
interior, but President Juarez, as the legal representative of the 
constitutional government, was at Vera Cruz and was recognized as 
such at the principal seaports and by all the northern States of 
Mexico. Under these circumstances Mr. McLane was invested 
with " discretionary authority to recognize the government of 
President Juarez, if, on his arrival in Mexico, he should find it 
entitled to such recognition according to the established practice of 
the United States." Mr. McLane proceeded to Mexico, and on the 
7th April, 1859, recognized the constitutional government and 
presented his credentials to President Juarez, who still remains at 
the head of the government, having been twice elected President 
since the recognition of the constitutional government by Mr. 
McLane. The military government established in the interior, 
under the auspices of Generals Zuloaga and Miramon, continued 
to manifest great hostility to the United States, but Congress 
would not authorize the President to employ force for the protec- 
tion of our countrymen in Mexico, and since the withdrawal of 
Mr. Forsyth, in June, 1858, General Miramon was not recognized 



368 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

at all by the Government of the United States. In this state of the 
case, Mr. McLane inaugurated an entirely new policy, which after 
considerable correspondence, received the sanction of President 
Buchanan, and was embodied in a commercial treaty and accompany- 
ing convention, which were sent to the Senate for consideration and 
ratification. This treaty, which was signed by Mr. McLane, in 
December, 1860, secured to citizens of the United States the right 
of transit across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, and from the Gulf of 
California into Arizona, with goods and merchandise, with the 
privilege of establishing warehouses at all the termini for the stor- 
age of goods for sale in Mexico, or shipment to other countries. 
To this great commercial feature was added an extensive list of the 
products of either country, (both raw and manufactured,) in which 
a reciprocity of trade was conceded, with other details having in 
view the extension of American intercourse with Mexico. The 
accompanying convention authorized the employment of the Ameri- 
can army and navy in Mexico, to enforce these treaty stipulations 
and to protect the lives and property of American citizens. Full 
provision, too, was made for the payment of all reasonable claims 
against the Mexican government. The accompanying convention, 
which gave vitality to the treaty and secured Mexico against 
anarchy at home and threatened intervention from Europe, was 
negotiated by Mr. McLane on his own responsibility. It was suc- 
cessfully and warmly supported by him in his correspondence with 
the Secretary of State, and in his personal intercourse with the 
Senate Committee of Foreign Affairs — the former, giving it the 
sanction of the President by transmission to the Senate, and the 
latter, by a favorable report, recommending its ratification. Un- 
happily, the state of our own country was not favorable to such 
enterprising diplomacy, and before the Senate had acted definitely 
upon the case, Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the 
United States, and the State of South Carolina passed an act for 
the call of a convention with a view to secede from the Union. 
Mr. McLane being satisfied that no further attention would be 
given to any treaty between the United States and Mexico, resigned 
his mission and returned to his family in Baltimore, in the latter 
part of December, 1860. 

This community, in common with all other parts of the country, 
was then much agitated and disturbed, and Mr. McLane took part 
in the public discussions and represented the city of Baltimore in 
one or more State Conventions that assembled in the early months 
of 1861. He adhered with firmness to the opinions and principles 



ROBERT MILLIGAN McLANE. 369 

he had always advocated, recognizing the right of the Federa. 
Government to execute laws passed in pursuance of the Constitu- 
tion, upon individuals anywhere and everywhere within the limits 
of the United States, but he denied its right to coerce a State into 
submission, insisting that the policy of coercion was the policy of 
disunion <hi<1 war between the States and Federal Government, to avoid 
which, the Constitution was framed to act upon individuals, whereas 
the Government of the old confederation could only act upon States. 
When the Legislature met in May, 1861, Mr. McLane was appointed 
one of a Commission to proceed to Washington to confer with 
the President of the United States in reference to what was con- 
sidered by that body the unconstitutional proceedings of the Federal 
authorities within the State of Maryland. Upon the report of this 
Commission, the Legislature formally resolved that it was not 
expedient for the State to secede, but it protested against the prose- 
cution of the war between the States, and refused to participate in 
any way therein. The great events of the war, succeeded each 
other with such rapidity, and upon such a gigantic scale, that 
individual and legislative declarations were alike disregarded. Mr. 
McLane did not participate any further in public affairs after the 
passage of these resolutions. 

In the winter of 1863, he was engaged as of counsel for the 
Western Pacific Railroad, in San Francisco and New York, and in 
the years 1864 and 1865 visited Europe several times in the per- 
formance of the duties that attached to that engagement. 

We have thus followed Mr. McLane from an active and honor- 
able military service, through a useful and distinguished congres- 
sional and diplomatic career, at every step of which we find him 
respected and esteemed, as well for his elevated tone and purity of 
life and character, as for his talents and statesmanlike ability — a 
faithful attention to all the duties of the many important offices he 
has held, always distinguished him; and to-day, in the prime of his 
life, and the full maturity of his intellectual powers, he enjoys, in a 
marked degree, the regard and confidence of his fellow citizens. 




^^/ e n> e tzSj^/z 



s 



JONATHAN MEREDITH. 



Mr. Jonathan Meredith, may be justly considered the Nestor of 
the Baltimore bar. He was born in the city of Philadelphia, in the 
year 1784, being consequently now in the eighty -seventh year of his 
age. He is a contemporary in fact of the republic, having sat in 
boyhood in church behind General Washington, when Philadelphia 
was the seat of government, and the Father of his Country filled 
the Presidential Chair ; and having enjoyed a personal acquaintance 
with every President, from Washington to Grant. Although Mr. 
Meredith retired some years since from active professional life, after 
sixty years spent in the contests of the forum, he retains unabated 
interest, to use his own words, " in those whom he has left still 
striving to uphold the dignity and honor of a profession, ' in its 
nature the noblest and most beneficent to mankind.' ' : One of the 
last occasions on which Mr. Meredith appeared in public, was that 
on which he delivered a discourse embodying his personal remi- 
niscences of the bar, and sketches of the private and professional 
characters of the great lawyers of the first decade of the present 
century, of whom he is the sole survivor upon the rolls. Called to 
the bar in Baltimore in the year 1805, Mr. Meredith lived in habits 
of daily social and professional intercourse with Luther Martin, 
William Pinkney, Robert Goodloe Harper, Roger B. Taney, and 
other distinguished leaders of the profession who have long since 
passed away. In 1817, at the bar of the Supreme Court of the 
United States, he met for the first time William Wirt, then in the 
zenith of his fame, and formed with that great man the beginning 
of a friendship, which soon ripened into intimacy, and led to the 
formation of a close professional connection and to Mr. Meredith's 
own rapid advancement in practice. He became Mr. Wirt's pre- 
ferred associate in many important causes, and in 1831, assisted him 
as junior counael in the trial of the impeachment of Judge Peck 
before the Senate of the United States. The ability he displayed 
in this cause gave to Mr. Meredith a reputation throughout the 
country, and the number of weighty cases in which he held briefs 



372 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

in the Supreme Court, in the Court of Appeals of Maryland, and 
in both the State and Federal Courts in Baltimore city, attest 
the high position which he occupied at the bar. He had the repu- 
tation of being a sound commercial lawyer, and was the retained 
counsel of many of the old insurance companies, and also, of the 
Branch of the Bank of the United States, established in the city of 
Baltimore, until the charter of that institution expired, and also, 
for many years and up to the period of his final retirement from the 
bar, was counsel of the Bank of Baltimore. 

Mr. Meredith belonged to that old school of lawyers and fine 
gentlemen which has almost passed away. It was less business-like, 
rapid and practical than are the lawyers of to-day, but it occupied a 
higher social position and was distinguished by greater culture, as 
compared with the great body of the community, and more of per- 
sonal dignity, than the present school of practitioners appear to 
cultivate or even care to affect. If not exactly the day of small- 
clothes, of knee-buckles, and of powdered wigs, it was still a day in 
which the traditions of the Temple and the Inns of Court were yet 
fresh in the memory of American lawyers, and when the celebrated 
"William Pinkney, in the Supreme Court of the United States, 
copied the very peculiarities of pronunciation and of manner he had 
observed in Erskine and other great lights of Westminster Hall. 
It must be remembered, however, that the deliberate manner in 
which trials were conducted in those days, and the comparative 
dearth of reports and treatises, gave to the lawyers of a former 
generation far greater scope for pure reasoning, for original discus- 
sion and for forensic display, than their successors now enjoy. 
Hence it is that the lawyers of those days frequently achieved a 
distinction as advocates and orators which very few, even among 
those who occupy the front rank of the profession, can now hope to 
rival — none, perhaps, to eclipse. 

Mr. Meredith's forensic efforts were characterized by a deep and 
varied knowledge of the law ; by remarkable elegance as a reader, 
and by a chaste and finished style of oratory. In private life he has 
been distinguished for geniality of disposition; for general cultiva- 
tion ; for dignity of manners and for eminent social qualities, which 
made him an attractive companion alike to old and young. He 
carries with him in his retirement the respect and esteem, both of 
his professional brethren and of the entire community. 





£JU-A^ue- *L,> ifiCcsCfjU^ 



DANIEL MILLER. 



Oxe of the most important interests of the city of Baltimore is 
the dry goods trade, and to this branch of commerce, not a few of 
the enterprising and industrious men who have contributed to 
the building up of Baltimore's prosperity, have lent their energies. 
Prominent among the leading houses in this line is that of Daniel 
Miller & Co. 

Daniel Miller was born in Loudoun county, Virginia, July 7th, 
1812. His grandfather, a man of education, emigrated from Ger- 
many, prior to the revolution, and settled in Loudoun county, where 
he was for a long time highly respected and appreciated as a teacher 
of youth. His father, with other patriotic Virginians, came to assist 
in the defence of Baltimore, in 1814. Daniel remained with his 
parents, on their farm, until he was about fourteen years of age ; 
when his father having become embarrassed by reason of endorsing 
for a friend who went down in the commercial revulsion succeeding 
the war, he, boy as he was, determined to leave home and seek his 
own fortune. So, one bright morning, he started off, walking 
cheerily with his bundle containing all his earthly possessions, on 
his shoulder, and bound for Harper's Ferry. Upon his arrival at 
that place he engaged as clerk in a country store, at a nominal 
salary. Harper's Ferry was then the centre of a very large trade, 
and the rendezvous of all the gay young men of the surrounding 
country. Alcoholic stimulants were the universal beverage, and 
temperance societies were unknown. But the young clerk, under 
the influence of a pious mother, had resolved never to touch licpuor 
nor tobacco in any shape, and although the temptation was ever 
before him, he scrupulously adhered to the resolution he had formed, 
and which to his dying day was unbroken, isever neglecting his 
duty to his employers, he devoted all his spare time to the acquisi- 
tion of useful knowledge, and produced such a favorable impression 
of his business capacity and integrity, that before he was of age, he 
was offered an interest in a mercantile establishment at Lovettsville. 
He accepted the offer, and in a short time bought out his partners, 
25 



374 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

and conducted the business successfully on his own account. It 
was here that he met his future wife, Miss Klein, with whom he 
was united at the age of twenty-four. 

In a very few years he became the leading merchant of that 
section of Virginia, and in 1842, at the urgent solicitation of his 
friends, he consented to become a candidate for the Legislature, on 
the Whig ticket. He canvassed the district with his opponents, 
discussing with them the questions at issue, but refusing to resort to 
an}* of the usual appliances of candidates, while they spent money 
lavishly. He was elected by a large majority, the result thus vindi- 
cating his manly independence. In the Legislature, though a quiet 
member, he was a most useful one, and through his influence more 
than one measure of substantial importance to his constituents was 
enacted. 

In 1846, seeking a wider field of business activity he removed to 
Baltimore and embarked in the dry goods trade. In conjunction 
with the late Mr. Jno. Dallam, he opened a small jobbing store 
at 304 Baltimore street. They remained in that location until 1855, 
when Mr. Dallam was killed in the fearful collision on the Camden 
and Amboy Railroad. Mr. Miller then removed to 324 Baltimore 
street, and in 1858 to 329, where the firm of Daniel Miller & Co. 
still remains. 

With ceaseless energy he gave his entire time and attention to 
his business, which, beginning in 1847 with annual sales of §80,000, 
had increased at the time of his death to one-and-a-quarter million 
of dollars. 

In 1861, he was just beginning to reap the fruits of his hard 
labor, when the war broke out, and all that had been accumulated 
by the patient toil of years, was swept away, as it were, in a single 
day. 

Those were the times that tried men's souls. Mercantile credit 
was not worth a rope of sand. The strongest houses went down 
before the deadly blast of ruin that swept over the country, and 
many of the leading merchants, in utter despair, made no attempt to 
save themselves or their creditors, and drifted into hopeless bank- 
ruptcy. It was then that the character of Daniel Miller shone 
forth. Men cast in his mould were few and far between. The 
bulk of his assets lay in the seceded States, practically as far from 
his reach as if in the wilds of Africa. Declining all sui>-i>-estions of 
compromise he set his face against the storm, and notified his credi- 
tors that with the blessing of Providence, every dollar of bis indebt- 
edness should be paid, lie dissolved his partnership, and thence- 



DANIEL MILLEK. 375 

forth lie addressed himself to the one aim of his life, which was to 
see the day when his entire liabilities should be honorably dis- 
charged ; and he exacted of his children a solemn obligation that in 
the event of his death, they would consider themselves morally and 
religiously bound to fulfil his work. Dispensing with all the luxu- 
ries to which he had been accustomed, he worked hard and faith- 
fully with unfaltering trust to accomplish his purpose. As the 
notes of his late firm matured, he paid such part as he was able and 
renewed the balance, and in much less than five years, he paid up 
$496,000, principal and interest, cancelling every obligation held 
against him ! He described it as the happiest day of his life, when 
he issued a circular to his creditors announcing his full resumption. 

During the late conflict, Mr. Miller was ever foremost in assisting 
to relieve the wants of the prisoners confined at various times in 
this city, and to mitigate the severities of the unhappy contest. 
No one welcomed the dawn of peace with more delight than he, and 
no one was quicker to devise ways and means for the restoration of 
some portion at least of its former prosperity to that section of the 
country which had suffered so much from the devastating eifects of 
war. The vallej' of Virginia, which had been fought over almost 
inch by inch, had been made classic ground indeed, but historic 
glory could not avail to feed nor shelter the starving, houseless 
people, who called it home. Mr. Miller was one of the most efficient 
promoters of the plan originated in Baltimore to mate advances 
of money to the farmers of the valley to restock and seed their 
farms. As treasurer of the Agricultural Aid Society he collected 
some $70,000, which was thus distributed. Recognizing the prime 
necessity of currency and banking capital, it was mainly through 
his instrumentality that banks were established at Winchester, 
Harrisonburg, Staunton and Charlottesville. On his books there 
yet stood unpaid almost half a million of dollars, most of it due by 
the people of Virginia, but forgiving them the debt, he gave new 
credits to as many of his former customers as prudence and justice 
to himself would permit, thus enabling them to make a new start- 
in life. 

At this period he gave his sons an interest in his business, and 
afterwards principally employed himself in directing the operations 
of the house, and in impressing upon them that the only honorable 
road to wealth was bj* industry and honesty. He assisted to 
organize and was the first President of the Xational Exchange 
Bank, a Director in the Eutaw Savings Bank, and a member of 
the Board of Trade. 



376 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

Mr. Miller was in active business up to the day of his death. On 
Saturday the 23d day of July, 1870, although not entirely recovered 
from the fatigues of a recent business trip to Virginia, he expressed 
himself as having never felt better in his life. On Sunday he rose 
in his usual good health. On returning from church he complained 
of being unwell, and sent for his physician, who, however, antici- 
pated nothing serious. He retired at his usual hour, without any 
apprehensions, but suddenly, at midnight, he sat up in bed, turned 
over and expired without a groan. His funeral obsequies, which 
were largely attended, took place on the "Wednesday following. 
The services were conducted by the Rev. Drs. Smith and Hamner, 
both of whom spoke most truly and feelingly of the great loss 
which the community had sustained in the death of such a man. 

By his prudence, energy and integrity, extending through a 
period of a quarter of a century, Daniel Miller succeeded in estab- 
lishing one of the largest, as well as most reliable and widely-known 
dry goods houses in Baltimore ; and dying in the height of his 
prosperity, he left the business and his priceless reputation in the 
hands of his sons, a double legacy of which they may well be proud. 
As a citizen, he was true; as a man, full of tender sympathies; a 
friend whose counsel could always be relied upon. Of decided 
views upon all subjects, yet never obtruding them unasked. He 
was an elder in the Presbyterian Church, and teacher and super- 
intendent for years in the Sabbath school. Of unbounded liberality, 
he contributed mainly to the building of the first Constitutional 
Presbyterian Church. In his habits, he was thoroughly domestic. 
A loving husband and an indulgent father, his home was an abode 
of cheerfulness to his children, and a place where friends met a 
kindness not to be forgotten. In his business he was very decided, 
but at the same time affable and agreeable. He labored assiduously 
to have his business a model for others, and well did he succeed in 
his work. The large force under his employ were upon all proper 
occasions reminded that honesty and fair dealing were the only true 
stepping stones to success, and only on such a basis did he ever 
desire them to forward the interests of his business. In conclusion, 
it may be sincerely said, that in every sphere of life he gave living 
evidence of his high moral and Christian character. 




Q. fr. MM^Jr^yu^ 



GEORGE W. MILTENBERGER. 



The present work would be very imperfect, if it failed to include 
within its scope, the record of the lives of some of those distin- 
guished men who have risen to professional eminence in Baltimore 
city, as well as of those who by their successful efforts in the 
purely business walks of life, have attained to the possession of 
wealth, or contributed to the material prosperity of the city. 
Baltimore can furnish the names of many such men, who have 
achieved distinction as lawyers, physicians, scholars or divines, who 
were either natives of this city, or having resided here from their 
earliest manhood, have made it the scene of their struggles, their 
labors and their triumphs. Among men of this class, whose names 
and reputation are peculiarly the possession of Baltimore, is the 
subject of the present sketch. 

Professor George W. Miltenberger, M. D., was born in the city 
of Baltimore, March 17th, 1819. On both sides he is descended 
from old and highly respectable families, who have made Baltimore 
their home, and been identified with its history, ever since the last 
century. On the mother's side he is descended from the "Warners, 
while his father, the late General Anthony F. W. Miltenberger, who 
died in October, 1869, at the venerable age of eighty years, was, 
from his youth, a promiuent and active citizen. General Milten- 
berger held a commission in the war of 1812, and continued to 
occupy, during his long and useful life, various positions of public 
trust and honor, until the infirmities of advancing age, compelled 
him to relinquish all such employments. He was a man of great 
sagacity, cprick perceptions, sound judgment, generous impulses 
and remarkable force and determination of character. Strictly 
honorable in all the relations of life, and of unblemished integrity, 
he commanded the general respect and confidence of the commu- 
nity, and always wielded extensive personal influence. The mother 
of our Professor still survives, in her seventy-ninth year, a model 
of womanly and Christian graces, which have been constantly 
displayed through her entire life. 



378 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

Professor Miltenberger received his primary education in the 
Boisseau Academy, a famous school in those days in Baltimore 
city, at that time under the charge of Dr. Stephen Roszel & Brother. 
Here he was distinguished for his studious and industrious habits, 
and for several years in succession, carried off the highest prizes 
of the school. He afterwards went to the University of Virginia, 
where he remained during the session of 1835-36, and in the fall 
of the latter year, commenced his medical studies in Baltimore, 
which he continued to prosecute until the spring of 1840, purposely 
delaying graduation for one year, that he might enjoy the clinical 
advantages attached to the position of resident student in the 
Baltimore Infirmary, a position only open to under-graduates. As 
senior student, he performed, during this year, all the duties in 
the Infirmary which now devolve upon the house physician. In 
March, 1840, he graduated ; and during his absence in the following 
summer, without previous solicitation on his part, he was elected 
by the Faculty of the University of Maryland, Demonstrator of 
Anatomy, which place he continued to fill until 1852. He at once 
devoted himself with ardor and assiduity to the duties of his new 
position, seldom spending less than three hours a day with the class 
in the anatomical room, in personal instruction. His class, conse- 
quently, became a very large one, although, at his express desire, 
his ticket was not made obligatory tipon the students, except for 
the single session required by the statutes. Such was his popu- 
larity, however, as an instructor, that second and third year 
students were always to be found in attendance upon his course. 
What contributed to render his demonstrations more attractive 
and useful, was the habit which Dr. Miltenberger early adopted 
of inducing the class to refer to him upon such occasions, for 
explanations and information in regard to any doubts or difficulties 
which they had encountered in the course of their reading. When 
his private practice had increased to that degree that he could no 
longer devote himself to instruction in the day-time, he continued 
to give the same number of hours to his duties at the anatomical 
rooms at night. During these years, he always had in addition, a 
large private class of office-students, to whom he devoted from two 
to three hours, thrice a week, not unfrcquently prolonging his 
instructions, which were given partly in a didactic, and partly in a 
conversational manner, until long after midnight. In this portion 
of his career as a teacher, Dr. Miltenberger seems to have taken 
great satisfaction, especially enjoying the close personal relations 
with his class, and the consequent fulness and thoroughness of the 



GEORGE W. MILTENBERGER. 379 

means and opportunities of teaching thus afforded. He kept up 
his private classes until 1858, when the increasing demands of his 
practice compelled him to discontinue them. 

A short time after his appointment as Demonstrator of Ana- 
tomy, Dr. Miltenberger, by permission of the Faculty, commenced 
a course of lectures on surgical anatomy, which he continued 
until 1847. He had previously, during the first session after his 
appointment, upon the occasion of the death of his esteemed friend 
and preceptor, Dr. "William Baker, who was then Professor of 
Anatomy, at the request of the Faculty, delivered the lecture 
required to complete the unfinished anatomical course of the term. 
In 1817, the Faculty of the University, placed under Dr. Milten- 
berger's charge the surgical wards of the Infirmary, attendance 
upon which had been hitherto exclusively restricted to their own 
body. In 1847, a new lectureship on Pathological Anatomy being 
established, Dr. Miltenberger was elected to its duties, still retain- 
ing, at the same time, his position as Demonstrator. Partly for the 
purpose of this lectureship, in 1849-50 he became one of the 
attending physicians at the Baltimore City and County Almshouse. 
Thus, at one time, he had partial charge of two large hospitals, 
performed the duties of Demonstrator at the University, lectured 
on Pathological Anatomy, attended to his class of office-students, 
besides meeting the onerous and exacting demands of a laro-e and 
increasing practice. Up to this time he had devoted himself 
chiefly to surgery, but he now began to turn his attention to 
general practice, but more particularly to Obstetrics. 

In 1852, when the late lamented Professor Chew was transferred 
to the chair of Theory and Practice of Medicine, in the University 
of Maryland, Dr. Miltenberger was elected to succeed him in the 
vacant chair of Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pathology. This 
department he continued to occupy until 1858, when he was elected 
Professor of Obstetrics, which chair, after the lapse of twelve years, 
he still retains. In 1855, the further honor was conferred upon 
him, of being chosen Dean of the Medical Faculty, and soon after 
Treasurer of the Faculty and of the Infirmary. These offices he 
held until within a few years, when his constantly increasing 
private practice, rendered it necessary that he should decline a 
re-election to either position. With the exception of the duties of 
his chair, he has been compelled to devote himself exclusively to 
his practice, which, in the course of thirty years, has o- r0 wn to 
such extent as to demand every moment of his time allowed by the 
absolute physical requirements of nature. There is no man who 



380 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

is so entirely and thoroughly absorbed by the duties <rf his pro- 
fession, or who is compelled more absolutely to sacrifice to it all the 
ordinary comforts and pleasures of life, than a successful physician. 
Day and night he must be at the call of others— compelled to do 
with little Seep, and liable to have that little interrupted— irregular 
at meals, fortunate if he can enjoy a single undisturbed meal in the 
day, or command four or five hours of sleep in the twenty-four— 
living in his carriage and in the sick-rooms of his patients— such 
must be the life of such a man, and such is the life which Dr. 
Miltenberger leads. That the toils and privations, for such they 
may be properly denominated, of such an existence have not told 
injuriously upon his health and constitution, must be attributed not 
only to the natural strength of the latter, but to his own simple and 
abstemious habits. At the age of fifty-two, the Doctor is still in his 
prime, and for seven years past, has not, from any cause, lost a single 
day from business, or taken any time for relaxation or amusement, 

As a physician, it need hardly be said, that Dr. Miltenberger 
is held in the very highest estimation. The record of his life is 
filled with the evidences of the regard in which he is held by 
his professional brethren. The thousands of students who have 
profited by his instructions, his counsels and his example, during 
the thirty years of his connection with the University of Maryland, 
will ever remember him with sentiments of gratitude and affection. 
He has devoted his life to his profession, and he has been deservedly 
crowned with its choicest rewards. To attain the success which he 
has reached, he has never resorted to extraneous means or influ- 
ences, or any of the arts by which popularity is sometimes pur- 
chased at the expense of science and of truth. He has risen simply 
by the same means which would have enabled any other person to 
have risen to his place, and without which, no man, in any of the 
professions, but especially in that of medicine, can hope to achieve 
permanent distinction. There, are heights to which even genius 
cannot soar ; which can only be reached by patient, arduous, unre- 
mitting toil, unfaltering courage, and inflexible determination to 
succeed. 

In his lectures, which are delivered without notes, and are entirely 
extemporaneous, Dr. Miltenberger aims to be clear, precise and 
practical, and rather to adapt his instructions to the needs and 
comprehension of his hearers, to make any personal or oratorical 

display. 

Dr. Miltenberger married, May 1st, 1850, Miss S. E. Williams, 
daughter of K Williams, formerly of Mobile, now of this city. 




/friU/i 



^T^irn^ 



NATHANIEL HOLMES MORISON. 



Xo view of the leading men of any community, however succinct 
such view may be, can make any pretension to completeness without 
including some notices of a class of men, who, while not standing so 
conspicuously in the public eye as the statesmen, the soldiers, the 
orators, or the leaders of commerce and industry, yet discharge a 
part which in importance is second to none, and in its beneficent 
results has perhaps the widest extension of all. We refer to the 
teachers of youth. 

The influence of the others we have mentioned, is obvious and 
immediate ; that of the educator is hidden from view, yet operative 
for long years. When we see and admire distinguished talents or 
a noble character, how rarely do we ever think of the teacher whose 
wise care fostered the one and formed the other ? How rarely, in 
admiring the golden harvest, do we remember the patient labor 
that prepared the soil and sowed the seed ? Yet if the men of any 
generation or community, have been distinguished above others 
for gifts or virtues, the philosophical historian seeking into the 
cause of this eminence, should make the first subject of his inquiry, 
who and what were their teachers ? 

It is a member of this useful class, a man whose life has been 
devoted to the cause of education, that is the subject of the 
following sketch. 

Nathaniel Holmes Morison, was born in Peterborough, ISTew 
Hampshire, December 14th, 1815. His ancestors, of Scotch-Irish 
Presbyterian stock, came to this country in 1718, and settled at 
Londonderry, in the same State. His great-grandfather, Thomas 
Morison, was one of the pioneer settlers of Peterborough. 

When but three years old, his father died of yellow fever in 
Katchez, where he had gone for the purpose of carrying out a 
contract he had taken for introducing water into the city. By 
this calamity Mrs. Morison was left a widow, with a very small 
estate and a family of seven children, the eldest but fourteen, and 
the youngest twins of a year old, dependent upon her industry and 



382 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

care. She was not only able to provide for their physical wants, 
but found means also to give them a superior education, which 
proved to have been well bestowed. The eldest son, John Hopkins 
Morison, was graduated at Harvard in 1831, the third scholar in 
his class ; studied theology, and is now a Doctor of Divinity. He 
has written several works, and is a well-known name among men 
of letters. The second son, Horace, was for many years President 
of Baltimore College, and spent most of bis life in Baltimore as a 
teacher. James, the youngest son, was graduated at Harvard, took 
his medical degree, at the University of Maryland, removed to San 
Francisco in 1849, where he became Professor of the Theoiy and 
Practice of Medicine, in the University of the Pacific. 

Mr. Morison's early life, was chiefly spent on a farm in Peter- 
borough. He prepared himself for a collegiate course at Philip 
Exeter Academy, Exeter, JSTew Hampshire, then under the charge 
of the well known Dr. Abbott. From this institution, he went to 
Harvard College, where he took his degree in 1839, the third 
scholar in his class. He early developed a taste for poetical 
composition, and had some reputation among his classmates, both 
at school and at college, for his productions in verse ; being 
frequently selected to provide the various odes, songs and poetical 
addresses, customary on various celebrations of the societies to 
which he belonged. 

After receiving his degree, he came to Baltimore, as chief assist- 
ant to Francis II. Davidge, who had just established a boarding and 
day school for girls, at the corner of St. Paul street and Bank lane. 
He remained nearly two years with Mr. Davidge, after which, in 
1841, he opened a girls' day school of his own. At the same time, 
as he had no intention of making school keeping the business of his 
life, he commenced the study of theology under the guidance of Dr. 
Burnap, and continued to pursue this study for three years. But 
his success in teaching far surpassing his expectations, and it always 
having been a pleasant occupation to him, he determined to devote 
himself to the profession of teacher. His school, which had been 
small at first, increased, until in 1847, it numbered over a hundred 
pupils, which at that time was an extraordinary attendance ; and 
for twenty years the average number of pupils was more than a 
hundred and ten, being the largest school, for so long a period, ever 
kept in Baltimore. 

In 1842, Mr. Morison married Sidney Buchanan Brown, the 
daughter of George J. Brown, and granddaughter of Dr. Patrick 
Allison, the first minister of the First Presbyterian Church of 



NATHANIEL HOLMES M ORISON. 383 

Baltimore, and also the granddaughter of Dr. George Brown. 
This lady was also of Scotch-Irish lineage, whose ancestors had 
settled at Carlisle, in Pennsylvania. 

In 1845, Dr. Cleveland, who had kept a prosperous girls' school 
in the city for twenty-five years, retired from the profession, and 
disposed of his furniture, apparatus, and the lease of the house he 
had built for his school on Lexington street to Mr. Morison, who 
occupied it till 1855, then removing to a more commodious building 
which he had erected on Cathedral street. 

Experience in teaching soon showed him the deficiencies then 
existing in school books ; and some of these desiderata he endeavored 
to supply for his own pupils. He prepared a little hand-book called 
Three Thousand Questions in Geography, adapted to Mitchell's Atlas, 
the chief use of which, was to indicate the correct pronunciation of 
geographical names. No school geography had at that time been 
published, in which the pronunciation of these names was given ; 
and in most of the schools the teachers were as ignorant as the 
pupils, so that the most erroneous pronunciation was generally 
prevalent. This book was for several years used by Mr. Morison's 
pupils in manuscript; but, in 1845, it was privately printed for the 
use of the school. A second edition was issued for the same 
purpose in 1851 ; and as the book began to acquire some reputation, 
a third carefully revised edition was published in 1856, under the 
title of llorison's Questions in Geography, which met with favor, and 
is still used in some of the best schools in the city. 

Finding it extremely difficult to procure any well digested and 
consistent system of rules for punctuation, an important and too 
much neglected branch of composition, Mr. Morison prepared and 
printed for the use of his school a convenient manual on the subject, 
to which he added remarks on many of the more common errors of 
speech, which he was in the habit of correcting among his pupils. 
This book was printed in 1856, under the title of Punctuation and 
Solecisms; and though not published, it was adopted in several 
schools, and the edition was soon exhausted. In 1867, the book 
was entirely rewritten and much enlarged, tables of chronology, a 
concise system of grammatical analysis, and other features being 
added, and the whole privately printed under the title of A School 
Manual. It has never been published, but has received high com- 
mendation from printers, teachers and others, as a convenient and 
compendious hand-book. 

In 1847, the trustees of the First Independent Church, at the 
corner of Franklin and Charles streets, to which congregation Mr. 



384 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

Mori son belongs, had under consideration a plan to close up the 
beautiful dome of their church, in order to remedy a great defect 
in its acoustic properties. Desirous to preserve the dome, Mr. 
Morison undertook a careful study of the laws of sound, and came 
to the conclusion that the proposed alteration would not remedy 
the difficulty ; a fact which was experimentally proved in 1865, by 
throwing a temporary ceiling across the base of the dome, which 
was found to produce no perceptible improvement. He suggested 
that a parabolic sounding board, constructed according to a plan 
of his own invention, would obviate the difficulty of hearing ; and 
in a letter to the trustees he explained his views on the subject, 
and the plan of remedy he proposed, and offered to construct the 
board. His plan was approved, and the board constructed under 
his supervision, with the result of a remarkable improvement of 
hearing in all the central parts of the church. Several years after- 
wards, while this board was still in constant use, Professor Hackett 
constructed one on the same plan in Trinity Church, New York, 
which was heralded by the New York papers as a wonderful 
invention. Several of them were put up in churches of imperfect 
acoustic properties in various parts of the country, and among the 
rest, one was ordered for St. Paul's Church in Baltimore. The 
president and professor of physics in Harvard College, examined 
the board in the First Independent Church, and were so much 
gratified with its efficacy, that at their instance, the corporation 
of the college requested Mr. Morison to have one made in this 
city on the same plan, for the chapel of the college. The board 
was made and sent on, and was thought to have a remarkable 
effect in remedying the echo with which they were troubled. In 
1867, it was thought desirable to replace the board in the First 
Independent Church, by one of somewhat different focus ; and 
when Mr. Morison made inquiry for the maker of the board in 
St. Paul's Church, he was told that it was a New York patent 
and no Baltimore carpenter would be permitted to build one. 

In February, 1867, Mr. Morison was privately approached by 
some of the Trustees of the Peabody Institute, to inquire if he 
would be willing to take charge of that institution, as its chief 
executive officer. After some hesitation, he allowed his name to 
be submitted to the Board as a candidate for the office of Provost ; 
and at the election which took place in April, he was unanimously 
chosen. It was necessary for him to continue his school to the 
close of the scholastic year in June ; but he at T»nce took charge 
of the lecture department, and arranged the course of lectures for 



NATHANIEL HOLMES MORI SON. 385 

the next season. At his own request, he did not enter formally 
upon his duties at the institute, until September, 1867. Since 
that date, the library has more than doubled the number of its 
volumes, and more than quadrupled its value ; the Academy of 
Music has been made an active educational part of the institution; 
while the lectures have been nearly quadrupled in number ; the 
object, kept steadily in view, being, to promote the instruction of 
the people in branches of knowledge, in which they have hitherto 
had little systematic teaching. Mr. Morison's desire is, that the 
Institute shall become a university of popular instruction, in all 
the higher departments of knowledge, in which the people may 
acquire information, for which the city has hitherto afforded them 
no facilities, and at a cost far below that at which any city or 
institution in the country has ever offered such instruction ; and 
by making it thus a means for the diffusion of liberal knowledge, 
and for implanting in the people the elements of a higher culture, 
with their elevating and humanizing influences, he believes that he 
shall be but carrying into effect the noble and benevolent purposes 
of its Founder. 



JOHN B. MORRIS. 



For very many years has John B. Morris held a strong position 
in Baltimore in the regard and estimation of its citizens ; from the 
public positions which he has worthily filled, and the generous and 
liberal spirit which he has privately exercised. His family was, 
originally, settled on Long Island, Xew York, but has been estab- 
lished in Maryland for more than a hundred years, his grandfather 
coming to this State in 1745. His father, James R. Morris, was a 
native of Worcester county, and served for a time in the Xavy of 
the United States. He married Miss Leah Winder, a sister of Gov- 
ernor Winder, and aunt to General William II. Winder, the latter 
celebrated as a lawyer and also noted for his military record in the 
defeuce of Baltimore, and at Bladensburg, during the last war with 
England. 

John B. Morris was born in Worcester county, October 5th, 1785. 
He came to Baltimore in 1806, and commenced the study of the 
law in Mr. Winder's office. At that time Winder had already 
become very distinguished as a lawyer, giving full evidence of the 
fame which he was afterward to acquire in the field with Luther 
Martin, Robert Goodloe Harper, Roger B. Taney, William Wirt, 
and William Pinkney. Mr. Morris pursued his studies for some 
time with Winder, and then opened an office with the late Lloyd 
!N". Rogers, proprietor of Druid Hill, but did not long continue the 
practice of the law. During the war of 1812 with Great Britain, 
he served on General Winder's staff with the rank of Major, and 
participated in the battle of Bladensburg and the defence of the 
city of Baltimore. 

In 1817, he married Miss Hollingsworth, a lady of much beauty 
and many accomplishments, and thenceforth principally devoted 
himself to business in real estate. Much of the property acquired 
by Mr. Morris in these transactions was unimproved at the time of 
purchase, but has since been densely built upon, the city having 
advanced far beyond. To give some idea of the spread of Balti- 
more, the first poor-house erected stood on North Howard street, 



388 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

on the lot now bounded by Howard, Eutaw, Madison, and Biddle 
streets. The building was pulled down about 1828, leaving the 
whole lot vacant for a good many years. This ground was owned 
by Mr. Morris, and continued to be on the outskirts of the city 
almost as late as 1840. In connection with the property an anecdote 
may be here related of Mr. Madison, President of the United States. 
Visiting Baltimore on one occasion, he was informed that a street 
had been named in honor of him, and he was invited to drive 
through it. He complied with the request, and then said jocosely 
that he did not consider it much honor, to have a street called for 
him which began at a charity school, (St. Paul's on Madison avenue, 
extended,) ran past the poor-house, and ended at the penitentiary. 

Mr. Morris was a member of the Maryland State Senate, from 
1832 to 1835. He was also a trustee of the Bank of Maryland in 
1835. The failure of the Bank in the previous year produced 
intense excitement in the city, more especially that it had been the 
depository of very many persons of limited means. Before the 
affairs of the institution could be fairly investigated, resentment was 
much increased by false and exaggerated rumors, and at length the 
popular irritation culminated in a frightful mob, which for some 
days in August held the city in terror. Mr. Morris's house on 
South street, afterward for many years occupied by the Farmers 
and Planters Bank, was attacked by the infuriated rioters and 
completely sacked ; as also were the residences of John Glenn, 
on Charles street near Lexington, and Reverdy Johnson, in Monu- 
ment square. Mr. Morris's extensive and valuable library was 
destroyed, with many other cherished objects. The disgrace of such 
an outbreak was keenly felt by the citizens of Baltimore, and the 
city, through the State Legislature, was influenced to pay all 
damages. 

Mr. Morris was for twenty-five years the President of the 
Mechanics Bank of Baltimore, which, under his management, 
enjoyed a high degree of prosperitj^. He is one of the Trustees of 
the Peabody Institute, but has now almost wholly retired from 
active pursuits. His family, consisting of two sons and two 
daughters, have all been married, and reside in Baltimore. One of 
the sons married a daughter of Reverdy Johnson, and the other 
Miss Van Dyke, a daughter of the late eminent prosecuting attorney 
of Philadelphia. Of the daughters, one was married to the late 
Henry Winter Davis, and the other is the wife of Frank Key 
Howard, grandson of General John Eager Howard the hero of the 
"Cowpens." 



JOHN B. MORRIS. 389 

Mr. Morris has been through life a firm and consistent supporter 
of the Episcopal Church, and for very many years past a member of 
St. Paul's congregation. In social life he has always been noted 
for personal graces and the most charming manners, and regarded 
as the very model of a polished gentleman. And we think we do 
not trespass on the sanctity of retirement, in adding that memories 
of the elegant hospitality of his household, will continue to be 
cherished by those who enjoyed it, as among the happiest examples 
of refined courtesy and well-bred welcome. 



26 




/s^&s££*t -**?-* ^£^^^-^ 



WILLIAM McKIM. 



The name of McKim lias, for a long period, been honorably and 
conspicuously associated with, the history of Baltimore. John 
McKim, the earliest member of the family known to the present 
generation, was born in Londonderry, Ireland, about the year 1670, 
and from him, by two marriages, descended the two branches of 
the family represented in this city in the early part of this century 
by the brothers John, Alexander and Robert McKim, on the one 
side, and John McKim, Jr., on the other. 

Thomas McKim, the son of John, and father of John, Alexander 
and Robert, was born in Londonderry, in 1710, and coming to this 
country in 1734, at first settled in Philadelphia, but about the year 
1789 married and removed to Brandy wine, Delaware, where all his 
children were born, and where he died in 1784. He was not a 
member of the legal profession, and the fact that, in the latter part 
of his life, he successively filled the offices of Justice of the Court 
of General Quarter Sessions and Judge of the County Court of 
Common Pleas, sufficiently attests the esteem which he enjoyed for 
integrity and ability in the community in which he lived. 

His oldest son John was born in 1742, and coming to Baltimore 
when a 3~oung man, established himself in a mercantile business on 
the south side of Baltimore street, near Gay street, on property 
which is still owned by the family. After some years, he married 
Margaret Duncan, of Philadelphia, and in 1777 removed to that 
city and engaged in business, but his wife dying in 1784, he soon 
after returned to Baltimore, bringing with him his two sons Isaac 
and William D. He continued business as a shipping and import- 
ing merchant, and in 1796 took his son Isaac into partnership 
under the firm of John McKim & Son. In 1801, he retired from 
business with an ample fortune, and in 1807 removed to a country 
house on the York turnpike road, where he spent the remainder of 
his days. He was remarkable for modesty and for his quiet and 
retiring manners, but not less for activity, energy and enterprise in 
business, and for faithful performance of public duties. He was 



392 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

one of the founders and the first President of the Union Manufac- 
turing Company, organized in 1808, one of the first cotton factories 
built in the United States, and still in successful operation. He was 
also President of the Baltimore Water Company, which formerly 
supplied the city with water. Benevolence was a prominent trait 
of his character, and, at a time when such endowments were far 
more rare than they have since become, he had determined to estab- 
lish in this city a free-school for the education of male and female 
children without regard to religious denomination. His design was 
frustrated by death, but, after his decease, was fully carried out by 
his sons, and the school is now in operation under charge of trustees 
of the Society of Friends, in a granite building on East Baltimore 
street, erected at a later period by his son Isaac. 

Although not of robust constitution, his strict temperance in all 
things, ensured to him good health and long life. His untiring 
industry never deserted him, and after he retired from active 
business, frequently found occasion for its exercise in haymaking 
and other light labors of the field, in which he assisted the laborers 
in his employ. His methodical and precise habits are strikingly 
illustrated by the following well authenticated anecdote. The sur- 
plus hay of his small farm was sold regularly to his sons, and then 
he called as regularly to collect the bills. On one occasion, his son 
Isaac not being provided with the necessary change, a clerk was sent 
out to procure it. Mr. McKim waited until the clerk returned and 
his bill was settled, and then drew from his pocket, and handed to 
his son as a present, a deed conveying to him property worth about 
thirty thousand dollars. 

When he was about forty years of age he left the Baptist Church, 
in the faith of which he had been educated, and attached himself to 
the Society of Friends, of which he was ever afterwards a promi- 
nent and consistent member. Previous to this event, he had sold 
a female slave who had subsequently been taken to Ohio, but the 
new views which he had adopted made him dissatisfied with the 
act, and, anxious to repair the wrong which he thought he had 
done, he traveled all the way to Ohio on horseback to seek the 
woman and restore her to her former home, and succeeded in finding 
her. 1 Ee died in 1819, in the seventy-eighth year of his age, and at 
the last carried out the repugnance to every kind of ostentation 
which had marked his previous life, by the strict instructions which 
he then gave that no monument or mark of any kind should be 
placed over Ids grave. 

Isaac McKim, the oldest son of John McKim, was born in 



WILLIAM McKIM. 393 

Philadelphia on the 21st of July, 1775, and came to Baltimore with 
his father in 1785. He entered his father's counting room at an 
earl}' age, and, under the influence of his good example and careful 
training, Isaac developed those qualities which made him the 
industrious, energetic, intelligent and successful merchant which he 
afterwards became. His energy and firmness were displayed on 
a trying occasion at an early period of his career. His father 
had sent him abroad as supercargo of one of his own ships. The 
vessel having sustained damage on the voyage, was, at the instance 
of the captain, surveyed and condemned; but young Mclvim being 
satisfied that the condemnation was unnecessary and improper, 
insisted, notwithstanding, that the captain should bring her home, 
and, on his refusal, took charge of her himself and brought her 
safely back. He continued in business until his death, in L838, at 
the age of sixtj-three, and maintained always the highest character 
for honor and integrity and for his zeal and liberality in promoting 
the prosperity of the city. 

He took great pride in his vessels and had some of great celebrity 
as fast sailers, and in 1835 built one of the first of the clipper ships, 
the widely known "Ann McKim," which was named after his wife. 
During the war of 1812, he was in active service as Aid-de-Camp 
to Gen. Samuel Smith, Commander-in-Chief of the forces defending 
Baltimore, and advanced $50,000 to the city to aid in its defence. 

About 1822, he erected a large steam flour mill on the lower end 
of Smith's wharf, for which he was obliged to import the machinery 
from England, and a few years later made another valuable addition 
to the productive industry of the city in the erection of extensive 
works also on Smith's wharf for refining and rolling copper. He 
was one of the promoters of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and 
one of its first Board of Directors. He took a warm interest in 
politics, and was a prominent and influential member of the Demo- 
cratic party. At one time he served as State Senator and was 
twice elected to Congress, of which he was a member at the time 
of his death. He was eminently social in his nature, and his 
generous and elegant hospitality was freely extended to a large 
circle of friends, as well as to all strangers, who were in any way 
entitled to it. 

William D. Mclvim, the younger son of John Mclvim, was born 
in Philadelphia in 1779, and came to Baltimore with his father in 
1785. When about twenty years of age he went to Europe, and 
on his return engaged in business. In 1806, he married Miss 
Haslett, of Caroline county, whose ancestors also came from Lon- 



394 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

donderry. They had five sons and a daughter, of whom four sons 
are now living. Although he engaged in business, he had but little 
taste for it and left the management of it, in a great degree, to 
his partners. He was one of the originators of the Baltimore Gas 
Company, and gave freely, and with strict attention and fidelity, 
his services as director of various banks, insurance companies and 
other public institutions of the city. He died in November, 1834, 
at the age of fifty-five. 

William McKim, the eldest son of William D. McKim, and the 
founder and head of the banking house of McKim & Co., was 
born in Baltimore on the 21st of December, 1808. After going 
to the best schools which the city then afforded, he entered St. 
Mary*s College, to which many of our most eminent citizens have 
been indebted for their education, but, after remaining there for 
about three years, he was compelled by ill health to leave before he 
had completed the collegiate course. After about a year of relaxa- 
tion he entered, in May, 1827, the law office of the late Judge 
Purviance, where, associated as fellow student with William 
F. Giles, the present eminent Judge of the United States District 
Court of this city, he pursued for three years the study of the 
law, and in the spring of 1830 was admitted to the bar. He 
has found his collegiate studies and legal training of essential 
service in the business pursuits in which he subsecmently engaged. 
Being still in delicate health, he then made a voyage to South 
America, whence he returned greatly benefited. In 1831, he was 
taken into partnership by his father, and in the autumn of that 
year, his father having retired, his brother Haslett was taken into 
the house and a branch of the business was established in Phila- 
delphia, under the immediate direction of their partner, Mr. Maslin, 
who went there to reside. In the same year, he married Miss 
Hollins, of Baltimore. In 1834, the two houses separated, William 
McKim and Haslett McKim, under the firm of McKim & Bro., 
continuing the business in Baltimore, which was then under the 
charge of William, while Haslett went to reside in Europe as the 
agent of the house there. In 1839, after the death of their uncle, 
Isaac McKim, the two brothers purchased the interest of the other 
heirs in the copper rolling mill belonging to his estate, and for some 
years carried on the establishment under the firm of William & H. 
McKim, but the business becoming unsatisfactory, it was abandoned 
after the return of William from a short trip in Europe, and the 
partnership with his brother, with whom he had been associated in 
business for more than twenty years, was dissolved. 



WILLIAM McKIM. 805 

On the 1st of January, 1855, Mr. McKim established the bank- 
ing house of McKim & Co., in which he has been ever since 
actively engaged, and in which two of his sons are now associated 
with him. Mr. McKim has passed successfully through all the 
vicissitudes to which business men have been exposed during the 
last forty years, including the disastrous periods of 1837 and 1857. 

During the long and active business career of Mr. McKim, he 
has yet found time to devote much attention and labor to the per- 
formance of many important duties of a public character, with 
which he has from time to time been entrusted, lie has served as a 
Director of the Franklin Bank, and of the Bank of Baltimore, as a 
Director, and also as President of the Baltimore Marine Insurance 
Company, as a Director of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Com- 
pany, and of the Northwestern Virginia Railroad Company, as a 
Manager, then President and now Treasurer of the Maryland State 
Bible Society, as one of the original Trustees of the Peabody Insti- 
tute and now its Vice-President. 

In 1835, he was appointed Aid-de-Camp to Major General John 
Spear Smith, commanding the third division of Maryland militia, 
and served with him until 1848, and was with him during the 
eventful week of the Bank of Maryland riot in 1835. Mr. McKim, 
as one of a detachment of mounted volunteers, was engaged in the 
first collision which took place with the mob. 

Mr. McKim, while he has always taken a deep interest in the 
politics of the country, has steadfastly declined to accept nomina- 
tions or appointments to office which have frequently been ten- 
dered to him. lie was a member of the old Whig party during the 
whole of its existence, and, subsequently, when a resolute effort was 
made by the Reform party to bring back the reign of law and order 
to the city, he cordially united with it in the struggle. 

When the unhappy civil strife commenced in 1861, he made every 
effort to allay excitement and prevent discord and violence, but 
when the war actually broke out and dissensions arose between the 
city authorities and the Government, he firmly took the side of the 
latter in support of the Union, but at all times endeavored to secure 
mild and conciliatory measures towards the Southern people, as well 
as to those of our own citizens who sympathised with them. 




&rU<^M^i fafiJ-v-^^^ti — 



COLUMBUS O'DONNELL. 



Columbus 0'Doxn t ell was born in the city of Baltimore, October 
1st, 1797. His father, who had been a captain in the East India 
merchant service, came to the United States and settled in Balti- 
more in' 1780. He subsequently commanded the ship Palestine, 
which traded between this port and Bombay, and brought the first 
cargo which came to Baltimore from Canton. A flourishing suburb 
of the city, bordering on the Patapsco river, retains the name which 
Captain O'Donnell gave it in commemoration of this venture, he 
being at that time the proprietor of the valuable tract now belong- 
ing to the Canton Company, and on which has since grown up the 
suburb in question, with its workshops, factories and dwellings for 
operatives. Captain John O'Donnell was in his day a man of mark 
and influence in this community, and at one time represented the 
city in the Maryland Legislature. He died in 1805, when the sub- 
ject of the present sketch was but eight years old. 

Columbus O'Donnell was educated at Saint Mary's College, in 
this city, formerly a flourishing seat of learning, and the alma mater 
of many of the most distinguished men in Maryland of the present 
and former generations. It is now a Theological Seminary of the 
Catholic Church, under the charge of the learned priests of the 
Oratory or Order of Saint Sulpice of Paris. For many years Gen- 
eral O'Donnell has been prominently identified with some of the 
most important public institutions and enterprises in this city. He 
was formerly an influential Director in the Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad Company, and for thirty years a Director in the Union 
Bank of Maryland. He succeeded Governor Swann as President of 
the First Xational Bank of Baltimore. For fifteen years he was 
President of the Baltimore AYater Company, and until the business 
of supplying the city with water passed out of the hands of a pri- 
vate corporation into those of the municipal authorities. Through 
life General O'Donnell has been pre-eminently distinguished for 
administrative and executive ability, exhibiting in the various 
positions of trust he has been called to fill, at the head of important 



398 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

enterprises, great energy, perseverance, firmness, and decision of 
character. Of these various positions, that which developed these 
traits of character to the highest degree, and in which he was best 
known to the people of Baltimore, is that of President of the Balti- 
more Gas Light Company. This ofiice he has held for thirty-nine 
consecutive years, or ever since 1831, which was just eleven years 
after the company commenced active operations, — being the pioneer 
enterprise of the kind in this country, and the first regularly 
organized in the world on the joint-stock principle. Any sketch 
of General O'Donnell would be incomplete without a reference to 
the history of this undertaking, which had all the trials and experi- 
ments to make by which other companies have benefited, and the 
success of which has been probably equal to that of the most 
favored of them. The Gas Light Company of Baltimore was char- 
tered February 5th, 1817, and the original corporators were Rem- 
brandt Peale, William Lorman, James Mosher, Robert Carey Long, 
and William Gwymi. Mr. Gwynn was then editor of the old 
Baltimore Gazette, and aided largely by his pen in writing the 
infant project into public favor. The first building in this city 
lighted with gas was Peale's Museum, on Holliday street. This was 
Mr. Peale's individual enterprise, and visitors paid a small fee to 
see the new light. The experiment suggested the idea of lighting 
the city by the same means, and a charter was accordingly obtained 
from the Legislature, one hundred shares being set apart at the time 
to be assigned to Rembrandt Peale, as a compensation in full for the 
privilege of using the invention of Doctor Benjamin Kugler, of 
Philadelphia, for manufacturing, collecting and using carburetted 
h} T drogen gas. The Company, as stated, got fairly under way about 
1820, its first President being Mr. "William Lorman. The gas works 
were located at the Corner of North and Saratoga streets, and the 
first public building lighted with gas was the old "Mud" or "Bel- 
videre" Theatre, at the northwest corner of North and Saratoga 
streets. The first private dwelling lighted with gas was that of 
the late Jacob I. Cohen, on North Charles street ; the second, that of 
the late Hugh Birckhead, in the same street. From that time the 
consumption of gas steadily increased, until, instead of the three 
original takers in 1820, there were, in 1870, 15,301 consumers of gas 
in the city. Besides this, the Company also supplies 3,400 city 
lamps for lighting the streets, and can furnish, if necessary, 
3,000,000 cubic feet of gas in a single night. When General 
O'Donnell took charge of the affairs of the Company in 1831, the 
an hole amount of capital paid in amounted to §250,000, and there 



COLUMBUS o'donnell. 399 

was a floating debt of 8195,000. Two years later $300,000 were 
added to the capital, making the entire amount paid in $550,000. 
The original capital was nearly all sunk in experiments and by the 
use of unsuitable pipes, &c. To procure the additional subscrip- 
tions necessary to sustain and carry on the work, the directors had 
to canvass the city, many of the old stockholders refusing to sub- 
scribe for additional stock. They were also compelled to resort to 
loans upon their own credit. At that time, too, the charge made 
for the use of gas was so much per burner until, in 1830, a meter 
was introduced from England, which enabled the Company to 
measure the amount of gas actually used, and to establish the 
system of charging per 1,000 feet, which at first was received with 
great disfavor by the public. The change, however, proved so bene- 
ficial to the Company, together with the increased consumption, &c, 
that the Company was enabled to declare a dividend. This it has 
continued to do regularly ever since, besides largely augmenting its 
stock at the same time, until it now amounts to $1,600,000. Very 
recently the Company made a sale of all its franchises, real estate, 
&c, to some Brooklyn capitalists for §3,000,000. The Company's 
works for the manufacture, &c, of gas are as complete as any in the 
country. These substantial results speak volumes for the ability 
with which the Company's affairs have been managed. During the 
past ten years the labors of administration have been shared by 
General -O'Donnell's son, C. Oliver O'Donnell, as Vice-President of 
the Company. This gentleman is also a director in the Union 
Bank of Maryland, and in the Maryland Insurance Company, and 
a director in the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company. He is 
the Vice-Consul of Brazil for the port of Baltimore, and is highly 
esteemed by the commercial community. 



WILLIAM PATTERSON. 



Is the early part of the. year 17G6, a youth of fourteen years 
landed in Philadelphia from Ireland, sent from the latter country 
by his parents, to begin life in a field, the growing commercial 
advantages of which had already attracted not only attention, but 
considerable capital, from the old world. Consigned to friends, he 
was placed in the counting house of Mr. Samuel Jackson, an Irish 
merchant, extensively engaged in the shipping business. Intelli- 
gent and active, the lad, in the discharge of his duties, displayed a 
business capacity beyond his years, and rapidly grew into favor with 
his employers. His apprenticeship in this house gave him a knowl- 
edge of, and attachment to, the business, which attachment, to use 
his own expression in later years, was "a passion that followed me 
through life." 

This youth was William Patterson, the founder of the family 
of his name and blood in America. His parents were of English 
and Scotch descent, who settled in Ireland after the conquest of 
that country. 

The career of William Patterson, from the date of his first 
landing in Philadelphia, up to the time of his death in Baltimore, 
embraced a period of more than sixty years devoted to commercial 
pursuits ; and during this period he lived and transacted business, 
as a shipping merchant, under four different Governments, namely: 
the British, at Philadelphia, before the revolution; the Dutch at 
St. Eustatia ; the French, at Martinique ; and the American, at 
Baltimore. On the breaking out of the revolution, great precau- 
tions having been taken by the British Government to prevent the 
introduction into the country of powder and arms, Mr. Patterson 
fitted out two vessels at Philadelphia, which sailed for France, for 
the purpose of obtaining the requisite munitions of war. In these 
vessels he invested all the property he possessed, and embarked in 
one of them himself. In the month of March, 1776, one only of 
the vessels got safely back to Philadelphia, with the cargo intended, 
and at a most opportune time, when, as was said, Gen. Washing- 



402 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

ton, then before Boston with his army, had scarcely powder enough 
to fire a salute. From France, Mr. Patterson, in February, 1776, 
went to the island of St. Eustatia, where he remained about 
eighteen months, engaged in collecting and shipping to America, 
arms, ammunition, and other supplies necessary for carrying on the 
war. From St. Eustatia he removed to Martinique, where he 
continued in business until 1778, when he came to Baltimore, bring- 
ing with him, in cash and merchandise, a fortune of a hundred 
thousand dollars. On his arrival in Baltimore, Mr. Patterson 
carried out a resolution which he had formed, and invested about 
one-half his fortune in real estate, establishing for himself a rule at 
the time, and which rule he strictly adhered to, never to purchase 
real estate on speculation, with a view to sell again, and always to 
pay in cash ; so that he was never in debt for his purchases ; and 
property, thus bought, remained in his possession to the end of his 
life. Another rule, was to never invest in the risks of commerce 
more than he believed he could afford to lose ; hence he always kept 
back from his business, one-half of his fortune, as a reserve, securing 
the comfort and independence of his family. Investments of his 
surplus earnings in business in real estate, Mr. Patterson regarded 
as preferable to such investments in any other sort of property, 
especially in the case of a man of family, because, as he argued, 
although money placed at interest might be more productive in a 
man's own lifetime, it was thus placed liable to failures and fluctua- 
tions, and, consequently, not so safe and permanent as a security for 
posterity. And besides, he deemed it better in bequeathing prop- 
erty to children, to leave them real estate rather than money or 
stocks, as the latter were too easily parted with, while the former 
would be more likely to stick by them. It was also a rule with 
him, in buying and selling property of any kind, to take no advan- 
tage, by means of any superior or private information affecting 
values. His dealings were conducted openly and fairly in the 
market. In large and small concerns, he regarded it not only neces- 
sary to be always just, but generous as well ; so that the basis of 
his business action was fairness and liberality. In the course of a 
most active, extensive and successful career in commercial pursuits, 
for more than half a century, he made the fortunes of some, saved 
others from ruin, and gave employment to thousands. 

Mr. Patterson never sought for offices of honor or profit; and 
when, in any way, he acted in a public capacity, it was from a 
sense of obligation to society, believing it to be the duty of every 
citizen, when called upon, to contribute to the common good. It 



WILLIAM PATTERSON. 403 

was the maxim, however, of Mr. Patterson, that in worldly rela- 
tions, a man's first duty is to himself and his near of kin ; first, hy 
the dietate of nature, which calls him primarily to the. care of his 
own blood ; and second, upon the principle, that he who husbands 
well his own, has it in his power to be society's and his country's 
friend when most they need his services. 

Mr. Patterson inherited, pecuniarily, but little from his fore- 
fathers, and. obtained nothing from public favors or appointments. 
His possessions were solely the fruits of his own labor, won, princi- 
pally, in a land and under a government, to use his own words, 
" where frugality and merit are the only sure and certain roads to 
respect and consequence." In early life, at Philadelphia, the friends 
of his leisure hours were principally books ; and his associates 
were mostly persons older than himself. In such companionship, 
he derived a double advantage of useful learning on the one hand, 
and lessons of practical wisdom on the other, while warm friend- 
ships, then formed, lasted through life. 

Reared among religious people, and grounded by nature, educa- 
tion and habit in correct principles, Mr. Patterson was a true pilot 
at the helm on life's most stormy sea. His fidelity to himself and 
to duty, when surrounded by such temptations as circumstances, in 
the battle field of business, almost seemed to warrant in adopting, 
may best be gleaned from the record of his own journal, penned by 
him, when in the evening of his life he had it in his power to 
calmly look back upon the thorny but upward paths which led to 
the peaceful summit of his honored old age. " On my arrival," 
he says, "in the West Indies in the year 1776, a new scene was 
opened to me for which I was little prepared, for I had previously 
lived with religious people, and my new acquaintances, and those 
with whom I was to transact business were the reverse of this. ISTo 
one went there to settle for life ; all were in quest of fortune, to 
retire and spend it elsewhere ; character was little thought of. Of 
course it required the utmost circumspection and caution to steer 
clear of difficulties. A kind superintending Providence, in this, as 
in many other concerns of my life, enabled me, however, to sur- 
mount every difficulty, young and inexperienced as I then was." 

Gaming was a fashionable and prevailing vice in the West Indies, 
but he avoided it from the first. The scene of Mr. Patterson's com- 
mercial life in the West Indies, as he further has related, " centered 
at St. Eustatia, St. Martin's, and St. Pierre (Martinique.) Gover- 
nor de Graff commanded at the former, Governor Hylegar at the 
second, and the Marquis de Bullie at the latter ; they are all since 



404 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

dead, but it is due to their memories to observe, that they one and 
all contributed greatly in promoting the interest of America, in 
affording every facility in their power to the Americans who lived 
under their governments. Governor de Graff, in particular, was 
called home to Holland to answer for the partiality shown to the 
Americans." 

Among the older merchants of Baltimore, gone now, but not 
forgotten, such as Smith, Buchanan, Oliver, Jenkins and others, 
who may be said to have been present at the birth of her commer- 
cial life, who tenderly watched, accompanied and boldly advanced 
her prosperity, none were more active, industrious, ambitious, suc- 
cessful than William Patterson ; and none lived to behold with a 
prouder, happier glance the rise of this beautiful city. 

Patterson Park, which bears his name, was a gift of his to Balti- 
more, and ever green as its sod, must his memory be in the hearts 
of the people who inherit it. 





"Uin~$ c 



/cc&t&s) 



^>L 



GEORGE PATTERSON. 



To chronicle tlie life of so retiring a gentleman as was George 
Patterson, brings to light strong traits of character, virtues of man- 
hood, and excellencies of citizenship, the knowledge of which, save 
to the few who knew him well, would otherwise be lost. George 
Patterson was the sixth son of William Patterson, one of the mer- 
chant-princes of his day in Baltimore. He received an early classical 
education, and entered the counting house of his father with the 
expectation of becoming one of his successors in mercantile life. 
Soon after his instalment, he was sent to Europe on a business tour, 
and took wise advantage of the opportunity to make it a trip, also, 
of entertainment and instruction. His observations in travel fur- 
nished him with a rich fund from which he pleasurably drew in the 
leisure hours of after life. He ever referred to his European visit 
as a most interesting, and, in point of worldly wisdom, serviceable 
experience. On his return from Europe, his father placed him in 
charge of his estate in Carroll county, called "Springfield." This 
tract of land comprised seventeen hundred and sixty acres, (after- 
wards increased to about two thousand,) and when George Patterson 
first took possession of it, he found it barren as a desert. Forty 
years of his life spent here were devoted to improving this prop- 
erty ; and he made it one of the finest estates in America, leaving 
it, at his death, to use his own words in regard to it, "one extended 
sheet of living green." 

The intention of Mr. Patterson when he first took charge of this 
farm was to remain permanently in its occupancy, and he marked 
out for it a system of culture and improvement from which he never 
materially deviated. It was said of him that he was born a farmer. 
He certainly became one of the first agriculturists in the country — 
a deep student of the principles of scientific farming and a splendid 
exponent of their practical results. He expended large sums in lime, 
principally, and other fertilizers, and forced poor soil into a realizing 
richness. He devoted himself, also, to the raising of stock, and it 
became an aim with him to make of his property a great grazing 
27 



406 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

farm. He imported largely of the finest stock, and without regard 
to cost. He bred only thorough -bred s of its kind. His specialties 
were Devon cattle, Berkshire hogs, and South-Down sheep. His 
Devon herd was, probably, one of the finest in the world, and be- 
yond compare the finest in America. He observed the greatest care 
in the breeding of cattle, and his stock included every requisite of 
perfection for all purposes. As a means of preventing the destruc- 
tion attendant upon the presence of rats, he kept large numbers of 
Maltese cats, sometimes as many as fifty, on the estate. Mr. 
Patterson, in the quiet sphere in which he moved, did much for the 
prosperity of the neighborhood in which he lived. His expenditures 
were large, and his vicinage for miles around was the beneficiary. 
He was chiefly instrumental in erecting " Springfield Church," a 
handsome and commodious place of worship, and out of his private 
fortune he contributed largely to its support. None but the interested 
were ever witness to his charities, which were numerous. Ostenta- 
tion was no part of his life. Simplicity of heart and manner, joined to 
plain speaking and sometimes severe speaking, in the face of wrong, 
characterized him. - He was a man, too, of great personal courage, 
strong and resolute of will and purpose. He would have died a 
thousand deaths in defence of his rights. On more than one occa- 
sion and under desperate circumstances he responded to the chal- 
lenge of danger with great odds against him. During the late civil 
war a party of Federal soldiers invaded his premises, marched up to 
his house, and sought, in opposition to his remonstrance, to enter. 
Mr. Patterson, who, with the exception of the presence of his wife, 
was alone, with great coolness and with equal determination placed 
himself within his doorway, and confronting the officer in com- 
mand, demanded on what authority his house was to be entered. 
The officer, putting his hand on the hilt of his sword, replied, " My 
authority is here." " Then," said Mr. Patterson, raising his left 
hand and grasping his revolver with his right, " cross that thresh- 
old and I will kill you !" The officer and party retired. The 
manner of Mr. Patterson was, doubtless, a guarantee of his inten- 
tion. It must have been so regarded. 

Mr. Patterson formed few friendships, and " dull not thy palm 
with entertainment of each new-hatched unfledged comrade" was 
advice not necessary in his case ; yet his attachments, once formed, 
were strong, and lasted through all time, and he made any sacrifice 
for friends. He was undemonstrative, but a man of fine sensi- 
bilities. As a son, husband, father, he was devoted, indulgent, 
tender ; as a brother, brotherly. His wife and daughter — an only 



GEORGE PATTERSON. 407 

child — were the companions of his almost every hour apart from 
his business engagements, and they were at all times the reigning 
images in his heart, — the foremost objects of his thought and care. 
Mr. Patterson is connected by blood and marriage with influential 
and distinguished families of Europe and America, His only sister, 
Elizabeth Patterson, married Jerome Bonaparte, afterwards King 
of "Westphalia ; a lady of pleasing manners, wit, talent, and great 
beauty, admired and celebrated throughout Europe, where she re- 
mained several years an ornament and favorite in the most brilliant 
circles; but, unrecognized, as is well known, for political reasons, by 
the Bonaparte family, — whose now venerable presence, with the 
weight of declining years upon her, (although unbroken in spirit 
and unclouded in mind,) and linked with them all the suggestive 
surroundings of a life's history, strange and full of vicissitude, 
attracts, as she passes through the streets of this city, universal, 
respectful and sorrowful attention. 

Mr. Patterson's brother, Robert, married the eldest daughter of 
Richard Caton, of Maryland. Miss Catoii was one of four sisters, 
all of remarkable beauty and varied accomplishments. Robert 
Patterson after his marriage traveled with his wife in Europe, 
where, in society, she met and attracted the attention and admira- 
tion of Sir Arthur Wellesly, afterwards Duke of ^Wellington. On 
her return to America he corresponded with her regularly. As a 
widow, Mrs. Robert Patterson revisited London ; the future hero 
of Waterloo was then a married man; but, becoming acquainted 
with his elder brother, the Marquis of AVellesly, the latter addressed 
her, and they were married. 

It is somewhat of a coincidence that two Maryland ladies, Miss 
Elizabeth Patterson and Miss Mary Caton, themselves nearly allied 
by marriage at home, should have become, also, in their own per- 
sons, allied by marriage with the two families iu Europe most 
conspicuously hostile and fatalty opposed, — the one, vanquisher, 
and, as it were, for the time, annihilator of the other: and to follow 
to its more painful point the coincidence further, seems it not sad 
that these two beauties of their day — the pride, almost, of one 
hearthstone — should have gone forth into the world, the one to 
wear the laurel, the other the cypress crown for aye, — and yet, that 
upon the steps of the old age of the suffering one, ere darkness and 
silence enclose her forever, there has come the tidings of a dreadful 
retribution, under God, and she knows, at last, that the perfidy 
which wrecked her happiness feels now the sting. 

George Patterson was a man of strong physical constitution and 



408 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

of remarkable regularity of habit. He rose early, and frequently 
passed fourteen hours of the da}' in the saddle. He indulged in no 
excesses. In his last illness he made every arrangement for the 
after-management of his large estate with great minuteness. He 
met death with composure, and truly, without fear and without 
reproach, he went down to the tomb. He died on the 19th of 
November, 1869, in the seventy-fourth year of his age. The whole 
neighborhood came forth to his funeral. They buried him on the 
south side of the church, at Springfield, erected by his munificence. 
The airs, the dews, the sunshine which once welcomed him, yet 
freshen the green turf above him ; and his lone grave there stands, 
like a quiet sentinel, within view of his home, and within the 
shadow of the sanctuary of his God. 



WILLIAM PINKNEY. 



William Pinkney, one of the most distinguished of American 
lawyers and statesmen, was born at Annapolis, Maryland, March 
17th, 1764. His father emigrated from England, and in the revolu- 
tionary struggle espoused the side of the mother country. His 
property, in consequence of his decision, being confiscated, young 
Pinkney entered upon life ill provided for, a circumstance which did 
not, in the slightest degree, affect his political opinions, which 
from boyhood were devoted to the American cause. He was sent 
to King William School, an academy merged in 1785, into St. 
John's College, and here Pinkney acquired a thorough English 
education and some knowledge of the classics, but he attained 
far greater proficiency in Latin later in life, while a resident in 
London. 

His first bent was for the profession of medicine, which he 
studied with Dr. Dorse}' , of Annapolis ; but finding that he had 
little love for this pursuit, he turned his attention to law, and 
entered the office of Mr. Samuel Chase, afterwards Associate Justice 
of the Supreme Court. His industry was great, and his ambition 
was excited by the triumphs at the bar of such men as Daniel 
Dulany, Chase and Luther Martin. In 1786, when twenty-two 
years of age, he was admitted to the bar, and commenced practice 
in Harford county, Maryland. Little detail regarding his life at 
this period has been preserved, but he must have early made his 
mark, for in April, 1788, only two yeavs after his settlement in 
Harford, he was elected a delegate to the State Convention which 
ratified the Federal Constitution. 

In October, 1788, he was chosen a member of the House of 
Delegates, in which he soon acquired reputation as an able debater 
and brilliant orator. In 1789, he married Ann Maria Rodgers, 
daughter of Mr. John Rodgers, of Havre de Grace, Maryland, 
and sister of the distinguished Commodore Rodgers. By her he had 
a family of ten children, only three of whom are now living. In 
1790, he was elected a member of Congress. The election was con- 



410 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

tested, but decided in his favor, after a close and powerful argument 
of his own. He, however, did not take his seat, owing to pruden- 
tial and domestic reasons. In 1792, he was chosen one of the 
Executive Council of the State of Maryland, continuing in office 
till 1795, when he relinquished his seat, having part of the time 
been President of the Board, being then chosen a delegate to the 
General Assembly of Maryland, from Anne Arundel county. 

In 1796, President Washington appointed him one of the Com- 
missioners of the United States, under the seventh article of Mr. 
Jay's treaty with Great Britain, and embarking in July of the 
same year, with his family, he met Mr. Gore, another one of the 
American Commissioners, in London. During this residence of eight 
years in England, the most important questions of international 
law came before the board, such as the practice of prize courts, the 
law of contraband, blockade, &c. On these and many other ques- 
tions, Mr. Pinkney's written opinions were regarded in the highest 
light, as models of strength, skill and eloquence. This period, too, 
was one of the most exciting in modern history, one of enthralling 
interest to a man of intellect. The mighty drama which had 
opened. with the French revolution was in full progress; Europe 
shook to its centre beneath the clash of arms, as the disciplined 
hosts of the oldest Empire, were rent and routed by the master 
genius of Xapoleon ; and just after the time of Mr. Pinkney's 
arrival, the astounding victories over the Austrians, had turned all 
eves upon the young commander-in-chief of the French .army in 
Italy. In England were arrayed the most brilliant orators and 
statesmen; Burke, Pitt, Fox, Lord Holland, Sheridan, AVindham, 
Grey, Grenville, Canning, Wilberforce, Erskine. Mr. Pinkney had 
constant opportunities, which he never neglected, of listening to 
and studying these great debaters, and in private life, formed 
strong intimacies among them, and with other distinguished men. 
During the time of this residence he was also engaged in nego- 
tiating the claims of the State of Maryland to a large amount of 
public property, invested in the stock of the Bank of England, 
which had become involved in vexatious chancery litigation, and 
which Mr. Chase had been sent out to adjust some years before. 
lie finally recovered the claim, amounting to some ^800,000, for 
which he was publicly thanked by the Legislature of Maryland. 
He returned to the United States in 1804, and removed from 
Annapolis to Baltimore; and in 1805 was appointed Attorney 
General of the State of Maryland. 

In 1800 he was again sent to England, being appointed Minister 



WILLIAM PIXKNEY. 411 

Extraordinary, Mr. Monroe then being American Minister at 
London, to treat with the British government on the various sub- 
jects at which the two powers were at issue, and which eventually 
involved them in war. He, for a long time, continued to press with 
vigor, the just claims of the United States, but the British govern- 
ment obstinately refusing to redress these grievances, or craftily 
eluding the questions, Mr. Pinkuey was finally recalled, at his own 
request, after a residence of five years, reaching home in June, 1811. 
In September of the same year, he was elected a Senator of the 
State of Maryland, and in the next December received the appoint- 
ment of Attorney General of the United States, from President 
Madison. During the war which followed with England, Pinkney 
supported the cause of his country, not only by the vigor of his 
pen, publishing a pamphlet in 1813, maintaining the justice of the 
war on the part of America, but be also took the field. He 
commanded a battalion of riflemen raised in Baltimore for home 
defence, and with it took part in the disastrous battle of Blaclens- 
burg, where he was severely wounded. Soon afterward he was 
elected a representative to Congress from the city of Baltimore. 

In March, 1816, he was sent for the third time to Europe, being 
appointed special Minister to the Court of Naples, and Minister 
Plenipotentiary to Russia. Embarking in the Washington man-of- 
war, he reached Naples in July. The object of his mission was to 
demand indemnity for losses sustained by American merchants in 
1809, under the reign of Murat, their property then having been 
seized and confiscated. The negotiations proved unsuccessful, as 
was the case in all subsequent dealings with this perfidious power, 
until forced to yield to the determined will of President Jackson. 
Mr. Pinkney then visited Rome and other celebrated Italian cities, 
proceeding through Vienna to St. Petersburg, where he remained 
about two years, returning in 1818. Soon after his return from 
Russia, he became engaged in a very important case before the 
Supreme Court of the United States. A tax upon the National 
Bank had been assessed by the State of Maryland, and on the case 
being carried into the courts, the Court of Appeals of Maryland 
had given judgment against the National Bank for the penalties 
prescribed for non-payment of the tax. Mr. Pinkney took the 
ground that the State law was unconstitutional, and after a long 
and powerful speech he convinced the Supreme Court of his opinion, 
and judgment was recovered exempting the Bank of the United 
States from the State taxation. 

In 1820 he was once more called into public life, being elected a 



412 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

Senator to Congress, in which, body he took his seat on the 4th of 
January, 1820. Here, as in every other position which he ever held, 
he took front rank, and particularly distinguished himself on the 
great Missouri question, which then profoundly agitated Congress. 
In the bill for the admission of Missouri into the Federal Union, 
a clause was inserted prohibiting slavery in the new State, and 
Pinkney opposed the clause, on the ground that Congress had no 
right to make such a restriction, which was consequently unconsti- 
tutional. As is well known, the Missouri compromise was at length 
effected. His prodigious labors at this time, in the Senate and the 
Supreme Court, contributed to break him down. On the 17th of 
February, 1822, after enduring great fatigue in a very important 
cause, he was suddenly attacked by illness, which rapidly assumed 
a malignant character, and under which he died on the 25th of 
February, aged fifty-eight years. Every mark of respect was paid 
to his memory by the Nation, it being universally admitted that one 
of its greatest men had fallen in the very zenith of his fame. 

At this day it is difficult, almost impossible, to give a true 
portrait of the man who filled so large a share of public atten- 
tion. At that time, unfortunately, no full and accurate reports of 
the speeches of public men were made, and Mr. Pinkney's vast 
reputation as an orator, is now almost traditional. It is to be 
deplored too, that in his case, hundreds of valuable papers and 
letters of his own writing, with a large number of others, from the 
great men with whom he familiarly associated in Europe, have 
been irrevocably lost, partly through carelessness in those to whom 
they were intrusted, and partly through ignorance of their value. 
But all accounts which have been handed down, and the opinions 
of those few still living who knew him well, agree as to the pro- 
digious powers of his mind; his vehement and enthralling eloquence; 
his intense ambition, ever to be first among the foremost at the 
bar and the forum; the immense industry and research which he 
brought to bear upon his great cases ; and the towering and com- 
manding part he assumed in argument. 

In person, his appearance was lofty and striking, and his dress 
was carried to the highest pitch of fashion. Preparing a case 
with herculean toil and energy, he was as particular in the 
setting of the cravat which was to grace the occasion, as if the 
suit depended upon it. His style of oratory was formed upon a 
study of the varied traits of the greatest British debaters, and he 
was incessant in his studj r of the minutest elegancies of the English 
language. There were some affectations of manner and style in 



WILLIAM PINKNEY. 413 

him, which have ofteD been made the subject of anecdote, as that 
sometimes he would hurriedly appear in court, beg pardon for 
being a little late, and comparatively unprepared, and then entering 
into the closest argument, cite the very page and paragraph of the 
authority he quoted, and which he had committed to memory the 
night before. He was profuse and splendid in his manner of living, 
and fond of the best society, although not greatly given to company. 
He would sometimes, for a few moments, attend an evening party, 
but quickly leave, and then at home, pursue in solitude the study of 
some great case, far into the night. His life has been twice written; 
— by Henry Wheaton, and by his nephew, Rev. Wni. Pinkney, 
now assistant Bishop of Maryland ; — but it is on the judgment of 
his great contemporaries, such as Mr. Justice Story and Daniel 
Webster, that his claims to genius and greatness must most surely 
rest. 

By the chosen friends and associates who enjoyed his hours of 
ease and pleasure within his own domestic circle, Mr. Pinkney 
was considered to be not less great than when in public, arrayed 
in all his strength as counsel. When the shades of evening came 
on, and the role of great man was laid aside, when he unbent from 
the dignity of his profession, no one could be more entertaining and 
delightful as a companion. He was a rich and eloquent talker, and 
his mind was stored with anecdote and illustration. Of the many 
distinguished men whom he had seen and known familiarly in 
England, he was full of reminiscences. He had been particularly 
intimate with Lord Holland, and amid the courtly splendors of 
Holland House, rendered peerless by the presiding genius, grace and 
beauty of its celebrated mistress, he had met, on terms of frequent 
friendship, the most illustrious personages of England, the first 
in right of birth, art, science, literature and naval and military 
renown. Of these, his conversation was ever rich and graphic ; he 
possessed too, in an uncommon degree, powers of mimicry, and 
could precisely imitate Fox, Pitt, Sheridan- and other orators, as 
well as singers like Braham, and Madame Catalani. At times, too, 
when in mischievous humor, he indulged a propensity for quizzing, 
and gentlemen still living in this community, recall, even now, with 
laughter, his talent in this particular. 

Well read, and always carefully prepared, he expected others to 
do their share in entertainment at his table, and did not tolerate 
mere fashionable dullness a second time. He was not a great eater, 
but enjoyed his food, which he must have of the choicest kind ; and 
though he liked a glass of fine wine, he was always temperate, and 



414 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

never exceeded a certain quantity. He was fastidious to the last 
degree in his language and his habits, and while he made an 
incessant study of the dictionary, his cravats and linen were always 
of the finest, and his tailor's bills were prodigious. He modeled 
his style of oratory and his personal address, on lofty and aristo- 
cratic standards; he bore a resemblance to the Prince of TVales, so 
much so, indeed, that when in England, on several occasions, being 
near the royal palace, he was saluted by the guards, who mistook 
him for the regent. One of his greatest attributes, and which 
unfortunately no reporter has seized, was his power of word paint- 
ing, in bringing a remembered scene before the listener with all the 
strength of the original. The writer of this sketch very lately 
heard a gentleman who was intimate with him, describe the awe 
with which he filled him, as he once told of his visit to St. Peter's, 
having just previously seen another of the most majestic basilicas 
of Rome. Mr. Pinkney rose into power as he narrated his entrance 
into the mighty shrine, and proceeded with his description of its 
immense distances ; its chapels and altars, statues and monuments, 
paintings and mosaics, soaring arches and long drawn aisles, the 
kneeling multitudes with nothing crowded, nothing fantastic, all 
in grand simple harmony, crowned by the stupendous dome which 
seemed suspended in air. And beneath it, and before the shrine of 
St. Peter, Mr. Pinkney added, that he felt irresistibly impelled, 
Protestant though he was, to kneel in silent adoration, overcome 
by the master genius of the mighty temple. Nothing that this 
gentleman had ever heard or read, approached the sublimity of Mr. 
Pinkney's description, which for half a century had lingered in his 
memory like a strain of the grandest music. And thus such 
remembrances of William Pinkney will be handed down for genera- 
tions, only to make men deplore that so little written record was 
kept, of the mighty mind which gave them utterance. 



EDGAR ALLAN POE 



Remarkable alike for genius, adventure, and misfortune, Edgar 
Allan Poe is one of the marked characters in American literature. 
His ancestry was of note in the history of the State, his grand- 
father, David Poe, having been quartermaster-general iu the old 
Maryland line. His father, David Poe, Jr., studied law ; but be- 
coming fascinated by Elizabeth Arnold, a handsome actress, he 
abandoned his profession and went himself upon the stage. He was 
unsuccessful, and unhappy in his domestic life. His wife and he 
died about the same time, leaving three young children in poverty. 
Edgar Allan, the second child, who had been born in Baltimore, 
in January, 1811, was adopted by his uncle, Mr. John Allan, of 
Richmond, Virginia, a gentleman of competence and kind heart. 
He was carefully educated, and at an early age sent to school, at 
Stoke Newington, England, where he continued several years. Re- 
turning, he entered the University of Virginia, and there displayed 
the peculiarities which he carried through life, — brilliant talents 
linked with reckless conduct. Scholarship could not shield him 
from censure, and he was expelled. He quarrelled with his uncle 
and started for Europe with a Quixotic plan of joining the Greeks 
in their struggle for independence ; but he never reached Greece. 
After a series of adventures in Europe, now almost wholly un- 
known, he appeared in St. Petersburg, in utter destitution and in 
the hands of the police for some misdemeanor. He was saved from 
punishment and sent home by Mr. Middleton, the American minis- 
ter. Poe now wished to adopt the military profession ; and his 
uncle, with the aid of Chief Justice Marshall and other public men, 
procured him an appointment as cadet at West Point. For a time 
he did well, but fell back into his old dissolute habits, and in less 
than a year after entering the institution was cashiered. For the 
third time he was kindly received by his uncle, who had in the 
meanwhile been married again to a young and attractive woman. 
Poe remained but a short time in his family, as a most serious 
quarrel ensued. His uncle deemed it proper to close his doors 



416 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

finally against him, and dying in 1834 left him unnamed in his 
will. Poe was now thrown wholly upon his own resources. Driven 
to extremity, he enlisted as a private in the army. He was recog- 
nized by some ofiicers who had known him at West Point, who 
endeavored to procure his discharge ; but before they could do so he 
deserted. 

Prior to this period, however, he had entered upon his career as 
an author, having published a small volume of poems in Baltimore 
in 1829. They attracted little attention; but in 1833, the "Satur- 
day Visitor," a weekly literary paper, offered prizes of one hundred 
dollars each for the best poem and prose story. The late John 
P. Kennedy was one of the judges of the essays, and to Poe was 
awarded both prizes. He appeared before Mr. Kennedy in a condi- 
tion betokening extreme penury, and was at once kindly taken by 
the hand. Greatly interested, Mr. Kennedy continued to befriend 
him, and a year or two later aided him in obtaining a situation in 
Richmond as editor of the Southern Literary Messenger. Here he 
continued for some time, growing in reputation as an author, pub- 
lishing a number of his striking tales and essays, but beset, as of 
old, by his evil genius. He quarrelled with his literary confreres, 
and left Richmond, having there married his first cousin, Virginia 
Clemm, a lovely woman, too frequently called upon to share the 
misery which he drew down upon himself. He removed to New 
York in 1837, leading a precarious life, and often in absolute dis- 
tress. He went to Philadelphia, and became editor of Burton's 
Gentleman's Magazine, and afterward of Graham's Magazine, and 
in both instances again quarreled with his associates. In 1840 he 
published, in Philadelphia, his " Tales of the Grotesque and the 
Arabesque," comprising some of his most singular and powerful 
productions. He returned to New York, and engaged in several 
enterprises, none of very long continuance, among them being en- 
gaged, with Charles F. Briggs, in the editorship of the Broadway 
Journal. At this period, while chiefly residing in a little cottage at 
Fordham, he attained his greatest celebrity, and at the same time 
frequently suffered from the extreme agonies of destitution. 

In 1845, in the " American Review," appeared his most remark- 
able poem, "The Raven." It instantly won the unbounded ap- 
plause of all classes, and not only stamped its author as a man of 
wondrous genius, but fixed forever for itself its living lustre in the 
English language. Nor was its reception abroad less distinguished; 
the most fastidious critics of Great Britain acknowledged its origi- 
nality and power, and the sensation which it produced in the very 



EDGAR ALLAN POE. 417 

highest circles was unparalleled. Mrs. Browning wrote of it with 
all the enthusiasm of her earnest soul, and described the dread 
effect of its phantom spirit in the shades of evening, even on the 
sternest natures. It has been republished in every form, and illus- 
trated by many of the very first artists in Europe and America, 
and it is universally adopted by public readers as one of the severest 
tests of elocution. 

In 1S47 Mr. Poe's wife died. She left him to the care of her 
mother, Mrs. Clemm, whose devotion to him never faltered, and 
whose strong love, even in her own direst want, forms one of the 
most touching episodes in his fitful career. The death of his wife 
produced no improvement in his habits, and he frequently ex- 
hausted the patience of his warmest friends. On one occasion, from 
excess, he was reduced to a state of extreme nervous irritability, 
when a friend who had been in attendance, deeming him in a very 
dangerous condition, left him, for a few moments, to procure medi- 
cal aid. On returning with the physician, Poe could not be found. 
They searched the neighborhood, and shortly discovered him in a 
drinking saloon, where, mounted on top of a cask, he was delivering, 
to a crowd of dazed, wretched sots around him, a lecture, in the 
most brilliant language, on the law of universal gravitation. It was 
a striking illustration of Poe's own life, — genius of the highest 
order, which should naturally be obedient to the great law of pro- 
gress and harmony, dragged down from its starry course and 
chained to the lowest spirits of humanity.* 

At length a brighter hope seemed to dawn upon the fortunes of 
Poe ; and in 1849 he returned to Richmond, and became engaged 
there to a lady of some property. He himself wrote of his pro- 
posed marriage in terms of the most favorable augury, saying that 
the " lost Lenore" was found. The time for their marriage was 
fixed, and in order to perfect some arrangements he started on a 
journey to ]STew York. He reached Baltimore, intending to take 
the evening train for Philadelphia, and at one of the hotels he met 
several of his old friends, who proposed to drink with him. With 
the first glass all reason left him, as it always did at the slightest 
touch of stimulant. He spent the night in wild excess, and then 
wandered out into the streets in the chill of early morning. The 
consequences were fatal, and he was found in an insensible condi- 
tion by a watchman and conveyed to the Washington University 
Hospital, where all efforts to relieve him proved fruitless, and he 

* This anecdote, perfectly true, has never appeared in print. 



418 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

died a few hours after his admission. He was buried in the grave- 
yard of the Westminster Presbyterian Church, at the corner of 
Fayette and Greene streets. No monument marks his grave. The 
pupils of the Western Female High School, in the neighborhood of 
the church, have several times held exhibitions for the purpose of 
raising money to devote to a monument ; but so far only a small 
sum has been collected, which is deposited in one of the city banks. 
Thus Edgar A. Poe died, aged thirty-eight years, after a life 
crowded with fame, disaster, and misery. 

The writings of Edgar A. Poe have been freely and frequently 
subjected to the criticism of reviewers, both in England and Amer- 
ica, and in France he became widely known from the interest 
excited by his scientific papers. These, however, may be more aptly 
classed as fictions, although based on supposed scientific facts. 
Such an instance occurs in " the case of M. Valdemar," one of the 
wildest and most horrible of his abnormal productions, in which 
mesmeric influence is the governing agent. By minuteness of detail 
and apparent careful statement of incident, Poe succeeded in giving 
such an air of truth to these productions, that, when published, in 
parts, readers were frequently deceived and made to believe in the 
absolute reality of the narrative. Such was especially the case 
with the story of " Arthur Gordon Sym." Among the best known 
of his prose writings are the " MSS. found in a bottle," which ob- 
tained one of the prizes offered by the Saturday Visitor, " The Gold 
Bug," " Mesmeric Revelations," " The Murders of the Hue Morgue," 
" The Black Cat," " The Fall of the House of Usher," " The Pit and 
the Pendulum," "Premature Burial," "The Red Death," "The Tell- 
Tale Heart," " Berenice," " Ligea," &c. Nearly all of them relate to 
supernatural terrors or fiendish, hideous crimes. His imagination, 
in many of them, appears to wear the foul desires of a ghoul, and 
to revel in all the horrors of the charnel-house. It has been well 
observed by an American reviewer that, "in reading his most 
powerful talcs God seems dead." The strong desire of misleading 
and entrapping appears often to have governed Poe when he wrote, 
aside from fiction. In his paper entitled "The Philosophy of Com- 
position" he purports to give the key to the structure of his poem 
of the "Raven," and would have it appear only as the result of the 
capabilities of rhythm and mechanical skill, instead of poetic inspira- 
tion. This very explanation is probably as sheer an invention as he 
ever penned. 

Beside the " Raven," Poe's most celebrated poems are " The Bells" 
and " Annabel Lee." We gladly turn from his ghastly creations to 



EDGAR ALLAN POE. 419 

enjoj these exquisite compositions, especially "Annabel Lee," one of 
the sweetest and purest in the English language. And had he never 
penned another line, it would be sufficient to~immortalize him as a 
man of genius and a poet, whose divine nature was bestowed that 
he might soothe and delight his fellow-men, in thus 

"Untwisting all the chains that tie 
The hidden soul of harmony." 



JOHN PURVIANCE. 



In the year 1763, Samuel Purviance, a gentleman from Pennsyl- 
vania, but of Irish birth, settled in Baltimore Town. He had two 
sons, Robert and Samuel. The latter, during the contest which 
terminated in the independence of America, was chairman of the 
committee of correspondence of Baltimore. The former, an eminent 
merchant in his day, was, after the adoption of the Federal Con- 
stitution, in 1787, appointed by General Washington, Naval Officer 
of the port of Baltimore, the first who filled that office. 

Robert Purviance had five sons, of whom, the subject of this 
memoir was the second. John Purviance wa% born in Baltimore, 
graduated at Dickinson College, Pa., and studied law in the office 
of Robert Smith, in the city of his birth. He came to the Bar in 
November, 1793. His advancement in his profession was rapid. 
During the last w T ar with Great Britain, he was one of the leading 
counsel in the Federal Courts in this city, and was engaged in 
almost every prize cause tried in those Courts. He subsequently 
became the regular counsel of the various Marine Insurance Com- 
panies of Baltimore, and derived from them a lucrative practice. 
As a commercial lawyer, none stood higher than Mr. Purviance. 
His library was one of the most extensive of his day ; and being 
familiar with all the Continental writers on the Civil and Ad- 
miralty law, his Admiralty practice was always very large. 

He ever reverenced justice and honesty above all price, and by 
his country clients was called " the honest lawyer." His profes- 
sional charges were moderate, but such was the extent of his 
practice, that he was always enabled to live well, and dispensed 
at his spacious mansion on South Gay street, a refined and liberal 
hospitality. His dinners to the Bar and Bench were the coveted 
feasts of the day, and the evening entertainments given by his 
estimable lady, were rarely equalled by any in our city. In May, 
1833, a vacancy occurred on the Bench of the Sixth Judicial Dis- 
trict of the State, by the resignation of Judge Kell. A meeting of 
the Bar was called, and such was the estimation in which the char- 
28 



422 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

acter and legal attainments of Mr. Purviance was held, that he 
was unanimously recommended to the Governor of the State, 
with whom the appointment then rested, for the position ; and on 
the 7th of May, 1833, he was appointed associate Justice of the 
Sixth Judicial District of Maryland, said District then comprising 
Baltimore city and county, and Harford county. It was an ap- 
pointment eminently proper to be made ; satisfactory alike to the 
Bar and public, the press of that day, of all shades of thinking, 
emphatically endorsing it. In that position, Judge Purviance re- 
mained for eighteen years, discharging its arduous duties with such 
ability and impartiality, as to attract the love and confidence of the 
community, and the respect and esteem of his professional brethren. 
He left the Bench only, when, in 1851, the Judges were elected by 
the people, under the new constitution of that date, and he had 
reached that period of life, when a quiet retirement in the bosom 
of his family, and the books which a lifetime had gathered around 
him, were to him far more pleasant than the contests of the politi- 
cal arena. System and order pervaded his whole life. While 
always a devoted student, he never neglected the physical man ; he 
rose early and took his regular exercise before breakfast, walking 
frequently to the Herring Run (four miles from the city) and back. 
He continued his morning walks until the infirmity of age com- 
pelled him to use a carriage. 

As the cotemporary of Harper, Pinkney, Wirt and Taney, and 
frequently their colleague in the important causes of the day, while 
not attempting the splendid oratory which graced their public 
forensic efforts, he equalled any of them in the extent of his legal 
learning, and the thorough preparation with which he approached 
the trial table. 

His word was his bond ; and so blameless his life, that when its 
calm evening drew to a close, from out the skies there seemed to 
come a voice, saying : " Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall 
see God." 

He died in September, 1854, in his eighty-first year. 





i/lsH* 




/ 



JOHN W. RANDOLPH. 



It is one of the most fortunate circumstances connected with the 
histor}^ and growth of the American people, that by emigration and 
intermarriage, the different elements of our population are con- 
stantly being fused in such a manner as to prevent the formation or 
perpetuation of distinct provincial types. In spite of the difference 
in origin between the several colonies, they had not long been 
united under a common government, before the lines of demarca- 
tion, which had been much more sharply defined at an earlier 
period of their colonial history, began gradually to appear less dis- 
tinct. Sectional peculiarities have not entirely disappeared, it is 
true, and perhaps will never disappear. The Southern man may 
continue to differ from the New England man, and the Western 
man from both ; but by the operation of the causes we have men- 
tioned, these different elements are constantly being stirred up and 
mixed together, and prevented from settling down and crystallizing 
into separate and homogeneous masses. Baltimore, from its central 
position in a middle or border State, furnishes many illustrations of 
this fact. Its population is drawn from all portions of the country. 
The Puritan tree has here sent up its shoots, and the Southern vine- 
has shed its clusters. The people of Baltimore are essentially a peo- 
ple of mixed blood, uniting the qualities both of their Northern and 
Southern neighbors. The men of the Mayflower stock and Puritan 
lineage, have found a home here, side by side with the descendants 
of the cavaliers, and of those who came over in the Ark and Dove. 

Edward Fitz-Randolph and Elizabeth Blossom, were among those 
who came to this country from Nottingham, England, in the May- 
flower; the former in 1630, the latter in 1620, her first voyage. 
These two were married in 1646, and had eight children ; their 
descendants now are scattered, probably, through half the States 
in the Union. They certainly did their part, these old Puritans, 
towards fulfilling the divine injunction, which is inscribed upon the 
great seal of Maryland as the State motto. Joseph, the fifth child 
of Edward and Elizabeth Randolph, and who was born in 1656, 



424 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

had twelve children. Joseph, his second child, who was horn in 
1690, also had twelve children, and his fifth son, John Randolph, 
horn in 1752, and who settled on the Raritan river, in New Jersey, 
had eight children. The fourth child of John Randolph, who was 
named Thomson, and who was the father of the subject of the 
present sketch, was born March 3d, 1781. 

The facilities for education in New Jersey in those days, were 
somewhat meagre, and Thomson Randolph left his father's house 
at the age of twenty, with but a limited knowledge of the ru- 
diments of learning. By dint of energy and perseverance, he 
afterward became proficient in the various branches of a good 
English and mathematical education, and was subsequently a suc- 
cessful teacher of youth in Cecil county, Maryland, and for a long 
series of years in Baltimore city. Honesty and industry were the 
lessons he inculcated upon the minds of his pupils and children, and 
Pope's familiar line, 

" An honest man's the noblest work of God," 

was his favorite maxim. He bequeathed to his family but little 
beyond the legacy of a good name ; but that he had taught them 
to cherish as more valuable than riches. 

His eldest son, John William Randolph, was born in Elktou, 
Cecil county, Maryland, on the twentieth day of June, 1808. He 
was educated principally by his father, and was anxious to embrace, 
in his studies, the languages, particularly Latin and Greek, but his 
father's advice was : first master your own language thoroughly, 
before you attempt to acquire another, and that enough may be 
learned through the medium of the English tongue alone to occupy 
fully the attention of most men in the ordinary pursuits of life. 

After spending a year and a half as an assistant to his father in 
teaching, young Randolph obtained a situation, at the age of 
eighteen, as a clerk, at one hundred dollars per annum, with 
William Denny, who at that time conducted the largest ship- 
joiner's business in Baltimore, besides being owner of an extensive 
lumber yard. In this employment Mr. Randolph continued for ten 
years. In 1834, he became a partner with Mr. Denny in the lum- 
ber business, under the firm of Denny & Randolph. Mr. Randolph 
still retains an interest in the same lumber yard, the business of 
which is now carried on by Randolph, Brothers & Co. 

During the half century in which Mr. Randolph has resided in 
the city of Baltimore, he has been usefully and honorably identified 
with various movements and enterprises of public utility. Some of 



JOHN W . RANDOLPH. 425 

these deserve a few words of passing mention, the scope of a sketch 
like the present, not admitting of more. 

Having been trained to appreciate the advantages of a thorough 
English education, it is not strange that Mr. Randolph should 
have early manifested a warm personal interest in the public 
school system of Baltimore, which was inaugurated in 1828, his 
father and his eldest sister being among the first public school 
teachers. From a feeble beginning, the public schools of Balti- 
more have grown to be both numerous and popular. Ten years 
after their institution, there were, in 1838, but eight schools in 
the city, all of the same grade, with six hundred and seventy- 
five scholars on the rolls, the total yearly expense to the city being 
$4,800. Mr. Randolph had been a Commissioner of the Public 
Schools for one or two years previous to 1838, and in that year was 
chairman of the Committee on Education in the City Council. He 
took an active part in the effort which was then made for the 
resuscitation and improvement of the feeble and languishing public 
school system. The idea seemed to prevail at that time, that they 
were pauper schools. A proposition to establish a high school, in 
which the more advanced branches of learning should be taught, 
had been defeated, upon the ground that it was an improper innova- 
tion, and tended to create invidious distinctions among the pupils. 
A new era had now dawned, however, in the history of the public 
school sj^stem of Baltimore. Authority was obtained to establish a 
high school ; liberal appropriations were secured, both for building 
school houses upon a suitable plan, with proper regard to light and 
ventilation, and for the general support of the schools as newly or- 
ganized. In all this, Mr. Randolph took an active part, and he has 
lived to see from that day the progress and improvement of the 
schools continue without interruption. Since that time the general 
features of the system have been extended throughout the State, 
while in the city, primary and grammar schools have been es- 
tablished in nearly every precinct, including schools for colored 
children. On the 1st January, 1870, there were 119 public schools 
in Baltimore city, conducted by 558 teachers, and with 20,913 
scholars upon the rolls. 

Another subject of vast importance to the citizens of Baltimore, 
which engaged Mr. Randolph's active attention, was the question of 
securing a full supply of pure water. In 1852, a commission was 
appointed by the Mayor and City Council, to examine the various 
streams near the city, and report a plan for furnishing a free supply 
of pure water, sufficient to meet the wants of a city of 500,000 



426 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

inhabitants. Joshua Yansant, Ross Winans, John W. Randolph, 
John King, J. J. Turner, and James Murray, constituted this com- 
mission. After the question of a new water supply had been voted 
upon by the citizens, a Water Board of six persons was created, to 
serve without pay, and to superintend the construction of the new 
works. Mr. Randolph was a member of this board, and acted as 
secretary, retaining his position in the board until 1866, under four 
successive changes of municipal administration, a gratifying tribute 
to the fidelity with which he had discharged his duties. 

In the administration of the McDonogh bequest, a fund be- 
queathed by John McDonogh, a wealthy citizen of New Orleans, 
but a native of Baltimore, to the two cities, for charitable and edu- 
cational purposes, Mr. Randolph also filled a useful and conspicuous 
part. From 1858, until 1867, he was President of the Board of 
Trustees appointed to receive from the agents who were entrusted 
with the division of the estate, the city's share of the proceeds. 
The greater part of the estate was sold in 1859, one-fifth payable in 
cash, the balance in four equal annual paj^ments. The cash pay- 
ments, and those which fell due in 1860, were generally met, but for 
several years subsequently, there was no direct communication 
between Baltimore and New Orleans, owing to the civil war. 
Finally, in the Spring of 1863, the city of New Orleans being then 
in the possession of the United States forces, Mr. Randolph was ap- 
pointed sole agent of the McDonogh estate, and was instructed to go 
to New Orleans to obtain information as to the condition of the 
fund. Obtaining a permit from the Secretary of War, Mr. Ran- 
dolph started on his mission. Upon reaching the Double-head Shot 
Keys, the steamship 31arion, in which he had taken passage, was 
wrecked, and all the passengers landed on the Island of Cuba. 
Thence Mr. Randolph subsequently succeeded in reaching New Or- 
leans, lie found that most of the persons who were indebted to 
the McDonogh estate had left the city, and that the people who had 
suffered greatly by the war, were in no condition to pay claims. 
Upon a second visit, in 1865, he was more successful, and a large 
proportion of the amount due was collected. The entire charge of 
the McDonogh fund was now confided to Mr. Randolph, until there 
was a change made in the board of trustees, in 1866, and a new 
board appointed. When Mr. Randolph surrendered his trust, there 
was transferred to the new board $518,000 in city stock, the small 
amount of cash on hand, and the title-deeds of property purchased 
for a site for a Manual Labor School and Farm, which had cost 
$42,000. When, subsequently, it was decided to abandon the site 



JOHN W. RANDOLPH. 427 

chosen, this property sold for 820,000 more than it had cost. These 
particulars illustrate the fidelity and judgment with which Mr. 
Randolph discharged the various important trusts which have 
from time to time been confided to his keeping. For many years 
he was a Director of the Canton Company, and for several years its 
president. During the past twenty-seven years, he has been 
Treasurer of the Fell's Point Savings Institution, which, since 1863, 
has been known as the Second iSTational Bank of Baltimore, and of 
which he is the present Cashier. 

Mr. Randolph took an active part in the organization of the 
"Association for the Improvement of the Condition of the Poor," 
in the year 1848, and was one of a committee appointed to draft 
the constitution under which it has worked successfully for twenty 
years. For many years he was the treasurer of this association, 
which distributes its benefits without distinction of race, nation- 
ality, or religion. This association annually receives and disburses 
$25,000, and has relieved 2,784 families, comprising 9,634 individu- 
als, in the course of a single year. 

Although called upon to fill so many and such important public 
trusts, Mr. Randolph has never been, in the party sense of the word, 
an active politician, nor even an extreme partisan. In former 
days he supported the old Whig party, and during the trying 
period of the war declared himself an unconditional Union man. 
Mr. Randolph is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in 
which body he has filled various important positions. His whole 
life has been largely devoted to the performance of public duties, 
and he is justly ranked among Baltimore's most useful and public- 
spirited citizens. He has always resided in the eastern portion of 
the city, where he first settled fifty years ago, which was, at that 
da}% the seat of an active commerce, and which has increased four- 
fold in population within the period of his residence. To return to 
the point from which we set out, we have in Mr. Randolph's busy, 
useful career, and in the solid traits of character which he has ex- 
hibited, an illustration of the sturdy virtues of the old stock, from 
which he is descended, transplanted to the genial and friendly soil 
of his native Maryland. 



{Integer vita scelerisque paras.) 

WILLIAM GEORGE READ. 



The simple outline of a life, which, for a period of over thirty 
years, was intimately associated with the literary and professional, 
social and political history of Baltimore, will, it is hoped, prove an 
interesting, and not inappropriate pendant to the portraits of some 
of those more active and stirring characters, which are presented 
to the readers of these pages. 

This distinguished gentleman and ripe scholar, was the youngest 
son of Jacob Read, of Charleston, South Carolina. He was born 
September 11th, 1800, at his parents' summer residence, in the city 
of Newport, Rhode Island, where, even at that early date, the 
South Carolina families were accustomed to find a refuge from 
the heat and malaria of their homes, and to enjoy during the 
months of July and August, the delicious climate and refreshing 
breezes of that now popular resort. At Newport, Mr. Read was left 
by his parents (probably for the benefit of his health) until he was 
seven years old, in the family of the Rev. Mr. Dehon, who after- 
wards, became the Protestant Episcopal Bishop of South Carolina. 
These early associations, laid the foundation for the respect and 
esteem which he always expressed for that thrifty, hardy, conten- 
tious New England race, whose form of prayer was not inaptly 
termed a " wrestling with the Lord ;" whose first settlers removed 
the countless stones from the barren fields, to find a place to sow 
their seed, and whose log houses also served their sturdy families 
for forts. 

Mr. Read's father, a man of rare ability and cultivation, was 
a student of law in the Middle Temple in London, at the break- 
ing out of the American war of Independence. He returned at 
once to his home and country, entered the American arnry as a 
volunteer, was taken prisoner, and was confined in the Casernes 
prison of St. Mark's, in Florida. Upon the close of the war he was 
elected by his fellow citizens to a seat in the United States Senate. 



230 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

While attending the sessions of that then illustrious assembly, he 
became affianced to Miss Ariana Calvert, a descendant of Lord 
Baltimore, but the young lacty's family objected so strongly to her 
removal from Maryland to the far southern land, that the engage- 
ment was cancelled. Some years after this General Read married 
Miss Catherine Van Horn, of New York. This lady, who was the 
mother of Mr. William George Read, the subject of this memoir, 
is believed to have been a descendant of the unhappy Philip de 
Montmorenci, Count Van Horn, who perished on the scatfold with 
Egmont, June 5th, 1568, the tragedy so pathetically described by 
Schiller, in his History of the Revolt of the Netherlands.* 

In the rotunda of the Capitol at "Washington there is a large 
painting, representing General Washington resigning his commis- 
sion at Annapolis. Conspicuous among the group of Senators in 
attendance, is the figure of Jacob Read, who stands on the right 
of General Washington. Mr. Read's ancestors first settled at New 
Castle, in Delaware, where the tomb of Sir William Read's family 
is still preserved just at the door of the Episcopal Church. 

At an early age, William George Read, after diligent prepa- 
ration, entered the Sophomore Class in Cambridge College of 
Harvard University, and graduated with the first honors, in 1820, 
in a class of fifty-seven, containing such men as Joseph Thornton 
Adams, Thaddeus B. Bigelow, Warren Colburn, John Sandford 
Dart, Andrew L. Emerson, William Henry Furness, Ezra Stiles 
Gannett, William Kneeland Hedge, the two Pierces, William Taylor 
Potter, George W. Sargent, Stephen Schuyler, Henry G. Whea- 
ton, and others. 

Upon leaving college he began the study of the law, under the 
celebrated Andrew F. Hunter, of Newport, but finding the winter 
there too rigorous for his constitution, he removed, in 1822, to 
Baltimore, and entered the office of Robert Goodloe Harper. Here 
he met and became intimate with George R. Richardson, John II. 
B. Latrobe, John Hanan, John J. Lloyd and other prominent men. 

During this period, being himself over six feet three inches in 
height, Mr. Read raised and commanded a company of grenadiers, 
of which Mr. George E. Sangston, late Clerk of the Superior Court 
of Baltimore City is one of the few survivors. 

An oration in aid of the Greeks, which Mr. Read delivered in 
the theatre while still a law student, was very highly extolled, and 
much admired for its classical taste and fervid eloquence, and when 

* Forty-two portraits of the Van Horn family were destroyed by the great fire in 
New York, in 1836. 



WILLIAM GEORGE READ. 431 

admitted to the bar by the late Judge Magruder, he was the recipi- 
ent of a special compliment from that eminent jurist, on his legal 
knowledge and acquirements. 

His sister, Miss Cornelia Eead, a brilliant and beautiful woman, 
was already married to the eldest son of Colonel John Eager How- 
ard, one of Maryland's revolutionary heroes, and one time Governor 
of the State. This connection soon led to an attachment between 
Mr. Eead and Miss Sophia Catherine Howard, second daughter of 
Colonel Howard. They were married on the seventh of May, 1825, 
and the following year removed to the South. In the spring of 1827, 
Mr. Eead was elected Principal of the South Carolina Colleo-e,an 
institution organized for the purpose of educating the Southern 
youth in their own land. But he did not long remain in this 
position, as the death of Colonel Howard brought Mrs. Eead into 
the possession of property in Baltimore which required his personal 
attention and care in its development. Colonel Howard's estate, 
which extended from beyond Belvidere, down North street on the 
one side, and Greene street on the other, as far as the water, was left 
equally divided by Colonel Howard among his children and grand- 
children, giving a handsome fortune to each of them. As an 
evidence of the rapid increase of the value of property in Baltimore 
at that time, this estate is said to have been oft'ered for sale in 1780, 
and only valued by the owner at five hundred Mexican dollars, 
Both Mr. Eead and his sister, Mrs. Howard, had embraced the 
doctrines of the Catholic Church, and feeling a conscientious reluc- 
tance to having the charge and responsibility of owning slaves, Mr. 
Eead not onlj' gave to his slaves their freedom, but he also became a 
zealous advocate for the colonization of the negroes in Africa ; send- 
ing, himself, several young men to Liberia, to whom he gave an 
outfit, and one hundred dollars to each; — but his philanthropy 
availed them so little, that some of them soon wrote to beg him to 
pay their passage back to America. 

From this time forward Mr. Eead became a permanent resident of 
Baltimore, devoting himself to his professional and literary pur- 
suits. He also took an ardent interest in politics ; he cherished a 
firm belief in the right of the people to make their own laws, and in 
their power to govern themselves. Ever a thorough and consistent 
Democrat, he earnestly supported General Andrew Jackson in his 
war against the United States Bank, and the nullification doctrines 
of Calhoun. Frequently brought into contact with the late Chief 
Justice Taney, he bore to that pure and eminent Statesman and 
Jurist the most exalted friendship. 



432 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

For fifteen years, his interest in political questions never flagged, 
and it was Mr. Read's voice that was ever the first to proclaim from 
the windows of the office of the old " Republican and Argus" paper, 
the news of some great victory, to the assembled crowds of cheering 
and enthusiastic Democrats ; yet he never consented to accept office 
from the people, asking only to be permitted to serve and advise 
them ; thus presenting the rare spectacle of a disinterested politi- 
cian. 

During this period his mind was never idle ; composing memoirs, 
delivering orations and lectures, on every subject of local, patriotic 
or religious interest. From. anion 2; these we cite an oration at the 
Centenary Celebration of the founding of Baltimore City ; one 
before the Agricultural Society, and another on Temperance ; a 
Fourth of July oration, and one delivered at St. Mary's in 1844, 
commemorative of the landing of the Pilgrims in Maryland ; 
another on the same subject, delivered in Philadelphia in 1845. 
He also gave an admirable lecture on the subject of Homoeopathy, 
then first coming into notice, and published a Memoir of the Life of 
St. Thomas of Canterbury. 

" Nihil teligit quod 11011 ornavit." 

Mr. Read's personal courage was unquestioned. During the 
dangerous riots of 1835, he placed himself at the head of a few 
brave spirits who volunteered to defend the Convent of the Car- 
melite Nuns, in Aisquith street, which was threatened with an 
attack by a fanatical mob. Summoned as a witness in the matter 
before the House of Delegates, he was questioned : " What did you 
intend doing if the mob had broken into the Convent ?" and the 
late Judge Glenn described the eifect as " electric," produced by his 
firm reply — "to have died on the threshold!" 

Of Mr. Read's character the most distinguishing traits were an 
unblemished honor, and an unswerving integrity — he was a brilliant 
lawyer and an accomplished scholar — a warm friend and an humble 
Christian — 

"He never writ a flattery, 
Nor signed the page that registered a lie." 

The late Cornelius Howard of Baltimore county, having desig- 
nated Mr. Read in his will to lay oft' and divide his estate among 
his devisees, this tribute to his integrity and worth proved, eventu- 
ally, the cause of his death; for in the zealous performance of this 



WILLIAM GEORGE READ. 433 

duty, he contracted the disease, which in the spring of 1846 became 
suddenly acute, and after a few days' illness he died on April 7th, of 
that year. We regret that we are unable to present a portrait of 
William George Read. Modest and unpretending, he ever refused 
to have one taken. The following lines, written by him in his 
Prayer Book, well express his real aims and feelings : 

My life is like the desert spring, 

The less disturbed the less 'tis known, 
Nor gold nor glory's minions bring 

Their tribute to its margin lone. 

Yet sometimes there perchance may stray, 
Some wanderer scorched by summer's beam, 

To pause upon his weary way, 

And bless the silent humble stream. 

So thus aloof the jarring crowd, 

Would I my tranquil future see, 
Flow on unheeded by the proud, 

But dear to some forgot like me. 




<^e^^>^e^2^^ 



CHARLES REEDER. 



In recording the deeds of those men who have deserved well of 
their country, the chronicler is too apt to give undue prominence 
to those whose actions are most conspicuously performed, or are of 
such a nature as to strike the popular imagination — the soldiers, the 
politicians and the orators of the time. But, while these have their 
due meed of praise, it should never be forgotten, that the strength 
of a State rests upon other basis than these. It is the working class, 
the men of labor, from the humblest workman that plies hammer, 
saw or file, to the great marshals and captains who lead the armies 
of labor, to campaigns far more glorious than the bloody triumphs 
of "Waterloo or Sadowa, that build up the true prosperity of the 
State, and lay the firm foundations which bear up the proud super- 
structure of art, letters or military glory. It is to one of these 
that the present sketch refers. 

Charles Reeder was born in Baltimore on October 31st, 1817. 
His parents, Charles and Elizabeth Reeder, were Pennsylvanians by 
birth, but removed to Baltimore in 1813, where Mr. Reeder, senior, 
established himself as a machinist and engine builder, and con- 
structed the first steamboat engine that was built in this city. He 
soon acquired a wide reputation, and though not a competitor in 
the first attempts to construct locomotive engines, yet the first 
successful engine introduced on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 
and which continued in use for many years, was one which had 
been improved according to Mr. Reeder's designs, and rebuilt in his 
workshops. 

Air. Reeder, junior, the subject of this sketch, left school at the 
age of fifteen, after acquiring the elementary education usually 
taught in private schools in those days, and commenced to learn the 
machinist's trade in his father's workshops. His hours of leisure he 
employed in the study of mathematics and mechanical philosophy, 
under the tuition of an accomplished mathematician, Air. J. J. 
Reekers. He also attended lectures at the University of Maryland, 
and from these and other sources, acquired a knowledge of chem- 



436 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

istry, and the natural laws which have a bearing upon the steam 
engine. Combining, thus, theoretical knowledge with the technical 
skill acquired in the shop, and obtaining a just conception of the 
laws which governed the facts upon which his practical instruction 
was grounded, he in this way laid the foundation of his subsequent 
success as a mechanician. 

In the years 1836-37 and 1838, being then a member of the firm 
of C. Reeder & Sons, and foreman of the machine department, he 
assisted in the construction of several steamers, which, in their day, 
were considered first-class vessels. One of these was the Natchez, 
built to run between New York and Natchez, Mississippi. 

In 1838 a heavy disaster befell the firm ; the entire works were 
destroyed by fire, involving a heavy loss. The expense of rebuild- 
ing brought them into financial embarrassment, from which they 
were not free for several years. 

In January, 1842, Mr. Reeder commenced business in partnership 
with his elder brother, under unfavorable circumstances ; but by 
dint of energy and perseverance, succeeded, in a few years, in restor- 
ing the credit and consideration which the establishment had 
formerly enjoyed. This partnership lasted for five or six years, 
when the elder brother withdrew, and assumed the management of 
a line of steamers, of which he was in part owner. 

The first contract which Mr. Reeder undertook individually, was 
to furnish the machinery for a mail steamship to run between 
Charleston and Havanna. This ship, the Isabel, was completed in 
1848 ; and her successful performances attracted the attention of- 
builders in northern cities, engaged in the construction of ocean 
steamers. Some of the improvements which Mr. Reeder had intro- 
duced in the Isabel were of such importance, that not only were 
they adopted in the construction of subsequent steamers for ocean 
navigation, but many of those already built were altered ; and the 
improvements first applied in the Isabel became a general feature of 
ocean paddle-wheel steamers. 

From these works a number of ocean, bay and river steamers 
have since been supplied with machinery, and their performances 
have fully sustained the reputation which the establishment has 
enjoyed for half a century. 

Since 1866, the establishment has been conducted by the firm of 
C. Reeder & Company ; the other partners being Mr. Reeder's 
younger brother and his sons. Their latest production of note is the 
City Ice Boat, Chesapeake, a powerful steamer contrived for keeping 
the harbor-channel open in winter, by crushing a waj r through the 



CHARLES REEDER. 437 

ice, and supplied with the necessary apparatus for rendering relief 
to vessels in distress. The machinery of this boat, intended for a 
special service, and requiring some peculiarities of construction, was 
designed and made in C. Reeder & Company's works. The boat 
has been fully tested by actual use, and is believed to be unsur- 
passed in power and efficiency, by any vessel of the kind in the 
United States. 

As the legitimate reward of thirty years' devotion to his busi- 
ness, Mr. Reeder has amassed a handsome, though not opulent 
fortune, and is largely interested in several steamship lines, as well 
as a stockholder in several banks and insurance companies in the 
city. 

In a work published in 1856, entitled " Leading Pursuits and 
Leading Men" the following remarks were applied to Mr. Reeder : 
" He is emphatically a practical man, thoroughly versed in every 
department, having both the ability and disposition to execute 
his own drawings, and make his own calculations. Although 
manufacturing mill- work and other machinery, yet his fame justly 
rests upon the manufacture of engines for ocean and river steamers, 
in which he is not excelled in this country." 



29 





S/<^/a^#^ <f-?^L^ ', 



BEALE HOWARD RICHARDSON. 



The subject of this sketch is the descendant of ancient and respec- 
table ancestry on both sides, among whom are included several 
names of some note in early Maryland history. His forefathers on 
the paternal side were among the earliest settlers of the colony, and 
took up large tracts of land under the first Lord Proprietary. Mr. 
Richardson's paternal grandfather was a soldier in the Revolu- 
tionary war, and was killed in a skirmish in the earlier part of the 
struggle. His maternal grandfather, Colonel John Beale Howard, 
was an officer in the Continental service during the same period. 

Mr. Richardson's father was a minister, who devoted his whole 
life to the duties of his spiritual calling, and mingled but little in 
the affairs of the world. In the earlier period of our history the 
English custom of transmitting the patrimonial estate, undivided, 
to the eldest son, from generation to generation, was still adhered to 
by many of the older families ; and in this way the original domain 
in Harford county, allotted to his ancestor in the time of Charles 
the Second, still remained the family homestead, and upon it Mr. 
Richardson was born in 1799. 

At a very early age he took a strong interest in the public ques* 
tions of the day, to which his father exhibited such indifference ; 
and at the age of sixteen he contributed to the press, and very soon 
afterwards began to take an active part in the political contests. 
Though his father belonged to the old Whig party, and was a sub- 
scriber to the Federal Republican, Mr. Richardson became the advo- 
cate of the principles of the Democratic party. 

The Presidential canvass of 1824, and the deep importance of the 
issues then pending, aroused great excitement throughout the whole 
country. The names of Adams, Clay, Crawford, and Calhoun were 
all before the people as candidates, while a strong party, chiefly of 
the younger men, were supporting the name and urging the claims 
of Andrew Jackson, whose defence of Xew Orleans was still fresh 
in their memories. It was this latter party that enlisted the sympa- 
thies and received the support of Mr. Richardson, and he soon 



440 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

became conspicuous as an active partisan. He called the first meet- 
ing of the supporters of General Jackson which was held in the 
county, drafted the resolutions, and was appointed a delegate to the 
Convention to nominate an Elector for the district. 

At the election Mr. Richardson took a prominent part, and nomi- 
nated the Elector who was chosen. The contest was a very animated 
one, and brought out the entire strength of the three counties, Har- 
ford, Cecil and Kent, which then composed the electoral district • 
and it resulted in the choice of the Elector nominated by the Jack- 
son party. But though the electors of this party had a numerical 
majority in the college, they did not amount to a constitutional 
majority of the whole, and the election, in consequence, went to 
Congress, by which body John Quincy Adams was chosen sixth 
President of the United States. 

In 1826 Mr. Richardson came to the city of Baltimore, with the 
view of embarking in some business more congenial to his tastes 
than farming, and took a position as salesman in a dry goods estab- 
lishment, where he soon acquired a knowledge of the business and 
won the confidence and esteem of his employers. A more advan- 
tageous position was soon opened to him in the form of a partner- 
ship with his brother, who had been engaged for some years in the 
trade ; but, though devoting himself with zeal to the duties of his 
business, he still found time both to write and speak in favor of the 
Democratic candidate for the Presidency, and soon became known 
as an active champion of the principles of that party. 

In 1835 he was unanimously nominated by the Democratic Con- 
vention as a candidate for the House of Delegates of Maryland, and 
after a contest of unusual severity, he received the election. At 
that time the city of Baltimore was allowed but two delegates in 
the House, the same number that were sent from Annapolis. 

In this campaign an incident occurred which materially con- 
tributed to the success of Mr. Richardson on his first appearance as 
a candidate for public office. It was the custom at that time for the 
Democratic and Whig candidates to meet together by publicly noti- 
fied appointment, and address the assembled people alternately, 
when their addresses frequently assumed the form of a lively 
debate. Early in the campaign a grand political meeting and 
barbecue was held on Hampstead Hill. Oxen, sheep and hogs were 
duly roasted whole, and barrels of whiskey broached to feast a 
voracious and thirsty public, overflowing with patriotic enthusiasm 
and proudly conscious of their lofty position as citizens of " the 
greatest country in the world." When their minds had reached 



BEALE HOWARD RICHARDSON. 441 

this happy pitch, the speaking began. When Mr. Richardson pre- 
sented himself on the platform, cries arose from all parts of the 
crowd, — "Who are you?" "What's your name?" The speaker 
announced his name, and was about to commence his address, when 
the venerable General Stansbury, the chairman of the meeting, 
came forward, and, interrupting him, said to the crowd, " My 
fellow citizens, let me say a word for the young man. I tell you he 
comes of a good stock. His grandfather was the first man to 
shoulder a musket with me in the Revolutionary war; and I tell 
you there is virtue in blood. You may rely upon him 1" This little 
speech had quite a telling effect upon the crowd; and when Mr. 
Richardson again came forward to address them, he was received 
with enthusiastic applause. He thanked the General for his en- 
dorsement, and said, — "An old friend, who is well known to you 
all, has told you that I come of a good stock. Yonder" — pointing 
in the direction of the Battle Monument — " upon that roll of honor 
you will see the names of two of that stock who fell at JSTorth Point 
in defence of our city. This, I trust, will prove to you that the 
stock has not degenerated, and that I am not unworthy of your con- 
fidence." This incident, slight as it may seem, had no small effect 
in increasing the popularity of Mr. Richardson, and in strengthen- 
ing the hold which his zeal had given him upon the affections of 
his party. 

In the House of Delegates, Mr. Richardson showed himself a 
fearless, active and useful member, and was recognized as one of 
the leaders of the Democratic party, in whom they placed a confi- 
dence that was never shaken. In 1836, he was again elected to the 
Legislature, and took an active part in the great reform measures 
that were then organized. During this session, also, the subject 
of internal improvements became one of the leading questions of 
legislation, and about the same time, the great appropriations for 
the railroads and canals were made. Mr. Richardson took a promi- 
nent part in the debates, and was one of the foremost in maintain- 
ing that the interests of the city and State were identified with 
the completion of the great line of railway to the Ohio. In conse- 
quence of the views he advocated, and of the interest he displayed 
in that great enterprise, after the adjournment of the Legislature, 
he was appointed by the Governor a State Director of the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad. At the next election, Mr. Richardson was 
again returned to the Legislature, and served with increased zeal 
in the interests of the city, and at the extra session of June, 1837, 
when the final contest in favor of the great internal improvement 



442 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

was favorably settled. Having served four consecutive sessions in 
the Legislature, two regular, and two extra or called sessions, Mr. 
Richardson desired to retire to private life, and devote himself to 
his own special business. But in 1840, one of the then Delegates 
to the House, John C. Legrand, having been appointed Secretary 
of State by Gov. Thomas, Mr. Richardson was again called upon by 
the Democratic Convention to take the vacant place. At this elec- 
tion, he was returned by a very large majority. In 1843, Mr. 
Richardson was nominated and elected to the second branch of the 
City Council, where he advocated the cause of the road with his 
usual zeal, and assisted in securing the aid of the city in behalf of 
this great improvement. At the next semi-annual election, he was 
again returned ; and to his untiring exertions was the city mainly 
indebted, at the time, for the improvement of the squares around 
the Washington Monument, which, up to that period, had been 
totally neglected, and were a public nuisance, instead of an orna- 
ment and comfort, as they now are. 

During all this period, Mr. Richardson had been a constant con.- 
tributor to the columns of the Democratic press ; and in 1846, he 
was selected as Editor of the Baltimore Republican, then the only 
Democratic paper in the city. In 1848, he sold out his dry goods 
business, and purchased an interest in the paper, of which, some 
years after, he became sole proprietor, and continued to conduct it 
until its final suppression by General Schenck, in 1863, on account 
of its Southern sympathies. 

Mr. Richardson was appointed by the Governor, one of the origin 
nal Managers of the House of Refuge, and took an active part in 
the establishment of that useful and beneficent institution, designed 
to rescue the young of both sexes from misery, and reclaim them 
from vice and crime. He was one of the committee appointed to 
select a site for the buildings, who, after the examination of many 
locations suggested, selected and recommended to the Board the 
beautiful and commanding position the House now occupies. 
He was also an active member of the committee charged with the 
contracts for the erection of the inclosing wall, and the com- 
mencement of the building ; and in furtherance of its interests, 
he, with several others, was chosen to wait upon the Legislature, 
and press the claims of the institution upon the State, and they 
succeeded in awaking in that body a strong interest in its behalf, 
which was manifested by a liberal appropriation at the time, and 
has still continued to iniiuence them. 

At the the earnest solicitation of Gov. Grason, Mr. Richardson 



BEALE HOWARD RICHARDSON. 443 

accepted the appointment tendered him, of the Financial Agent of 
the State Prison, acting as such for twelve months, when he was 
compelled to resign hy the pressure of his private business. Some 
fifteen years later, he served for several years as President of the 
Board of Directors of the same institution, taking an active part in 
endeavoring to improve its administration. He acted for four years 
as appraiser of merchandise, at this port under the administration 
of President Buchanan. "When the Republican newspaper was sup- 
pressed, in 1863, Mr. Richardson was summarily arrested, and was 
put through the lines at Charlestown, Virginia, by order of the 
military commandant. He immediately proceeded to Richmond, 
by w T ay of Winchester and Staunton, at both of which places he 
was hospitably received and entertained. In the beleaguered city 
of Richmond, he met many friends, old and new. Leaving Rich- 
mond, he spent some weeks in Athens, Georgia, at the residence of 
the Chancellor of the State University, and then went to Mont- 
gomery, Alabama, where he remained for eighteen months, until 
the close of the war. During this period, he was the guest of 
Judge Bibb, enjoying the refined and courteous society, which at 
all times, gathered around that high-toned gentleman. Positions 
of honor and emolument were tendered to Mr. Richardson, giving 
him both employment and profit, and rendering his exile from 
home much less painful than it would otherwise have been. He 
acted as editor of the Montgomery Mail, the leading paper of the 
city, for several months. After the evacuation of Richmond, Mr. 
Richardson left Montgomery, and after a long and fatiguing travel, 
through Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio and Pennsylvania, 
he reached his home once more, on the first of June, 1865. In 
1868, he w T as appointed as one of the Judges of the Appeal Tax 
Court, which position he now fills. During the last forty years, he 
has held, in addition to those mentioned, numerous other positions 
of honor and trust, public and private. And to this day, he retains 
the same keen interest in public affairs, and in all that tends to the 
social and business advancement of the community, which has ever 
marked him. Commencing more than half a century ago, to 
write for the press, he still contributes largely to both the secular 
and religious journals of the day. 



















1 ] 










p^H 


!^B 




WILLIAM SCHLEY. 



"William Schley, for many years one of the leaders of the Balti- 
more bar, and one of the most distinguished and successful advocates 
whom the State of Maryland has ever produced, was born in Fred- 
erick town, (now Frederick city,) Maryland, October 31st, 1799. 
The Schleys were among the earliest settlers of that portion of the 
State, having emigrated to this country in 1735, when Thomas 
Schley, the great grandfather of the subject of this sketch, at the 
head of a colony, comprising about one hundred families, of Calvin- 
ists and Huguenots, natives of France, Switzerland and Germany, 
settled in the beautiful valley of the Catoctin, in which Frederick 
city is situated. A local weekly magazine of the last century, 
called The Key, published in Frederick town, under date of January 
27th, 1798, has the following paragraph: 

" The first house" in Frederick " was built by Mr. Thomas Schley, 
in 1746. This gentleman died in the year 1790, aged seventy-eight, 
after having had the satisfaction of seeing a dreary wood, late the 
habitation of bears, wolves, &c, and the occasional hunting ground 
of the gloomy savage, converted into a flourishing town, surrounded 
by a fertile country." 

The father of Mr. Schley was for many years Chief J udge of the 
Orphans' Court of Frederick county, also represented the county for 
several sessions in the State Legislature, and filled for nearly twenty 
years the important and lucrative office of clerk of Frederick County 
Court. He was a much respected and honored citizen. 

The subject of this sketch graduated at Nassau Hall (College of 
ISTew Jersey) in 1821, and took the first honors solus in every depart- 
ment of study. Shortly afterwards he entered upon 1he study of 
the law, and being called to the bar in 1824, commenced the practice 
of the profession in Frederick county. There Mr. Schley continued 
to reside until 1837, enjoying an extensive practice in that and the 
adjoining counties of the circuit. In 1837 he removed to Baltimore, 
where he rapidly rose to distinction at the bar, having a very large 
docket of heavy causes in the local courts and in the Court of Ap- 



446 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

peals, and being occasionally called upon to engage in the trial of 
cases in courts outside of the State. 

Prior to his removal to Baltimore, in 1824, the same year in 
which he came to the bar, Mr. Schley married a daughter of General 
Samuel Ringgold, of Conococheague Manor, in Washington county, 
Maryland. This lady, who died in June, 1870, was a sister of the 
gallant Major Samuel Ringgold, of the United States army, who 
was killed at the battle of Palo Alto, May, 1846, in the Mexican 
war, and also of the late distinguished Rear Admiral Cadwallader 
Ringgold, of the United States ]STavy. 

In 1886, Mr. Schley was elected a member of the Senate of Mary- 
land, and served throughout the entire session of 1836-37, and part 
of the session of 1837-38, when he resigned in consequence of having 
removed his residence to Baltimore, and also with the object of 
giving his attention more closely and unrestrictedly to his profes- 
sion. In 1836, the question of constitutional reform created great 
agitation throughout the State. As Chairman of the Judiciary 
Committee in the Senate, and more especially as Chairman of the 
Committee on the Constitution, Mr. Schley necessarily bore a con- 
spicuous part in the discussions and proceedings which then took 
place, and in fact prepared and reported the draft of the Constitu- 
tion of 1836, which proved unsatisfactory to some leading members 
of the reform party. In the discussions which followed, it was re- 
ported to Mr. Schley that remarks had been made by William Cost 
Johnson, reflecting upon his action in the matter, and in fact ascrib- 
ing his course to personal motives, and to his relationship to 
persons in office, whose offices would have been abolished if the views 
of the reformers had prevailed. Resenting the imputation upon his 
official integrity, and having no reason to doubt that Mr. Johnson's 
words had been correctly reported to him, Mr. Schley sent that 
gentleman a peremptory challenge, which was accepted, and the 
parties met near Alexandria, February 13th, 1837- There was but 
a single exchange of shots. At the first fire both were wounded, 
Mr. Schley but slightly, Mr. Johnson more severely. Mr. Schley 
was accompanied to the field by Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer, 
of Maryland, and Governor Pickens, of South Carolina, who 
acted as his seconds. Mr. Johnson's seconds were Governor Henry 
A. Wise, of Virginia, and General Campbell, of South Carolina. 
Doctors Hall and Causin were in attendance as surgeons. Colonel 
Stewart, of Montgomery, was also present as a personal friend of 
Mr. Johnson, and the late James Alfred Pearce, and John Lee, of 
Needwood, were present as friends of Mr. Schley. General Waddy 



"WILLIAM SCHLEY. 447 

Thompson, of South Carolina, was also upon the ground as a mutual 
friend, and as was subsequently understood, at the instance of 
Henry Clay, with the purpose of preventing, if possible, under any 
circumstances, a second tire. These four last named gentlemen had, 
however, no connection with the ati'air, nor was there any occa- 
sion for General Thompson's good offices. After the exchange of 
shots, with the result as stated, Mr. Johnson in the handsomest 
manner, and of his own accord, stated that he was aware of the in- 
accurate report which had been made of his language to Mr. Schley, 
and that the latter was perfectly justified in basing his challenge 
upon such report, and that he regretted that he had not felt at 
liberty, upon receipt of the challenge, to deny having uttered a 
single word reflecting upon or in any way impugning Mr. Schley's 
motives. The parties were reconciled upon the ground and re- 
mained warm friends thereafter. The affair received the name at 
the time of " the pattern duel," both from the extreme punctilio 
exhibited by the principals, and the exact observance by the seconds 
of all the rules and courtesies proper to such an occasion, and from 
the happy and becoming manner in which the meeting terminated. 

Mr. Schley was never a member of either House of Congress. In 
1838, his name was presented as a candidate for the United States 
Senate, but was defeated in caucus by a majority of one vote. On 
subsequent occasions Mr. Schley was urged to allow the use of his 
name for the same high position, but invariably declined. In 
politics he was always a decided Whig, but after his retirement from 
the State Senate never took an active part in politics, except in 
1856, when Mr. Fillmore was a candidate, when he presided over a 
Whig ratification meeting in Baltimore city, and in 1864, when 
General McClellan was a candidate. At the same time, Mr. Schley 
was on terms of friendly and confidential intercourse with many of 
the distinguished public men who have now passed away. This was 
especially the case with reference to Mr. Clay, Mr. Webster, Mr. 
Crittenden, and General Scott, the two last named of whom he 
counted among his most intimate and cherished friends. 

Mr. Schley's life and energies have been almost exclusively devo- 
ted to the profession of the law. At the age of seventy-one, lie is 
still actively engaged in its practice, bearing his accustomed part in 
its contests and its labors, with little, if any abatement of his former 
powers, and none whatever of his professional spirit and zeal. As 
an advocate Mr. Schley has had few equals. Endowed with an in- 
tellect admirably qualified to deal with the intricacies of the law 
and to pursue the subtlest and most ingenious thread of argument, 



448 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

and thoroughly trained in all the learning and resources of the pro- 
fession, he possesses, in addition, the rare gift of a persuasive and 
attractive eloquence, which could invest with interest the driest sub- 
ject of discussion, and lead the listener by insensible degrees to 
the point of conviction to which the skillful advocate desired to 
bring him. Mr. Schley's professional reputation has extended far 
beyond the limits of his own city and State, and no man is more 
frequently consulted by clients from abroad or in other States, or 
has heavier or more important cases entrusted to his management. 

In personal and social intercourse he is distinguished by a win- 
ning courtesy of manner, and to the younger members of the 
profession he is uniformly kind and considerate. He is now one of 
the few remaining links between the lawyers of the last generation 
and of the present day, a representative of that great school of 
accomplished lawyers, now nearly passed away, who were nurtured 
and polished in the traditions, and formed upon the model of the 
English bar as it once existed — in the days when some of the elder 
Maryland lawyers, the Dulanys and the Carrolls of a century ago, 
received their professional training in the Inns of Court, or within 
the classical precincts of the Temple. 

At the December, 1859, Term of the Court of Appeals of the State 
of Maryland, a tribute was paid to the ability of Mr. Schley, from 
which we make an extract. The case was one which excited much 
attention at the time, and the decision was one of great interest. 
That portion of the decision to which we particularly refer, will be 
found in Vol. 15, p. 489, Maryland Reports, in re of the Mayor, &c. 
of Baltimore vs. State, ex rel. of the Board of Police Commissioners. 
The Chief Justice said : 

" The question next in order to be considered is, whether the use 
of the property ought to be given, as demanded in the petition for 
the mandamus. It was in the discussion of this question, one of the 
counsel for the respondents, Mr. Schley, whilst animated by a zeal 
indignant against what he considered a violation of the great univer- 
sal law which distinguishes right from wrong, ' quod semper, quod 
ubique, quod ab omnibus creditum est,' poured forth in warm language 
his denunciation of the purpose and effect of the section, as if it 
wrought a spoliation of what he, and those whom he represented, 
held sacred as their right. None who heard it could have failed to 
appreciate the eloquence, nor the fervor which gave to it the charm 
of a forcible utterance. Its influence on the bench was, as it should 
have been, but momentary, and the question, in its original sim- 
plicity, reappeared for the calm judicial disposal." 




^.-7 V 




yt. 



a^ori? 



rr 



ALBERT SCHUMACHER. 



There is no finer type of the mercantile character, to be found, 
than is furnished by the old German merchants of the middle ages, 
and their modern descendants, who have been educated in the same 
habits of order, thrift and punctuality, aud in the same precise 
notions of mercantile honor and probity. Nowhere is this type 
more perfectly preserved than among the merchants of the free 
Hanseatic cities, the remnant of that once powerful Bund, which 
united nearly all of the principal cities of Europe in a common 
league. How much the world is indebted to that famous confedera- 
tion for the protection and development of commerce and manu- 
factures, for the modern institutes of commercial and maritime law, 
and of the law of nations, and for the gradual triumph of civiliza- 
tion aud the peaceful arts, over the manners and practices of a rude 
and lawless age, it would be beside the purpose of this present 
sketch to consider. Only the characteristics of those old traders 
unavoidably suggest themselves in the consideration of the life 
and character of one of their descendants. The spirit of enterprise 
exhibited by those merchants of former days, can only be properly 
appreciated by those who reflect, that in the middle age, the princi- 
ples of international law were little understood, and still more 
imperfectly obeyed — that the adventurous trader in foreign ports, 
had for the most part only himself and his own resources to rely 
upon, for protection against imposition and robbery — that the seas 
were infested by pirates, and that regular consular and naval estab- 
lishments were alike unknown. In the absence of all law, except 
the barbarous feudal law, which related chiefly to land, and to the 
personal relations of lord and vassal, the Hanseatic merchants estab- 
lished a wise and equitable code among themselves, founded partly 
upon natural justice, and partly upon the old Roman law, which, 
under the name of the lex mercatoria, or law merchant, as adopted 
and improved upon by enlightened judges, and systematized and 
incorporated into the legislation of modern States, constitutes the 
basis of almost all modern mercantile law. Above all, these old 



450 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 

merchants were eminently men of their word. In an age when 
there were scarcely any means of compelling the fulfilment of a 
contract by course of law, or of punishing a breach of faith, it was 
their boast, that the word of a simple Han sea tic trader, was worth 
more than that of a belted knight. Much of this old character is 
retained by the modern German merchants, particularly in the free 
cities, the inheritors of the privileges and fame of the Hanseatic 
League. There are, at this day, in Hamburg and Bremen, mercan- 
tile establishments which can trace back their history and pedigree 
for centuries. Into one of these old. houses, it is esteemed a privi- 
lege for a young man to be received as a clerk. He is received not 
only into the counting room, but into the family of his employer^ 
who regards him thenceforth with a sort of fatherly interest^ watch- 
ing over his health and morals, as well as superintending his 
business education, and exacting from him a strict performance of 
all the duties of his position. In those old-world establishments, 
business is not ^infrequently carried on upon the largest scale, but at 
the same time, with a degree of system, order, economy, and an 
exact attention to matters of the pettiest detail, the advantages of 
which are too little known and appreciated on this side of the 
water, where a far more lax, reckless and irregular mode of dealing 
prevails. 

It has been no inconsiderable advantage to the mercantile charac- 
ter of Baltimore, that a direct trade was early established between 
this city and the Hanse towns, and that cadets, or younger sons of 
some of the old mercantile families of Hamburg and Bremen were 
induced to settle here, and establish houses which have since risen 
to wealth and distinction by strict adherence to the good old Ger- 
man methods of commercial dealing. Among the foreign-born 
merchants who have been thus honorably distinguished in this 
community, there is none whose name is more widely or more 
favorably known than that of the subject of this sketch. 

Albert Schumacher was born in the free Hanseatic city of 
Bremen, January 23d, 1802 — the eldest son of an old family which 
traces its pedigree up to the fifteenth century, before the discovery of 
America, when Gottfried Schumacher held the office of Alderman of 
Bremen, and was subsequently elected Senator, which latter dignity, 
however, on account of his advanced age, he declined. 

Albert Schumacher was early sent to school, and neither pains 
nor expense were spared in his education. His home-life in the 
family was very simple. In his seventeenth year he entered the 
counting house of II. Hi Meier & Co., the youngest of eight clerks, 



ALBERT SCHUMACHER. 451 

who, with one or two exceptions, according to the old German cus- 
tom already alluded to, lived in the house of their principal, and all 
dined at the same table with him and his family. He gave entire 
satisfaction to his employer, evidenced at the following new year's 
da} T , by a present of a ten dollar gold piece, which in those days 
was considered quite handsome. The older clerks gradually leaving 
to fill other employments, his promotion was rapid. At the end of 
six years, he found himself in the honorable position of senior 
clerk, — authorized to represent the principals in their absence, and 
to sign bills of exchange and letters in the name of the firm. His 
immediate predecessor, C. A. Heineken, had gone as supercargo to 
Baltimore in 1823, and established himself in business in that city. 
It was at his instance that Albert Schumacher decided likewise to 
seek his fortune in America. He embarked at Bremen in the brio- 
Constitution, and arrived at New York on the 1st of August, 1826, 
where he was met by Mr. Heineken. A copartnership was agreed 
upon, and Mr. Heineken left for Bremen the following month, with 
the view of forming new business connections, in which he was 
eminently successful. Soon after his return to Baltimore, a ship- 
ment to Mexico was determined upon in the interest of the firm. 
The schooner Monk was freighted with goods for Vera Cruz, and 
Mr. Schumacher sailed in her. He visited the capital of Mexico in 
the course of his venture, and in the spring of 1829 returned to 
Baltimore by way of ISTew Orleans. During the following years he 
was actively engaged in business, and twice visited his native city, 
including iu his tour, England, France, Holland, Switzerland and 
Italj r . When his partner, Mr. Heineken retired from business in 
1839, the office of consul for Bremen, held by him, was transferred 
to Mr. Schumacher, who, iu 1814 was appointed Consul General for 
that and the sister republic of Hamburg. He also acted temporarily 
as Charge d'Affaires for the three Hanseatic Republics, during the 
absence of their Minister, and negotiated, as such, a treaty with the 
the United States in regard to the jurisdiction of their respective 
Consuls. 

In 1859, his native city, in recognition of his services, sent him